Sesame and other two anthraquinone derivatives are
Sesame (Sesamum indicum l.
) included in familyof Pedaliaccae, is an oldest familiaroil crop to human and has been part of human diet since classical times 1. It is at 9th position among the top 13oilseed crops which make up 90% of the world’s edible oil production 2. Sesameoil is the pirticular dietary oil in Asian countries. The usual motivation of Sesameseeds cultivation is for oil extraction. Sesame oil is obtained by extractionby hydraulic press or by solvent extraction method with hexane as a solvent andrefining of that extracted oil. The implementation of sesame in regular dietit may helps in enhancing the flavour of daily consumed dishes. Even thoughsesame seeds are not that much bettersource for starch thease seeds have a pleasant flavour and its taste resemblesthe nuts, it can spread over soups ,salads, and the baked products can be supplemented with whole sesame grains to getattractive form that reform the finalproduct texture.As sesameoil includes superior quantity of mono unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA’s) thansaturated fatty acids (SFA’s) it can improves the health of consumers.
Besidesthis MUFA’s this oil also contain bioactive compounds like phytosterols andtocopherols. The typical proportions of FA’s in sesame oil are in following way.3 Linoleic 42.9-54% Oleic 31.6-44% Palmatic Stearic 7.0-9.
7% 3.8-5.6% The major constituents of sesame seed are oil,protein, carbohydrates, lignin’s, and minor constituents such as minerals. 4Compositionof sesame seed (per 100 g) Energy ( calories) 578 Moisture (%) 4.7 Fat (g) 51.
9 Protein (g) 19.8 Carbohydrates (g) 18.4 Fiber (g) 10.
8 Ash (g) 5.2 Lignans (g) 1.9 K (mg) 400 Ca (mg) 1200 Fe (mg) 9.
6 P (mg) 9.6 Mg (mg) 370 Na (mg) 2 Vitamin C (µg) 12 Vitamin A (IU) 10 Carotene (µg) 17 Thiamine (mg) 0.95 Riboflavin (mg) 0.25 Niacin (mg) 5.1 Sesameseed contain 20% and its defatted form contains 50% of protein.
Sesameseeds contain phytochemicals which particularly have anti oxidant, antifungal, hypolipidaemicand hypoglycaemic actions 5. Chlorosesamone, hydraxysesamone, 2,3-epoxysesamone, anthrasesamones and other two anthraquinone derivatives arethe compounds having antifungal activities which are extracted from roots ofsesame plant 6. Sesamin and sesamolin are the most prolificlignin’s which are soluble in fat 7.
Sesamine and sesamoline consist ofbenzene and furanose rings in their chemical structure. Tocopherol is a natural anti-oxidant and it is formedby only the oil seeds like sesame and other oil seeds. The tocopherol contentin sesame is different for individual locations and varieties. Normally thesesame oil mostly includes ?-tocopherol in range of 50 to 370 ppm and?-tocopherol in range of 90 to 390 ppm this difference in the content of theasetocopherol is due to their chemical nature 8. The health benefits of theasetocopherols includes it act’s as reactive oxygen species scavenger , acts as a first line of defenseagainst lipid peraxidation and in cellmembranes it protects the PUFA’s from free radical attack 9,10Sesame seeds contain two distinctive compounds sesaminand sesamolin and with refinement of thease anti-oxidants, sesamol andsesaminol are formed. Sesame oil has excellent stability to oxidation due topresence of thease lignin’s 11.
Sesamumindicum is used as external salve, emollient, tonic and diuretic12. Sesamin and Sesaminol are the two major elements of the sesame oil whichhave evidence to possess defensive action against several pharmacologicaleffects which includes thease acts as anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidant, anti-hypertensive,and anti-inflammatory and also have cardio protective effects 13. Sesame oilis used as nutritional supplement for the purpose of increasing the cellresistance against lipid peraxidation by hindering the generation of reactiveoxygen free radicals 14. Sesame oilhas capacity to increase the alpha tocopherol concentration in blood and tissueit was seen in rat fed containing with sesame seed or its lignin’s15.Besidesthis sesame oil showed that it have abundant free radical scavenging capacityin methanolic fraction it is due to presence of phenolic compounds in it16. Apartfrom lipid peroxidation and liberation of reactive oxidative species sesame oilalso increases the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes like glutathione peroxidise,superoxide dismutase and catalase in rodents in certain oxidative stress 17,18.Generally sesame oil is referred as major source of edibleoil, commonly used in some drug formulations and also many industrialpreparations of perfumes, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, paints and varnishes 19,20.