Rocky Mountains Essay Research Paper Rocky Mountains

Rocky Mountains Essay, Research Paper

Rocky Mountains or Rockies, great concatenation of rugged mountain ranges in western

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North America, widening from cardinal New Mexico to northeastern British

Columbia, a distance of about 3220 kilometer ( about 2000 myocardial infarction ) . The Great Basin and the

Rocky Mountain Trench, a vale running from northwesterly Montana to northern

British Columbia, surround the Rockies on the E by the Great Plains and on the

West. The Rocky Mountains organize portion of the Great, or Continental, Divide, which

offprints rivers run outing into the Atlantic or Arctic oceans from those fluxing

toward the Pacific Ocean. The Arkansas, Colorado, Columbia, Missouri, Rio

Grande, Saskatchewan, and Snake rivers rise in the Rockies. The Rockies may be

divided into four chief subdivisions? Southern, Central, Northern, and

Canadian. The Southern Rockies, which include the system & # 8217 ; s broadest and highest

parts, extend from cardinal New Mexico, through Colorado, to the Great Divide,

or Wyoming, Basin, in southern Wyoming. This subdivision, which encompasses Rocky

Mountain National Park, is composed chiefly of two northern-southern belts of

mountain ranges with several basins, or Parkss, between the belts. The constituent

parts include the Sanger de Crisco and Laramie mountains and the Front Range, in

the E, and the San Juan Mountains and the Swatch and Park scopes, in the

West. The Southern Rockies include the concatenation & # 8217 ; s loftiest point, Mount Elbert

( 4399 m/14,433 ft high ) , in cardinal Colorado. More than 50 other extremums of the

Rocky mountainss lifting above 4267 m ( 14,000 foot ) are in Colorado ; these include Longs

Peak ( 4345 m/14,255 ft high ) and Pikes Peak ( 4301 m/14,110 ft high ) . The Central

Rocky mountainss are in northeasterly Utah, western Wyoming, eastern Idaho, and southern

Montana. They encompass the Bighorn ; Bear tooth, and Unite Mountains and the

Absaroka, Wind River, Salt River, Teton, Snake River, and Wasatch ranges. The

Unite Mountains are the lone major part of the Rockies that extends east West

instead than north south. Among the extremums of the Central Rockies, which include

Grand Eton and Yellowstone national Parkss, are Gannett Peak ( 4207 m/13,804 foot

high ) , Grand Eton ( 4197 m/13,771 ft high ) , and Fremont Peak ( 4185 m/13,730 foot

high ) . The Northern Rockies are in northern Idaho, western Montana, and

northeasterly Washington. They include the Saw tooth, Cabinet, Salmon River, and

Clearwater Mountains and the Bitterroot Range. The loftiest points in the

subdivision, which includes Glacier National Park, are Granite Peak ( 3901 m/12,799

ft high ) and Borax Peak ( 3859 m/12,662 ft high ) . The Canadian Rockies, located

in southwesterly Alberta and eastern British Columbia, are composed of a

comparatively narrow belt of mountain scopes that terminates at the Lizard River

lowland in northeasterly British Columbia. The extremums of the subdivision, which takes

in Banff, Jasper, Kootenay, Waterton Lakes, and Yoho National Parks, include

Mount Robson ( 3954 m/12,972 ft high ) , Mount Columbia ( 3747 m/12,294 ft high ) ,

and The Twins ( 3734 m/12,251 ft high ) . Slopes by and large are really steep, and

there are legion glaciers. The Rocky Mountains are a geologically complex

system with jaggy extremums every bit good as about flat-topped lifts. The Rockies

were formed chiefly by crustal upheavals in relatively recent times, during the

tardily Cretaceous and early Tertiary periods, and subsequently were reshaped by

glaciation during the Pleistocene Epoch. Today the Rockies receive chair

sums of precipitation, most of which occurs in the winter. Lower degrees are

covered chiefly by grassland, which gives manner to extended woods, chiefly

of conifers. Above the forest is a zone of grasses and scattered bushs. Most

extremums have small flora around the acme, and some have a year-around cap

of snow and ice. The Rockies are sparsely populated for the most portion and

contain few metropoliss. The chief economic resources of the mountains are

minerals, such as coal, Cu, gold, Fe ore, lead, molybdenum, crude oil and

natural gas, Ag, and Zn. Important excavation centres include Leadville and

Climax, Colorado ; Atlantic City, Wyoming ; Kellogg, Idaho ; Butte, Montana ; and

Fernie and Kimberley, British Columbia. Major forest merchandises industries,

particularly heavy, are concentrated in the Northern and Canadian Rockies, and

big Numberss of sheep and cowss are raised in the Rockies of Colorado,

Wyoming, and Montana. The concatenation has many centres for out-of-door diversion and

touristry. Bighorn Mountains, isolated scope of the Rocky Mountains, lying E of

the Bighorn River and widening by and large north from cardinal Wyoming into

southern Montana. The scope averages more than 2134 m ( 7000 foot ) in lift ;

the highest acme is Cloud Peak ( 4019 m/13,187 foot ) in Wyoming. Along the upper

degrees are big cone-bearing woods, which are portion of Bighorn National Forest.

