Self Directed Work Teams Essay, Research Paper
The organisational behaviour issues that I addressed in this paper pertain to self-managing squads at General Electric s aircraft engine assembly installation in Durham, North Carolina ( afterlife referred to as GE ) . The article Engines of Democracy from Fast Company magazine is peculiarly interesting because the self-managed squads at General Electric fit the definition from our category text, Organizational Behavior ( 1998 ) , about absolutely. Harmonizing to this book, Among the direction duties allotted each self-managing squad is that of continually measuring the work of the squad and redesigning the occupations of the squad s members ( p. 152 ) .
Throughout the article, illustrations of occupation and procedure alterations made at GE were noted. The bulk of these alterations were made to bing company processes prior to the gap of the works, while the quest for uninterrupted betterment has driven other alterations since the installation opened. You will happen assorted illustrations of these alterations throughout this paper. Although our class text Organizational Behavior ( 1998 ) merely touches on self-managing squads, the state of affairs at GE seems to be a loanblend of non merely self-managing squads ( p. 152 ) , but of quality circles ( p. 151 ) , and TQM ( p. 150 ) .
I chose the article Engines of Democracy because I believe that autonomous work squads can be successful in many state of affairss. Unfortunately, they do non officially exist at Commonwealth Edison ( my employer ) , which is a traditional hierarchal company. I besides chose this article because jets fascinate me. Simply stated, I am amazed by the fact that something that is so heavy is able to wing so high and so fast. In the article, Charles Fishman ( 1999 ) sums up my feelings when he states That person who lives in Topeka can make up one’s mind on a caprice to travel to Tokyo, and be at that place in less than a twenty-four hours, is genuinely marvelous ( p.180 ) .
In this paper, I have highlighted several success factors at GE, and illustrations are included where it is appropriate. The success factors included are: ( a ) Team Dynamics and Job Satisfaction, ( B ) Employee Selection and Skill Level, ( degree Celsius ) Work Methods, ( vitamin D ) Employee Pride and Motivation, and ( vitamin E ) Stating Remarks about Commitment.
The research methods used to make the GE organisation are most similar to the Explicit Theory. Robert Henderson and his directors were responsible for opening the GE works in Durham, North Carolina. Mr. Henderson decided that the assembly work would be done in the most extremist manner possible. In researching how this would be done, Henderson and his squad researched best patterns, by sing other mills looking for thoughts and methods that would authorise his employees with authorization and independency ( Fishman, 1999, p. 188 ) .
The GE organisation besides has a intimation of the Action Research Method, although it does non look that it was deliberately used in the development of the organisation, nor do all of the phases of the Action Research Model apply to GE.
Team Dynamics and Job Satisfaction
The GE works has a staff of 170 employees, and 1 works director. Teams are responsible for the production of engines from start to complete, and they are told merely 1 thing the day of the month the engine needs to be on a truck. Team members handle all other aspects of direction. In the sceptered ambiance, determinations are made by consensus. The construct of teamwork is obvious, and a comment of employee by Keith McKee, who stated I have 15 foremans all of my teammates are my foremans ( Fishman, 1999, p. 192 ) is declarative of the work environment. In add-on, the former works director, Paula Sims stated that We call this the feedback capital of the universe ( Fishman, 1999, p. 192 ) . No 1 is exempt from feedback. Early on in Ms. Sim s assignment, an employee told her that there was no demand for her to micromanage the employees, because when she told them to make something, it would acquire done. I find this refreshing.
In Organizational Management ( 1998 ) , occupation satisfaction is defined as a enjoyable feeling that consequences from the perceptual experience that one s occupation fulfills or allows for the fulfilment of one s of import occupation values ( p.107 ) . Since the article makes no reference of the measuring of occupation satisfaction, I believe we can mensurate employee satisfaction by the bend over rate, which is less than five-percent yearly. The article besides includes some single comments associating to occupation satisfaction. For illustration, employee Pat Miller commented on old occupations that he held, I had non input at all-none. I m much happier here. I [ italics added ] can alter what goes on ( Fishman, 1999, p. 184 ) .
Employee Selection and Skill Level
With members of the works carry oning interviews of possible colleagues, GE uses extended interview
s that encompass eleven skill countries to measure campaigners. Interviews have been known to last 8 hours, and they include synergistic exercisings.
