Role Of Water Soluble Vitamins In Poultry Biology Essay
The vitamins are a really of import category of the foods. They play assorted of import functions in the life rhythm of any living-being. The absence or lack of the vitamins in domestic fowl causes serious jobs. The H2O soluble vitamins are really of import sub-class of vitamins. In the domestic fowl which can non synthesise these vitamins in their organic structure these should be provided in the diets means these are dietetic indispensable. The inclusion of the H2O soluble vitamins accurately, harmonizing to the demands of birds, production phase, physiological province of the birds and environmental conditions is really necessary to avoid the jobs and to derive maximal public presentation because these vitamins are required by the birds in many systems including energy metamorphosis, growing, proper blood flow, development of skeleton, compensation of the emphasis, egg production, birthrate, anti-oxidants for seeds and proper development and viability of the turning embryos. It means these are non merely of import for current birds but besides their proviso in an accurate manner will guarantee the following coevals of the birds.
Cardinal words: functions, H2O soluble vitamins, domestic fowl.
The term “ vitamin ” was foremost used in 1912. Vitamins are a group of complex organic compounds which are present in minute sums in natural feedstuffs. These are required for normal metamorphosis and the lack of these compounds in the provender cause ‘s lack diseases. The vitamins are divided into two groups depending upon their solubility i.e. : –
1 ) Fat soluble vitamins which include Vitamin A, D, E and K.
2 ) Water soluble vitamins which are Vitamin B-complex and vitamin C.
The names, equivalent word and the two categories i.e. fat and H2O soluble can be summarized as: –
Retinol, retinal, retinoic acid
Vitamin PP, Vitamin B3
Pyridoxol, vitamin B6, vitamin B6
Vitamin H, vitamin B8
Folacin, vitamin Bc, Vitamin M, Vitamin Bc, Vitamin B9
( Adopted from McDowell, 2004 )
Domestic fowl and other monogastric animate beings are dependent on dietetic beginnings of vitamins to a much greater grade than are ruminants. It is considered that animate beings with to the full functional first stomachs can non endure from a lack of vitamin B-complex. Vitamin B12 is alone in that it occurs in works tissues as a consequence of microbic synthesis ( McDowell, 2004 ) . Thiamin ( B1 ) is required to command appetency and reduces decease rate, Riboflavin ( B2 ) is responsible to command curly-toe palsy, proper growing and proper egg production, Pantothenic acid ( B5 ) is necessary for commanding dermatitis and improper lesions on the oral cavity and pess, Niacin ( B3 ) is involved in proper verification of legs, lingua and oral cavity pit, Choline ensures proper growing and proper egg production, Vitamin B12 is required to command anaemia and to command early embryologic decease, Folic acid ( B9 ) is required for proper growing, commanding of anaemia, proper feathering and proper egg production, Biotin ( B8 ) is required to command dermatitis o pess, around eyes and beak and Ascorbic acid ( vitamin C ) is required to normal growing and development, growing and fix of tissues, formation of collagen, gristle, castanetss, avoid emphasiss and lesion healing ( Unknown, 2002 ) . Vitamin C ( vit C ) is a H2O soluble antioxidant found in cytosol and extracellular fluids and it can straight scavenge super oxide hydroxyl groups and individual O species ( Clarkson and Thompson, 2000 ) . It is thought to exercise its effects on the immune system through the sweetening of neutrophil production and through protection of the cell against ace oxide extremist harm ( Bendich et al. , 1986 ) . Under normal conditions birds can synthesise sufficient sums of vit C ( Roy and Guha, 1958 ) , nevertheless in the emphasis conditions birds may necessitate an external beginning of vit C ( Meade S.M. 2004 ) to supply non-specific opposition against infections and overcome emphasis and hence bettering productiveness ( Pardue and Thaxton, 1985 ) . The scavenger cell activity is enhanced in the presence of vit C. There is a higher measure of the superoxides found in the scavenger cells when sufficient sums of vit C are found and farther addition in the degree of vit C further increases the sum of free groups in scavenger cells ( Scarpa et al. , 1983 ; Som et al. , 1983 ) . Viral infections have been shown to do a depletion of leucocyte ascorbate, which resulted in changing grades of non-specific immunosuppression and a decrease in serum vit C concentration ( Thomas and Holt, 1978 ; Bendich et al. , 1986 ) .