Bitterroot Range, mountain scope, northwesterly United States, a concatenation of the

Rocky Mountains, widening about 700 kilometers ( about 435 myocardial infarctions ) along the Montana-Idaho

boundary line. Rugged and forested, with an mean lift of 2740 m ( about 9000

foot ) , it remains one of the most unaccessible countries in the United States. In 1805

the Lewis and Clark Expedition traveled west through Lolo Pass ( 1595 m/5233 foot )

in the scope. Guadalupe Mountains, mountain scope, southwesterly United States, a

subdivision of the Rocky Mountains, widening from southern New Mexico to western

Texas. Guadalupe Peak ( 2667 m/8749 foot above sea degree ) , the highest in the

concatenation, is in Texas. Laramie Mountains, scope of the Rocky Mountains, western

United States, widening from southeasterly Wyoming into northern Colorado. The

highest point, Laramie Peak, is 3131 m ( 10,272 foot ) above sea degree. Coal, the

chief mineral, is found in the foothills. San Juan Mountains, mountain

scope, southwesterly United States, in southwesterly Colorado and northwesterly New

Mexico. Part of the Rocky Mountains, it is of volcanic beginning and is rich in

minerals. The highest extremums are in Colorado and include Uncompahgre Peak ( 4361

m/14,309 foot ) , Mount Sneffels ( 4313 m/14,150 foot ) , and Wetterhorn Peak ( 4272

m/14,017 foot ) . Sangre de Cristo Mountains, mountain scope, western United States,

the southernmost scope of the Rocky Mountains, in south cardinal Colorado and

north cardinal New Mexico. The really high and narrow scope extends southeast and

South for about 354 kilometers ( 220 myocardial infarction ) , from Salida, Colorado, to Santa Fe County, New

Mexico. Blanca Peak ( 4372 m/14,345 foot ) , in Colorado, is one of the highest

mountains of the Rockies. Sawatch Range, mountain scope, cardinal Colorado, a

subdivision of the Rocky Mountains. The scope extends for about 177 kilometers ( about 110 myocardial infarctions )

and reaches a tallness of 4399 m ( 14,433 foot ) at Mount Elbert, the highest point in

the province. Teton ( mountain scope ) , scope of the Rocky Mountains, in northwesterly

Wyoming, and southwesterly Idaho, merely South of Yellowstone National Park, West

of Jackson Lake and the Snake River. The highest extremum is Grand Teton ( 4197

m/13,771 foot ) , located in Grand Teton National Park. Teton Pass ( 2569 m/8429 foot )

and Phillips Pass ( 3261 m/10,700 foot ) are merely south of the park. Uinta

Mountains, mountain scope, western United States, chiefly in northeasterly Utah

and partially in southwesterly Wyoming, portion of the Rocky Mountains. The extremums of

the Uinta Mountains are largely level because of eroding by glaciers and the

Waterss of the Yampa and Green rivers. The scope is about 240 kilometers ( about 150 myocardial infarctions )

long and 48 to 64 kilometers ( 30 to 40 myocardial infarction ) broad. The highest lift is Kings Peak,

which is 4123 m ( 13,528 foot ) high and is besides the highest point in Utah. Wasatch

Range, mountain scope, western United States, in the Rocky Mountain system. The

scope is about 240 kilometers ( about 150 myocardial infarctions ) long ; portion of the Central Rockies, it

Begins in southeasterly Idaho and runs due south, E of the Great Salt Lake and

through the centre of Utah, bit by bit stoping in southwesterly Utah. The norm

tallness of the scope is about 3050 m ( about 10,000 foot ) , and the highest extremum,

Mount Nebo, is 3620 m ( 11,877 foot ) high. Wind River Range, scope of the Rocky

Mountains, western Wyoming, organizing portion of the Continental Divide. The Green

