Secondary vs tertiary water treatment processes Essay
Secondary H2O intervention methods consist of biological systems unambiguously designed to extinguish biochemical O demand, some dissolved and suspended solids by a biological transition of the said stuffs to a signifier that allows for subsiding ( Environmental Services Department, City of San Jose, 2007 ) . Secondary H2O intervention method involves the undermentioned procedure: ( 1 ) Activated sludge which encompasses assorted procedures and mechanisms for fade outing O to let for growing of biological floc which significantly removes organic stuffs. ( 2 ) Surface-aerated basins which facilitate biological oxidization reactions by reassigning air to the basins and besides provide the necessary commixture for undertaking the reactants and scattering the air. ( 3 ) Oxidizing/filter beds which are characterized with drains that offer a supply of air that percolates up via the beds maintaining them aerophilic. ( 4 ) Biological aerated filters which combines filtration with denitrification, nitrification or biological C decrease. ( 5 ) Membrane bioreactors which combine the activated sludge intervention by agencies of a membrane liquid-solid separation process. ( 6 ) Secondary deposit which involves settling out the filter stuff or biological floc and bring forthing treated H2O with low degrees of suspended affair and organic affair. The systems for secondary intervention usually take 80-95 % of BOD and suspended solids ( Environmental Services Department, City of San Jose, 2007 ) .
Advanced/final/tertiary H2O intervention is a shining or buffing procedure whereby the treated H2O is filtered through some farinaceous stuff or all right sand to extinguish the all right natation solids ( Natural Resources Defense Council, 2008 ) . Advanced intervention entails the undermentioned procedure: ( 1 ) sand and activated C filtration. The former eliminates a batch of residuary suspended stuff and the latter eliminates residuary toxins. ( 2 ) Lagooning which allows for subsidiary biological betterment plus colony via storage immense semisynthetic lagunas or pools. ( 3 ) Constructed wetlands which allows for a superior aerophilic betterment. ( 4 ) Food remotion, this entails remotion of phosphoric and N. ( 5 ) Disinfection, this is the concluding phase in third intervention and purposes at minimising degrees of micro-organism found in the H2O. This may be done through chlorination or utilizing ultraviolet visible radiation.
Appropriate Uses Of Reclaimed Water
-Urban utilizations e.g. auto lavation, lavatory flashing, aesthetic intents ( i.e. fountains, pools and cosmetic lakes ) and dust control ( Viessman & A ; Mark, 1998 ) .
-Industrial utilizations such as works wash down, for chilling, fire combat and processing intents.
-Can be used for watering golf classs, athleticss Fieldss, residential belongingss, Parkss, landscaped countries and main road medians.
-Reclaimed H2O can be used for the creative activity, sweetenings and Restoration of wetlands.
-Agricultural utilizations in irrigation of fresh fish and provender harvests, grasslands, and grazing land lands ; watering comestible nutrient harvests e.g. soya beans, maize, citrous fruit etc.
-By utilizing infiltration pools ( rapid infiltration basins ) , straight shooting the rescued H2O to the land and soaking up Fieldss, this H2O can be used to reload the land H2O ( Khopkar, 2004 ) .
-Reclaimed H2O can be used to argument surface Waterss usually supplied for imbibing.
I would urge third H2O intervention to secondary intervention. Harmonizing to Environmental Services Department, City of San Jose ( 2007 ) , secondary intervention systems typically take 80-95 % of suspended solids and BOD. This implies that rather a big micro-organism plus other wastewaters are non gotten rid of in the secondary intervention. If this H2O eventually is used for reloading land H2O and finally consumed without farther intervention, it may present a wellness jeopardy. Third intervention raises the quality of the wastewater prior to it being discharged to the receiver environment e.g. land, sea, Lake Etc ( My Cleanwater/Reclaimed, 2006 ) . Despite third H2O intervention being expensive, it will guarantee the safety of rescued H2O that eventually be used for imbibing intents.
Environmental Services Department, City of San Jose, ( 2007 ) . South Bay Water Recycling: Treatment Procedure. Retrieved October 30, 2007, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.sanjoseca.gov/sbwr/treatmentprocess.htm
My Clearwater/Reclaimed, ( 2006 ) . Public Utilities: Rescued Water. Retrieved June 09, 2007, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.clearwater-fl.com/gov/depts/pwa/public_utils/divisions/recla imed/index.asp
Natural Resources Defense Council, ( 2008 ) . Bringing Safe Water to the World Environmental stewardship can assist extinguish the universe ‘s biggest wellness risk-dirty H2O.
Retrieved August 17, 2008, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nrdc.org/international/safewater.asp
Natural Resources Defense Council, ( 2003 ) . What ‘s on Tap? Rating Drinking Water In U.S. Cities. Retrieved May 08, 2007, from
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nrdc.org/water/drinking/uscities/contents.asp
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ( 2004 ) . Primer for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Systems. Washington D.C: Office of Water & A ; Office of Wastewater Management. Retrieved October 30, 2008, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.epa.gov/OWM/primer.pdf
Khopkar, S. M. ( 2004 ) . Environmental Pollution Monitoring And Control. New Delhi:
New Age International.
Viessman, W.J. , & A ; Mark J.H. ( 1998 ) . Water Supply and Pollution Control. 6th Ed. Menlo
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