The function of vit C in commanding of emphasis has been documented many a times. There was a cogent evidence that by supplying external vit C beginning at a rate of 330ppm the blood degrees of vit C are elevated ( Nestor et al. , 1972 ) . Another survey showed that a 1000ppm adding of vit C reduces exogenic hydrocortisones related immunosuppression. Some surveies have besides reported that vit C decreases heat daze protein 70 and plasma corticosterone response in poulet subjected to cyclic heat emphasis ( Mahmoud et al. , 2003, 2004 ) . Vitamin C supplementation in provender or H2O can besides cut down the esthesis of fright in the birds ( Jones, R. B. , 1996 ) . Pardue and Thaxton ( 1986 ) documented the effects of supplementation with vit C on a figure of features including growing, generative public presentation, immunosuppression and mortality. It was besides documented by Satterlee et al. , 1989 ; Kutlu and Forbes, 1993a ; McKee and Harrison, 1995 )
Domestic fowl under intensive production systems are peculiarly susceptible to vit lacks so to avoid this domestic fowl provenders are supplemented usually with B2, niacin, pantothenic acid, B12 and choline out of H2O soluble vitamins ( Scott et all. 1982 ) . It is to be noted that Thiamin, vitamin B6, vitamin H and vitamin Bc are largely present in equal measures in the major ingredients such as corn-soybean meal-based diets and domestic fowl can usually bring forth a sufficient sum of ascorbic acid by its ain ( McDowell, L. R. 2004 ) . Vitamin demands of new strains developed for improved production are higher. Leg jobs seen in fast turning strains of broilers can be corrected in portion by higher degrees of vitamin H, vitamin Bc, nicotinic acid and choline ( Roche 1979 ) . Stress and disease conditions in animate beings may increase the basic demand for certain vitamins. Food degrees that are equal for growing, provender efficiency, gestation and lactation may non be equal for normal unsusceptibility and for maximising the animate beings ‘ opposition to disease ( Cunha 1985 ; Nockels et Al. 1996 ) . Diseases and micro-organisms impacting the gastro enteric piece of land cut down the soaking up every bit good as the production of vitamins besides the conditions impacting the G.I.T. do a decrease in vitamin production and soaking up i.e. diarrhoea and emesis ( McDowell, L.R. , 2004 ) . Mycotoxins and internal hemorrhage in domestic fowl besides causes a decreased efficiency of vitamins ( McDowell, L.R. , 2004 ) . Vitamin adversaries ( antimetabolites ) interfere with the activity of assorted vitamins ( Oldsfield 1987 ) . Under commercial production a higher degree of the vitamins is helpful for optimal production and public presentation this besides helps in accomplishing best growing rates, feed use and wellness and in portion besides helps to increase organic structure militias ( Coelho, 1996 ) . The ascorbic acerb Acts of the Apostless as an antioxidant for the avian sperm cell ( Surai et wholly, 2001 ) . Ascorbic acerb supplementation enhances the interjection qualities of male poultry ( Surai et wholly, 2001 ) . In the hot and dry season offering the cold H2O supplemented with ascorbic acid additions weight addition and lien but it will besides do a decreased size of wings ( Abioja, et all, 2011 ) .
Classs of B-Complex: –
Based on the maps the B-complex can be categorized into 3 categories, nevertheless some of the members fall into more than one category ;
Energy releasing- Thiamine ( B1 ) , Riboflavin ( B2 ) , Niacin ( B3 ) , Pantothenic acid ( B5 ) , Piroxidine ( B6 ) , and Biotin.
Hematopoietic- Folic acid ( B9 ) , Cyanocobalamin ( B12 ) , Pantothenic acid ( B5 ) , and Piroxidine ( B6 ) .