River rises in the southwesterly incline of the scope, and many feeders of the

Wind River flow off on the northeasterly side. The scope contains Fremont Peak

( 4185 m/13,730 foot ) and Gannett Peak ( 4207 m/13,804 foot ) ; the latter is the

highest point in Wyoming. Arkansas ( river, United States ) , river, western U.S. ,

a major feeder of the Mississippi River, 2350 kilometer ( 1460 myocardial infarction ) long. Rising in

cardinal Colorado, in the Sawatch Range of the Rocky Mountains, at an height of

about 4270 m ( about 14,000 foot ) , the river flows by and large east and forms a

disruptive watercourse passing over bouldery beds and through deep canons such as the

Royal Gorge. As it flows through the fields of Kansas, the river broadens to a

wider, less bombastic watercourse until it enters Oklahoma ; at that point it receives

two main feeders, the Cimarron and the Canadian rivers. Except for a big

northern crook in Kansas, the Arkansas River follows a southeasterly class,

unifying with the Mississippi River above Arkansas City, Arkansas. The H2O

degrees of the river are highly variable, and several dikes have been built for

inundation control and irrigation and to make hydroelectric power ; one of the most

impressive, the John Martin Dam in southeasterly Colorado, was built in 1948. The

Arkansas River Navigation System, completed in the early 1970s, made the river

navigable to Tulsa, Oklahoma. Athabasca, river and lake, in western Canada, that

form portion of the Mackenzie River system. The Athabasca River, 1231 kilometer ( 765 myocardial infarction )

long, begins in Jasper National Park in southwesterly Alberta. Its beginning is the

Columbia Icefield, high in the Rocky Mountains. The river flows north-east across

Alberta and empties through a shallow delta into Lake Athabasca in northeasterly

Alberta. The river was one time an of import path for pelt bargainers. Lake Athabasca,

which straddles the AlbertaSaskatchewan- boundary line, is about 320 kilometers ( about 200 myocardial infarctions )

long and screens about 7936 sq kilometer ( about 3064 sq myocardial infarction ) . Fort Chipewyan, which was

built along the southwesterly shore of the lake in 1788, became one of the

part & # 8217 ; s most of import fur-trading stations. Today Lake Athabasca is used for

commercial fishing. It is drained to the North by the Slave River. Large

sedimentations of petroleum-bearing sand are located along the lower Athabasca River,

near Fort McMurray. Long known but untapped because of high extraction costs,

the sedimentations are now mined utilizing new engineering and efficient methods. In 1994

the end product amounted to one-fourth of Canada & # 8217 ; s petroleum oil production. Canadian,

besides South Canadian, unnavigable river, southwesterly United States, 1460 kilometer ( 906

myocardial infarction ) long. The Canadian River is formed in northeasterly New Mexico by the brotherhood

of several subdivisions from the southern Rocky Mountains. The river flows South

through New Mexico and so turns east, traversing the Texas Panhandle into

Oklahoma. Following a rambling class, it eventually joins the Arkansas River.

The river & # 8217 ; s merely major feeder is the North Canadian River, 1260 kilometer ( 784 myocardial infarction )

long, which runs about parallel to the Canadian River in Oklahoma. The

tributary joins the Canadian River at Eufaula in eastern Oklahoma to organize the

Eufaula Reservoir. In northeasterly New Mexico, a semiarid part, the Canadian

River provides an of import H2O beginning at the Conchas Dam, a flood-control and

irrigation undertaking. Colorado ( river, North America ) , river, in southwesterly

United States and northwesterly Mexico, 2330 kilometer ( 1450 myocardial infarction ) long, the longest river

West of the Rocky Mountains. The Colorado rises merely West of the Continental

Divide, in northern Colorado, and, for the first 1600 kilometer ( about 1000 myocardial infarction ) of its

class, passes through a series of deep gorges and canons that were created by

the gnawing force of its current. The river flows in a by and large southwesterly

way across Colorado into southeasterly Utah, where it joins its head

tributary, the Green River. After traversing the northern part of Arizona, the

Colorado flows west for 446 kilometers ( 277 myocardial infarction ) through the olympian Grand Canyon. It

so flows in a by and large southern way and forms the boundary between

Arizona and the provinces of Nevada and California. Near Yuma, Arizona, the river

crosses the international boundary line into Mexico and flows for about 145 kilometers ( 90 myocardial infarction )

to its oral cavity on the Gulf of California, an recess of the Pacific Ocean. Besides

the Green River, the most of import feeders of the Colorado include the

Dolores and Gunnison rivers, in Colorado ; the San Juan River, in Utah ; and the

Small Colorado and Gila rivers, in Arizona. With its feeders, the Colorado

drains parts of seven provinces, a entire country, in Colorado, Wyoming, Nevada,

Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and California, of about 626,800 sq km ( about 242,000

sq myocardial infarction ) and 5180 sq kilometer ( 2000 sq myocardial infarction ) more in Mexico. To command the enormous