It was besides decided that all employees should be FAA-certified mechanics. This is the lone GE installation that has such a demand. The principle behind this thought is that campaigners will already possess valuable developing if they are hired. As stated by Robert Henderson, who was in charge of opening the installation, That would intend that we d start with a better quality of employee ( Fishman, 1999, p. 188 ) . This comment fits the same line of thought of another successful man of affairs, Ron Wolf, General Manager of the Green Bay Packers. Mr. Wolf stated in his book The Packer Way Nine Stepping Stones to Constructing a Winning Organization, that the first of the nine keys to winning is to engage the best ( Attner, Wolf, 1998 ) .
The GE workers strive to maintain it simple. For illustration, the floor in an assembly edifice is painted bluish, so when parts are dropped, they can be easy seen. To keep certain parts in topographic point before they are for good installed, technicians began utilizing beeswax. Besides, all tools have foam cutout countries so that they are non left out of topographic point. This addresses both productiveness and safety issues.
The works utilizes what GE employees call multiskilling, which means that all employees know all of the occupations. Derrick McCoy, a GE employee, stated Multiskilling is how the topographic point is kept together ( Fishman, 1999, p. 186 ) .
Employee Pride and Motivation
As Mr. Fishman ( 1999 ) references in the article, money entirely can non actuate people to execute every bit good as GE employees have ( p. 182 ) . The book Organizational Behavior ( 1998 ) shows that Abraham Maslow would hold, as evidenced by his Needs Hierarchy ( p. 83 ) . Based on Maslow s theoretical account, money would fulfill physiological and safety demands at best.
Pride and satisfaction fuel motive at the GE works, as there are no public presentation inducements. GE squad members are so proud that they sweep out trucks so that no harm occurs to their finished merchandise while they are being shipped via truck. Mr. Fishman ( 1999 ) studies that GE employees believe that their occupation is non to do jet engines, but to do jet engines better ( p. 202 ) .
Stating Remarks About Committedness
Committedness and the thrust for flawlessness is taken really earnestly by GE employees. This is evidenced by remarks like those of employee Bill Lane, who said I ve got a 3-year old girl, and I figure that every plane we build engines for has person with a 3-year old girl siting on it ( Fishman, 1999, p. 180 ) .
Employee Duane Williams, mentioning to jobs that workers usually complain about, said good, we have a opportunity to make something about them. I can t state, They don t know what s traveling on, or, They made a bad determination. I [ italics added ] am they ( Fishman, 1999, p. 186 ) . Surely commitment comes from self-esteem and being appreciated. Again, Duane Williams remarked that I was ne’er valued that much as an employee in my life. But here, I couldn t delay to acquire to work every twenty-four hours. That s no BS! ( Fishman, 1999, p.184 ) .
So how effectual is this autonomous works? The GE works has non missed a bringing day of the month on their CF6 engine in 38 consecutive months. The cost of bring forthing the CF6 engine has been reduced by 30 per centum since 1995, which is even more amazing since this engine has been in production for 20 old ages.
When faced with the challenge of cut downing works costs by $ 1.2 million, the disbursal council that was assigned to turn to this issue provided a proposal within 3 hebdomads. This program finally superceded the works director s program that had been submitted earlier.
Possibly the greatest accomplishment of the squad occurred when the works was given the chance to construct a new manner of engine, the CFM56. From the clip of the proclamation that GE would construct this engine, the squad produced its first engine 9 hebdomads subsequently. This was done at a cost that was 12 % to 13 % less than the Ohio works, which had been fabricating this engine manner for old ages.
Finally, the best testimonial to the employees came from Robert Henderson, who even with the end of doing the works every bit extremist as possible, stated I was merely invariably amazed by what was accomplished here ( Fishman, 1999, p. 188 ) .
Hollenbeck, J. , & A ; Wagner III, J. ( 1998 ) . Organizational Behavior. ( 3rd ed. ) . New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Fishman, C. ( 1999, October ) . Engines of Democracy. Fast Company, 28, 174 -196.
Attner, P. , & A ; Wolf, R.. ( 1998 ) . The Packer Way: Nine Steping Rocks to Constructing a Winning Organization. United States: St. Martins Publishing.