Other- Thiamine ( B1 ) , Niacin ( B3 ) , Piroxidine ( B6 ) , Folic acid ( B9 ) , and Cyanocobalamin ( B12 ) . ( Wilson, G. V. )
Vitamin B-complex lacks: –
Lack arises due to unequal supplies of the vitamins and the marks develop over a clip period. So if the vitamin degrees provided are lower than the needed degrees so the classical lack marks will be seen in the birds. By and large the immature and turning biddies are more prone to vitamin lacks and the developing embryo is the best theoretical account demoing lacks of vitamins. Problems due to the B-complex lack arise rather suddenly and frequently seen in 5-7 yearss because there is a small storage of these in the organic structure ( Leeson, S. and J. D. Summers, 2001 ) .
In the researches carried out on domestic fowl of different age groups it was shown that a lack in the handiness of Thiamine ( B1 ) caused a loss of appetite and increased decease ratios ( Poultry Health Services, 2009 ) . Leeson, S. and J. D. Summers, 2001 stated that multiple neuritis in the birds shows the ulterior phases of vitamin B1 lack which may originate due to the physique up of the intermediates of saccharide metamorphosis. In mature birds it is seen about 3 hebdomads after they are being fed a thiamine deficient provender. Domestic fowl may besides endure from neuromuscular jobs, ensuing in impaired digestion, general failing, star gazing and frequent paroxysms ( Leeson, S. and J. D. Summers, 2001 ) .
A lack in the handiness of Riboflavin ( B2 ) caused increased happening in the curly toe palsy, hapless growing and hapless egg production ( Poultry Health Services, 2009 ) . Many tissues particularly epithelium and myelin sheath are affected due to feeding of a provender which is d4eficient in vitamin B2 and on post-mortem the characteristic mark of riboflavin lack is marked expansion of the sciatic and brachial nervus sheath with the sciatic nervus demoing the most marked effects ( Leeson, S. and J. D. Summers, 2001 ) .
A eating programme with a lacking sum of Pantothenic acid ( B5 ) is apparent as happening of dermatitis and lesions on oral cavity and pess ( Poultry Health Services, 2009 ) . Harmonizing to Leeson, S. and J. D. Summers, 2001 the major lesions due to lack of pantothenic acid involve nervous system, the adrenal cerebral mantle and the tegument.
Niacin ( B3 ) lack is shown by bowed legs and redness of lingua and oral cavity pit ( Poultry Health Services, 2009 ) . Leeson, S. and J. D. Summers, 2001 study that niacin lack is characterized by terrible metabolic upsets of tegument and digestive variety meats, marks being the loss of appetency, retarded growing, general failing and diarrhoea in the birds.
A eating programme holding lack of vitamin B6 ( B6 ) is characterized by retarded growing, dermatitis, paroxysms, anaemia and there may besides be reduced nitrogen keeping ( Leeson, S. and J. D. Summers, 2001 ) .
Choline lack is apparent from hapless growing, fatty liver, decreased egg production ( Poultry Health Services, 2009 ) . Leeson, S. and J. D. Summers, 2001 study the lack of choline in turning biddies is apparent from hapless growing and perosis.
Cobalamin ( B12 ) lack is shown by instances of anemia, hapless growing, embryologic mortality ( Poultry Health Services, 2009 ) . Harmonizing to Leeson, S. and J. D. Summers, 2001 a lack of B12 in turning biddies showed reduced weight addition, decreased provender consumption, hapless feathering and hapless nervous system.
Folic acid ( B9 ) lack is apparent from hapless growing, anemia, hapless feathering and hapless egg production ( Poultry Health Services, 2009 ) . A lack of folic acid in the experimental birds caused macrocytic ( megaloblastic ) anaemia and leucopenia i.e. reduced white blood cells ( Leeson, S. and J. D. Summers, 2001 ) .
Biotin ( B8 ) lack increases the dermatitis on pess and tegument around eyes and beak ( Unknown, 2004 ; Poultry Health Services, 2009 ; Roche 1979 ; Leeson, S. and J. D. Summers, 2001 ) .
The diseases and job seen due to lacks of the H2O soluble vitamins in domestic fowl can be summarized in the undermentioned tabular array: –
Apparent lack marks
Thiamine ( B1 )
loss of appetency
increased decease ratios
Riboflavin ( B2 )
curly toe palsy
hapless egg production
affected epithelial tissue and medulla sheath
Pantothenic acid ( B5 )
lesions on oral cavity and pess
Niacin ( B3 )
redness of lingua and oral cavity pit
Loss of appetency
vitamin B6 ( B6 )
decreased egg production
Cobalamin ( B12 )
Decreased weight addition
decreased provender consumption
Poor nervous system.