flow of the Colorado, peculiarly under inundation conditions, an extended series

of dikes, many of them constructed by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, has been

built along the river and its feeders. Noteworthy is the Hoover Dam, which

impounds the river at the Black Canyon to organize Lake Mead, one of the largest

unreal lakes in the universe. The Glen Canyon Dam, in north-central Arizona

merely South of the Utah boundary line, is the 3rd highest dike in the U.S. In add-on

to modulating the flow of H2O, dikes on the Colorado harness hydroelectric

power and supply storage reservoirs for irrigation undertakings. As such, they have

been instrumental in repossessing the semiarid and waterless parts through which the

river flows. The Imperial Valley of southern California is an first-class illustration

of land reclaimed by the Waterss of the Colorado. A figure of reservoirs have

been incorporated into national diversion countries. The Glen Canyon National

Recreation Area in Utah encompasses Lake Powell, formed by the Glen Canyon Dam.

Lakes Mead and Mohave ( the latter formed by Davis Dam ) are portion of Lake Mead

National Recreation Area in Arizona. The Colorado was foremost explored by the

Spanish sailing master Hernando de Alarc? N, who ascended the river for more than 160

kilometer ( 100 myocardial infarction ) in 1540-1541. The Colorado and its head feeder, the Green, were

exhaustively explored for the first clip in 1869 by the American geologist John

Wesley Powell. On this study Powell and his party made the first recorded

transition of the Grand Canyon. The building of the Glen Canyon Dam in 1963

dramatically reduced the natural flow of sand and foods down the Centennial state

River and into the Grand Canyon. In March 1996 the federal authorities released

more than 380 billion litres ( 100 billion gallons ) of H2O from Glen Canyon

Dam. This unreal inundation added more than three pess to some beaches downstream

and cleared fish engendering evidences of dust and deposit. Further Reading

Columbia ( river, North America ) , Major River of western North America, lifting in

Columbia Lake, merely west of the chief scope of the Rocky Mountains, in

southeasterly British Columbia. The river was once known as the Oregon River.

The Columbia River is about 2000 kilometer ( 1240 myocardial infarction ) long. It ab initio flows

north-west, through a long, narrow vale called the Rocky Mountain Trench, and

so turns aggressively south, hedging the Selkirk Mountains and go throughing through

Upper Arrow Lake and Lower Arrow Lake. It following receives the Kootenay ( spelled

Kootenai in the United States ) and Pend Oreille rivers before come ining the province

of Washington, where it foremost flows South and so traverses a great discharge, known

as the Big Bend. After having the Snake River, the Columbia turns west and

signifiers much of the boundary between the provinces of Washington and Oregon before

emptying into the Pacific Ocean through a wide estuary. The river flows through

several dramatic canons and deep vale. About tierce of its class is

in Canada. The Columbia and its feeders together drain a huge basin of about

673,400 sq kilometer ( about 260,000 sq myocardial infarction ) . Large oceangoing ships can voyage the

lower Columbia River every bit far as Vancouver, Washington ; and, with the assistance of

locks, smaller Marine vass can make The Dalles, Oregon, approximately 300 kilometers ( about

186 myocardial infarction ) upstream. Barges and other shallow-draught boats can voyage a farther

220 kilometer ( 137 myocardial infarction ) . The Columbia River has immense hydroelectric potency, and

since the 1930s several big power undertakings have been built on it. The largest

of these, the Grand Coulee Dam, in cardinal Washington, is the cardinal unit of the

Columbia Basin Project, a federal project besides designed to water up to

485,623 hectares ( 1.2 million estates ) of semiarid land. Other of import power

undertakings on the Columbia include Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, McNary,

Priest Rapids, Rocky Reach, and Chief Joseph dikes, in the United States, and

Mica Dam, in Canada. Most of these dikes are besides used for inundation control and for

irrigation. The American adventurer Robert Gray explored the oral cavity of the Columbia

River in 1792. He named the river for his ship. The Lewis and Clark Expedition

explored the lower Columbia from 1805 to 1806, and David Thompson, a Canadian

surveyor and adventurer, followed the river from its beginning to its oral cavity in 1811.

The Columbia one time had great Numberss of salmon and supported a big canning

industry ; the fish stock was badly depleted in the 1900s as a consequence of dike

building and pollution. In an attempt to protect the salmon from extinction,

the Northwest Power Planning Council in 1994 approved a program to reconstruct salmon

stock by increasing the H2O flow through the dikes and by developing home ground

protection criterions. Further Reading Continental Divide ( besides called the Great

Divide ) , ridge of mountains in North America, dividing the watercourse that flow

West ( into the Pacific Ocean ) from those that flow east ( into the Atlantic Ocean

and its fringy seas ) . Most of the divide follows the crest of the Rocky

Mountains. It extends from Alaska in the United States into the Yukon Territory

and British Columbia in Canada and signifiers portion of the boundary line between British

Columbia and Alberta, besides in Canada. It so passes through Montana, Wyoming,

Colorado, and New Mexico in the United States and continues south into Mexico

and Central America along the crest of the Sierra Madre Occidental. The term

Continental divide may be applied to the principal watershed boundary of any

continent. Fraser, river in southern British Columbia, Canada. The Fraser rises

in the Rocky Mountains, in Mount Robson Provincial Park near the Alberta boundary line,

and flows 1370 kilometer ( 850 myocardial infarction ) before voidance, through a delta, into the Strait of

Georgia, near Vancouver. The Fraser ab initio flows northwest through a subdivision

of a deep, narrow vale called the Rocky Mountain Trench. It so turns South

near the metropolis of Prince George, where it receives its major western feeder,

the Nechako River. In its cardinal subdivision, the volume of the river additions,

and below Quesnel its Bankss bit by bit take on a canyonlike facet. Important

feeders in this subdivision include the West Road and Chilcotin rivers, from the

West, and the Thompson River, from the E. From Lytton to Yale the river flows

through a canon of great scenic beauty. At the canon & # 8217 ; s southern terminal the Fraser

base on ballss between the Cascade Range to the E and the Coast Mountains to the

West. A small below Yale, at Hope, the river turns aggressively west, and the

fertile lower Fraser Valley begins. The Fraser empties into the Strait of

Georgia through three chief channels. The river is used by commercial vass for

a short distance upstream. From May to July the Fraser Valley is capable to

implosion therapy ; a series of butchs helps protect the delta. The Fraser drains an country

of approximately 238,000 sq km ( about 91,890 sq myocardial infarction ) . Much of the river basin is to a great extent

wooded, and forest-products industries dominate the economic system of the colonies

along the river. The lower Fraser Valley, including the delta, has extremely

productive farms. Assorted species of pink-orange spawn in the Fraser, and salmon

piscaries are located near the river & # 8217 ; s oral cavity. The river has great hydroelectric

possible, but it remains undeveloped for fright of damaging effects on the

migratory wonts of the salmon. The Fraser is extremely polluted, particularly at its

oral cavity. The first European to see the river was Sir Alexander Mackenzie in

1793. It is named for the fur bargainer Simon Fraser, who explored much of it in

1808. In 1858 gold was found in alluvial crushed rocks north of Yale, and a major gold

haste ensued. Louise, Lake, glacial lake in southwesterly Alberta, Canada. Lake

Louise is located at an lift of 1731 m ( 5680 foot ) in Banff National Park,

near the town of Lake Louise. The lake is about 2.4 kilometers ( about 1.5 myocardial infarctions ) long and

1.2 kilometer ( 0.75 myocardial infarction ) broad. Sheltered by the Rocky Mountains, Lake Louise is known

for the placid beauty of its turquoise-blue surface, which mirrors nearby

scenic woods and snowcapped extremums. The lake is fed from the North by the

dramatic Victoria Glacier and is drained by the Bow River in the sou’-east.

Lake Louise was named in 1884 for the Canadian governor-general & # 8217 ; s married woman, who was

besides the 4th girl of Queen Victoria. Missouri ( river ) ( Illinois

Emissourita, ” inhabitants of the large muddy ” ) , river in cardinal United

States. The Missouri is formed by the meeting of the Jefferson, Gallatin, and

Madison rivers at Three Forks in southwesterly Montana. The longest river in the

United States, the Missouri is one of the primary feeders of the Mississippi

River. It flows 3726 kilometer ( 2315 myocardial infarction ) and drains an country of about 1,370,000 sq kilometer

( about 529,000 sq myocardial infarction ) . The Missouri ab initio flows north, hedging the chief

scope of the Rocky Mountains. Then it passes through a 366-m ( 1200-ft ) gorge

called the Gates of the Mountains, turns north-east and reaches Fort Benton,

Montana, the caput of pilotage. From Fort Benton the river flows east and is

joined by the Milk River at Frazer, Montana, and by the Yellowstone River at

Buford, North Dakota. From this point the Missouri flows by and large southeast

through North Dakota and South Dakota to Sioux City, Iowa, where it turns south

and becomes the boundary between Nebraska and Kansas on the West and Iowa and

Missouri on the E. The Platte River is received near Omaha, Nebraska, and the

Kansas River at Kansas City, Missouri. On having the Kansas, the Missouri

bends east and flows across the province of Missouri. About 27 kilometers ( about 17 myocardial infarctions )

North of St. Louis, the muddy Missouri enters the channel of the Mississippi.