Folic acid ( B9 )
hapless egg production
Biotin ( B8 )
dermatitis on pess and tegument around eyes and beak
( Poultry Health Services, 2009 ; Roche 1979 ; Leeson, S. and J. D. Summers, 2001 )
Role of H2O soluble vitamins as Co-enzymes: –
Riboflavin or vitamin B2 is a prosthetic portion of over a twelve enzymes in the carnal organic structure including cytochromes reductase, lipoamide dehydrogenase, xanthine oxidase, L- and d-amino acid oxidase, histaminase and others all of which are critical for oxidation-reduction reactions involved in cell respiration ( Leeson, S. and J. D. Summers, 2001 ) .
Niacin or nicotinic acid is of import in more than 100 different enzymatic reactions ( Rasmusson R. ) It is the vitamin constituent in two of import enzymes i.e. nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ( NAD ) and nicotinamide A dinucleotide phosphate ( NADP ) reported by Leeson, S. and J. D. Summers, 2001.
Pantothenic acid ( B5 ) is the prosthetic group of coenzyme A, an of import coenzyme involved in many reversible acetylation reactions in saccharide, fat and amino acid metamorphosis ( Leeson, S. and J. D. Summers, 2001 ) .
Biotin ( B8 ) is an indispensable co-enzyme in saccharide, fat and protein metamorphosis ( Leeson, S. and J. D. Summers, 2001 ) .
Vitamin B12 is an indispensable portion of several enzyme systems, with most reactions affecting the synthesis of one C units i.e. methyl groups ( Leeson, S. and J. D. Summers, 2001 ) .
Role of Ascorbic acid ( vitamin C ) in birds under nerve-racking conditions: –
The efficaciousness of supplementing birds with vitamin C under nerve-racking conditions depends upon its ability to promote plasma vitamin C ( Pardue et al. , 1984 ) . Nestor et al. , ( 1972 ) reported that 330ppm vitamin C elevated blood vitamin C. Pardue et al. , ( 1984 ) reported that vitamin C supplementation at a rate of 250ppm increased plasma vitamin C concentrations in broilers. But Sell et all in 1997 found that 300 mg/kg vitamin C was unable to increase plasma vitamin C degrees. Kolb ( 1984 ) strongly suggested that auxiliary vitamin C should be provided in domestic fowl and farm animal diets as a emphasis alleviator. Hill and Garren ( 1958 ) agreed and stated that vitamin C was an indispensable food in poulets sing emphasis. Vitamin C supplementation at 300 mg/kg was able to diminish plasma corticosterone in stressed birds. These responses are supported by research proposing that vitamin C suppresses adrenocortical steroidogenesis and depresses plasma corticosterone degrees, hence restricting some of the hurtful responses associated with emphasis and delays the depletion of steroid endocrine precursors ( Pardue et al. , 1985 ; Gross, 1992 ; Kutlu and Forbes, 1993 ) . The action of vitamin C on adrenal steroidogenesis is associated with its ability to suppress adrenal steroid hydroxylating enzymes ( Kitabchi, 1967 ) . Supplement with 300 mg/kg of ascorbic acid resulted in a important addition in plasma vitamin C throughout the experiment when compared to the “ Un-Supplemented ” birds ( Meade, S.M. , 2004 ) . There is limited research analyzing the effects of vitamin C on lymphocyte subset populations in poulets. However, those experiments that have been demonstrated the effects of vitamin C on lymphocyte populations in association with disease or inoculation ( Wu et al. , 2000 ) . The consequence of dietetic vitamin C supplementation is still controversial nevertheless vitamin C supplementation at 300 mg/kg alleviated stress-induced affects ( Meade, S.M. , 2004 ) . These physiological and immunological findings suggest that vitamin C may be an anti-stress agent and may be an indispensable food in domestic fowl when poults are subjected to nerve-racking conditions ( Meade, S.M. , 2004 ) .