Other of import metropoliss on the river are Bismarck, North Dakota ; Council Bluffs,

Iowa ; Saint Joseph, Missouri ; and Atchison, Leavenworth, and Kansas City,

Kansas. The upper Missouri traverses cragged terrain covered with dense

cone-bearing woods. These woods support big animate beings, including bears, moose,

and moose. Fish found in the cold upper river include the Montana grayling and

the rainbow trout. The center and lower river vales are lined with grasslands

and woods of poplar, hickory, and other trees, supplying a home ground for

coneies, foxes, beavers, and other animate beings. Fish in the heater lower river

include bass, several species of mudcat, and carp. Historically, a

figure of

Native American peoples lived in the vale along the Missouri, including the

Hidatsa, Crow, Iowa, Arikara, Blackfoot, and Sioux. The part was popular for

American bison hunting and agribusiness, and the folks used the river for commercialism. In

1673 French-Canadian adventurer Louis Jolliet and Gallic missionary and adventurer

Jacques Marquette became the first Europeans to detect the Missouri when they

came across the lower river during a journey down the Mississippi. The lower

river became an of import path for pelt bargainers, who began to venture farther up

the river. During the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1804 to 1806, American

adventurers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark became the first Whites to research

the river basin from its oral cavity to its headwaters. Steamboat traffic on the

Missouri began in 1819 with the ocean trip of the Independence, and shortly steamboats

were taking colonists west, every bit good as haling cargo such as grain, pelt,

timber, and coal. Steamboat activity peaked in 1858, but so the building

of railwaies lessened traffic on the river. The lower part of the river now

supports commercial flatboat lines, which carry agricultural merchandises, steel, and

oil. In order to heighten navigability and supply inundation control, hydroelectric

power, and irrigation, the Missouri River Basin Program was created in 1944.

Under this plan and the subsequent Missouri Basin Program, a series of dikes,

reservoirs, and locks were built on the river. However, in 1993 heavy rains

caused record-breaking implosion therapy along the Missouri and other subdivisions of the

Mississippi River. Further Reading Saskatchewan ( river, Canada ) , river in

cardinal Canada, 550 kilometer ( 340 myocardial infarction ) long. It is formed in cardinal Saskatchewan by

the meeting of the North Saskatchewan and South Saskatchewan rivers and flows

east into Manitoba, where it passes through Cedar Lake before emptying into Lake

Winnipeg. The North Saskatchewan River ( 1200 km/760 myocardial infarction long ) rises in the Rocky

Mountains of southwesterly Alberta and flows east past Edmonton, Alberta, and

Prince Albert, Saskatchewan. The South Saskatchewan River ( 1390 km/865 myocardial infarction long ) ,

formed by the occasion of the Bow and Oldman rivers in southern Alberta, flows

nor’-east past Medicine Hat, Alberta, and Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. The

Saskatchewan River system stretches 2600 kilometer ( 1600 myocardial infarction ) and drains most of the

western prairie. It was an of import path in the fur trade of the eighteenth century

but has no navigational value today. The river system is widely used for

irrigation, nevertheless, and it has several hydroelectric installations, notably

Gardiner Dam on the South Saskatchewan River, near Saskatoon, and Grand Rapids

Dam, at the oral cavity of the Saskatchewan River. Arapahoe Peak, mountain, northern

Colorado, in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains, near Boulder ; 4117 m

( 13,506 foot ) high. On the face of the extremum is an ice field known as Arapahoe

Glacier. Blanca Peak, mountain, south cardinal Colorado, in the Sangre de Cristo

Scope of the Rocky Mountains, near Great Sand Dunes National Monument. It is

4372 m ( 14,345 foot ) high and is one of the highest mountains in the province. Expresswaies

Peak, one of the most celebrated extremums in the Rocky Mountains, located in the Front

Range, cardinal Colorado, near Colorado Springs. Although the lift ( 4301

m/14,110 foot ) of the extremum is non the highest in the province, Pikes Peak is noted

for a dominating position. Tourists can go up the mountain by three different

agencies: by horseback, by a cog railroad about 14 kilometers ( 9 myocardial infarction ) long, or by

car over a well-constructed route. Two springs, Manitou and Colorado, are

located near the pes of the mountain. On the acme of Pikes Peak is a

meteoric station. The extremum was discovered in 1806 by the American adventurer

and army officer Zebulon Montgomery Pike. It was first climbed in 1820.

Bufflehead, common name for a little north American diving duck. Its name is

derived from “ buffalo-head, ” an allusion to the big size of its

short-beaked caput, particularly in males, created by particularly bouffant plumes.