Ascorbic acid as an anti oxidizer for avian sperm cell: –
Ascorbic acid or vitamin degree Celsius is H2O soluble anti oxidant nowadays at high molar concentrations in sperm cell and seminal plasma in a big figure of animate beings. In domestic fowl its concentration in seeds norms 210 +-16.4microM ( Surai et all 1986b ) . On a molar footing this concentration was more than 2.5 times higher than glutathione and more than 100 crease higher than alpha-tocopherol. Ascorbic acid was found about every bit distributed between sperm cell and seminal plasma ( Surai et all 1986b ) . This information was really utile in the development of an thought that vit. C plays an of import function as a H2O soluble anti oxidizer in the avian seminal plasma ( Surai et wholly, 2001 ) .
Ascorbic acid consequence on interjection quality of male Fowl: –
Monsi and Onitchi in 1991 reported that poultry males housed under hot and humid conditions and supplemented with ascorbic acid showed a better overall interjection quality i.e. seeds volume, motile sperm proportion and sperm figure per semen. The reported ascorbic acerb supplementation degree was 500mg/kg. However sperm motility was non affected. Dietary supplementations of ascorbic acid had the effects on seeds of rainbow trout reflected by increased sperm motility and reduced diminution in fertilising capacity of sperm cell after storage ( Ciereszko and Dabrowski, 2000 ) . A protective function of ascorbic acid in keeping the sperm quality was besides reported by Ciereszko and Dabrowski in 1996. However the low dietetic degrees of vitamin E and C ( ascorbic acid ) had no effects on the sperm cell in mice instead the increased and higher auxiliary degrees decreased the figure of spermatozoa/mg epididymis and increased the per centum of sperm cell with deformed caputs ( Ten et all, 1997 ) .
Role of ascorbic acid in weight addition: –
A survey was carried out in SW Nigeria on a group of broiler poulet. The birds were divided into four groups after the age of three hebdomads. A group was given cold H2O without any ascorbic acid and other group was given cold H2O with supplementation of ascorbic acid. Similarly two groups were made for normal unchilled H2O with and without ascorbic acerb proviso. The consequences of survey showed a pronounced superior growing of chest meat and lien in the group provided with cold H2O and ascorbic acid. However there was no affect of ascorbic acerb supplementation on the growing parametric quantities of the birds in any of the four groups. In add-on there was a reduced wing length seen in these birds. The ground for this phenomenon to go on is that in hot climatic conditions a batch of the energy is wasted in heaving and when cold H2O is provided the birds experience comfort and there is less puffing seen. Besides in emphasis corticoids are released which further diminish the weight addition. By supplying cold H2O these both conditions are avoided so better consequences are obtained. The cold H2O resulted in an overall more weight addition hebdomadal and eventually more unrecorded weight nevertheless decreased flying length, the vitamin degree Celsius had no consequence on the growing nevertheless it increased the chest meat and the lien in birds, ( Abioja, et all, 2011 ) .
Role of H2O soluble vitamins in Energy metamorphosis: –
The transmutation of dietetic energy beginnings, such as saccharides, fats and proteins into cellular energy in the signifier of ATP requires several micronutrients as coenzymes and cofactors of enzymatic reactions, as structural constituents of enzymes and mitochondrial cytochromes, and as active negatron and proton bearers in the ATP-generating respiratory concatenation ( Groff et wholly, 1996, Depeint et all, 2006 ) : ( I ) vitamin B1 pyrophosphate ( TPP ; vitamin B1 ) , CoA ( incorporating pantothenic acid ) , flavin mononucleotide ( FMN ; derived from vitamin B2 ) , flavin A dinucleotide ( FAD ; derived from vitamin B2 ) and nicotinamide A dinucleotide ( NAD ; derived from nicotinamide ) are involved in the Krebs rhythm and composites I and II of the respiratory concatenation ; ( two ) vitamin H, CoA and FAD are involved in haem biogenesis, which is an indispensable portion of the cytochromes and of import for the latter portion of the mitochondrial respiratory concatenation ; ( three ) succinyl-CoA can feed into either the respiratory concatenation or the Krebs rhythm depending on the demands of the cell.
Depeint et all, in 2006 confirmed the indispensable function of vitamins B6, B12 and folate in keeping the mitochondrial one-carbon transportation rhythms by modulating mitochondrial enzymes. The same writers besides emphasized the indispensable function of the B vitamin household in keeping mitochondrial energy metamorphosis and how chondriosomes in their function as the cellular cell organs responsible for energy metamorphosis are compromised by a lack of any B vitamin ( Depeint et wholly, 2006 ) .
Table given here summarizes the present province of cognition with respect to the function or functions of single H2O soluble vitamins in energy metamorphosis ( adopted from Institute of medical specialty, 1998 ) .
Function in energy metamorphosis
Thiamine ( B1 )
aˆ? Essential cofactor in the transition of saccharides to energy.
aˆ? Needed for normal musculus map, including the bosom musculus.
aˆ? Involved in oxidative carboxylation reactions, which besides require manganese ions.
Riboflavin ( B2 )
aˆ? As a cofactor in the mitochondrial respiratory concatenation, helps in the release of energy from nutrients.
aˆ? Component of the chief coenzymes FAD and FMN.
Nicotinic acid, niacin ( B3 )
aˆ? As a cofactor in the mitochondrial respiratory concatenation, helps in the release of energy from nutrients.
aˆ? Transformed into NAD and NADP, which play a cardinal function in oxidization -reduction reactions in all cells.
Pyridoxine ( B6 )
aˆ? Helps in the release of energy from nutrients.
aˆ? Used as a cofactor by about 100 enzymatic reactions, chiefly in protein and amino acid metamorphosis.
aˆ? Essential for metamorphosis of fats and saccharides and the synthesis of proteins.
aˆ? Interacts with folic acerb metamorphosis.
aˆ? As a cofactor, involved in metamorphosis of fatty acids, aminic acids and use of B vitamins.
aˆ? Plays an indispensable function in the Krebs rhythm.
aˆ? Component of coenzyme A.
aˆ? Essential for synthesis of carnitine ( transports long-chain fatty acids into
( Ascorbic acid ) chondriosome ) and the catecholamines, epinephrine and norepinephrine.
aˆ? Ascorbic acid facilitates conveyance and consumption of non-haem Fe at the mucous membrane, the decrease of folic acid intermediates, and the synthesis of hydrocortisone.
aˆ? Potent antioxidant.
aˆ? Folates map as a household of cofactors that carry one-carbon ( C1 ) units required for the synthesis of thymidylate, purines and methionine, and required for other methylation reactions.
aˆ? Folate is indispensable for metabolic tracts affecting cell growing, reproduction and endurance of cells in civilization.
aˆ? Around 30 – 50 % of cellular vitamin Bcs are located in the chondriosome.
Toxicity originating due to H2O soluble vitamins: –
Toxicities arise due to over supplementation degrees or more inclusion rates of the foods. By and large the toxicity of the H2O soluble vitamins is non seen in the birds because of the ground that these vitamins have a really minimum storage in the organic structure. If the inclusion rate of vitamin B-complex is at least100x than the needed degree, it tends to do toxicity in the domestic fowl. Vitamin C, E and Biotin are reasonably toxic, potentially doing jobs at 20-30x the normal inclusion degrees. Toxicity of vitamins administered in the imbibing H2O is rather rare because the birds are loath to imbibe such bastioned H2O ( Leeson, S. and J. D. Summers, 2001 ) .
From above treatment it can be concluded that the H2O soluble vitamins play many of import functions in the domestic fowl life including proper growing, production, weight addition, egg production, unsusceptibility, proper conformance, proper operation, avoiding of emphasis due to many beginnings, proper feathering, proper tegument status and proper embryo development.
The H2O soluble vitamins are required in the metamorphosis, in the oxidization and decrease reactions as coenzymes which mean these are critical for the endurance of the animate beings.
These besides enhance the quality of the interjection in male poultry every bit good a act as antioxidants for the avian sperm cell guaranting the birthrate and avoiding malformations in the seeds of domestic fowl. The H2O soluble vitamin household member, ascorbic acid is besides involved in excess addition of the chest meat which is most liked portion of poulet meat in general.