The organic structure feather of males is black and white above and white below, the caput

calendered black with a big white spot from the oculus to the dorsum border. Females are

dark brown, with a smaller white spot on the side of the caput. Adults are about

38 centimeter ( about 15 in ) long. Buffleheads nest in wooded countries of Canada and the

Rocky Mountains, and winter on bays, lakes, rivers, and seaports. Scientific

categorization: The bufflehead belongs to the folk Mergini in the household

Anatidae. It is classified as Bucephala albeola. Grosbeak, common name for

several species of large-billed seed-eating birds of the fringillid, or finch,

household and of the emberizid household. Of the fringillid grossbeak, merely two are

found in North America: the comparatively little billed pine grossbeak, of northern

cone-bearing woods around the universe, and the really big billed evening grossbeak.

The latter species strains in cone-bearing woods in Canada and the northernmost

United States, widening in the Rocky Mountains South to Mexico. It winters

irregularly in the United States, in some old ages occupying in great Numberss,

on occasion south to northern Florida. Until the 1950s it bred merely as Far East

as Michigan and Ontario, but it so began spread outing its scope to New York, New

England, and the Maritime Provinces. Some property this enlargement to better

winter endurance, as many people put out helianthus seeds and other nutrient for these

birds. Some cardinaline grossbeaks are wholly tropical. In North America the

best-known species are the rose-breasted grossbeak, of the E, and its western

opposite number, the black-headed grossbeak. In both the male is strikingly colored:

black and white with a bright-pink chest topographic point in the former, and black and

orange-brown in the latter. The females look like elephantine sparrows. The blue

grossbeak is found in the southern United States and Mexico. Males are rich blue

with brown flying bars, and females are dark brown. Scientific categorization:

Grosbeaks belong to the households Fringillidae and Emberizidae, of the order

Passeriformes. They are sometimes all placed in either one of those households.

The pine grossbeak is classified as Pinicola enucleator, the eventide grossbeak as

Coccothraustes vespertina ( sometimes Hesperiphona vespertina ) , the rose-breasted

grossbeak as Pheucticus ludovicianus, the black-headed grossbeak as Pheucticus

melanocephalus, and the bluish grossbeak as Guiraca caerulea. Grouse, common name

for 17 species of birds of the pheasant household, found around the universe in the

northern hemisphere ; two of the three species of ptarmigan inhabit both the

United states and Eurasia. Grouse vary in size from males of the capercailzie, 86 centimeter

( 34 in ) long, of European cone-bearing woods, to the 32 centimeter ( 12.5 in )

white-tailed ptarmigan, of western North American Mountains. In most species the

sexes differ in colour, but none have genuinely bright feather. Bright colourss are

limited to red or yellow comblike constructions over the eyes, expanded during the

genteelness season, or pouch of bare tegument that inflate like balloons during

wooing shows. Copulating systems are luxuriant in most grouse, and in many the

males are polygamous, meeting in the spring at certain spheres where they compete

for couples. As extremely popular game birds, grouse have been intensively studied.

Best known and most widely distributed of the American species is the ruffed

grouse, which occurs in forests from Alaska to Newfoundland, south to the

northern Rocky Mountains and the Appalachians. The name comes from a frill of

black ( seldom, coppery ) plumes at the sides of the cervix. These plumes are

larger in males than in females, and are spread widely during wooing

shows, when the male prances on a moss-covered log. This species is celebrated for

the springtime “ beating ” of the males, a sound produced by the

whipping of the wings against the air, as the male stands vertical. The sound

carries a great distance, and resembles a noisy gasolene engine get downing up. Two

other North American grouse, the bluish grouse of western mountains and the more

widely distributed spruce grouse are confined to cone-bearing woods. The male

blue grouse has inflatable cervix pouch, changing geographically in colour from

yellow to reddish purple ; the spruce grouse deficiencies such pouch. These two species

have been called “ sap biddies ” because of their evident bravery,

doing them easy to run. Two species of prairie poulet, the closely related

sharp-tailed grouse, and the sage grouse, dwell in unfastened state. The latter, an

dweller of sagebrush countries, particularly in the Great Basin, is the largest

American grouse. Males reach 75 centimeter ( 30 in ) in length ; females are smaller ( 58

cm/23 in ) . During the communal wooing shows, males strut about with their

peaky tail plumes fanned out, and a brace of xanthous pouch on their thoraxs

inflated. Scientific categorization: Grouse belong to the household Phasianidae of

the order Galliformes. The capercailzie is classified as Tetrao urogallus, the

white-tailed ptarmigan as Lagopus leucurus, and the ruffed grouse as Bonasa

umbellus. The blue grouse is classified as Dendragapus obscurus and the spruce

grouse as Dendragapus canadensis. Prairie poulets are classified in the genus

Tympanuchus. The sharp-tailed grouse is classified as Tympanuchus phasianellus

and the sage grouse as Centrocercus urophasianus. Further Reading Solitaire

( bird ) , common name applied to assorted species of American thrush. In the United

States, one species, Townsend & # 8217 ; s solitaire, is found chiefly in the Rocky

Mountains. The bird is mostly chocolate-brown grey in colour, with a white-eye ring and

a fan flying spot. All solitaires are brilliant vocalists. Solitaire was besides the

name of an nonextant, flightless bird resembling the fogy. It inhabited Rodrigues,

an island in the Indian Ocean, until the last half of the eighteenth century.

Scientific categorization: Solitaires belong to the household Turdidae of the order

Passeriformes. Townsend & # 8217 ; s solitaire is classified as Myadestes townsendi. The

solitaire that is now nonextant belongs to the household Raphidae, order

Columbiformes, and is classified as Pezophaps solitaria. Columbine ( flower ) ,

common name for certain perennial herbs with lacy, lobed foliages and delicate

flowers. Unusually, both sepals and petals are colored, and the petals extend

to organize a goad. The 40 known species are widely distributed in the North

Temperate Zone and demo a prismatic scope of colour. North American and Eurasiatic

species, every bit good as a figure of loanblends, are grown in gardens. Among the common

species are the wild aquilegia, with vermilion to tap flowers, native from Nova

Scotia to Texas, and the Colorado, or Rocky Mountain, aquilegia, with bluish

flowers. Scientific categorization: Columbines belong to the household

Ranunculaceae. Wild aquilegia is classified as Aquilegia canadensis. Colorado,

or Rocky Mountain, aquilegia is classified as Aquilegia caerulea. Indian

Paintbrush, common name for any of a genus of one-year, two-year, and perennial

herbs ( see Figwort ) . The genus, which contains about 200 species, is native to

the ice chest parts of North and Central America and Asia, and to the Andes.

Because Indian paintbrushes, besides called painted cups, are parasitic on the

roots of other workss, they have non been naturalized and have seldom been

cultivated off from their native home ground. The workss have long, hairy,

unbranching stems with surrogate foliages. The topmost foliages, or bracts, are

brightly colored and much showier than the invisible interspersed

flowers. The flowers, which are borne in spikes, have a two-lobed calyx, a

two-lobed corolla, four stamens, and a lone pistil. The corolla, which is

normally xanthous, is encased within the calyx, and is normally indiscernible. The

fruit is a two-celled capsule. The common painted cup is the province flower of

Wyoming. The calyx of this works is light-green white, but the bracts are intense

scarlet. The vermilion paintbrush is a common wild works of the eastern United

States. The common Indian paintbrush is a stalwart herb found in Canada and in the

cragged parts of the northern United States from New England to the Rocky

Mountains. Its calyx is light-green white tinted with purple ruddy. Scientific

categorization: Indian paintbrushes make up the genus Castilleja, of the household

Scrophulariaceae. The common painted cup is classified as Castilleia

linariaefolia, the vermilion paintbrush as Castilleja coccinea, and the common

Indian paintbrush as Castilleja septentrionalis. Sagebrush, common name applied

to any of several related aromatic, acrimonious bush, native to the fields and

mountains of western North America, but particularly to the Great Basin, the

extended desert part West of the Rocky Mountains in the United States.

Sagebrush is some of the few woody members of their household ( see Composite

Flowers ) . The most common species in the United States is the common sage brush,

a many-branched works that grows from 0.3 to 6 m ( 1 to 20 foot ) in tallness. It has

silvery, toothed foliages and terminal bunchs of little, xanthous flowers. A

similar species, the low sage brush, attains a maximal tallness of 30 centimeter ( 1 foot ) and

is abundant in the fields of Colorado and Wyoming. Because sage brush frequently grows

in parts where there are few other woody workss, it is sometimes used for

fuel. In some countries the leaf is used as winter eatage. Overgrazing of native

grasses has caused a proportionate addition in sage brush. Scientific

categorization: Sagebrush is classified in the genus Artemisia of the household

Compositae. The common sage brush is classified as Artemisia tridentata. The low

sage brush is classified as Artemisia arbuscula. Bighorn Sheep, largest and

best-known wild sheep of the North American continent, besides called Rocky

Mountain sheep. They are found from southern British Columbia to northwestern

Mexico. A adult Bighorn may average 101 centimeter ( 40 in ) at the shoulder and

scope in weight from 79 to 158 kilograms ( 175 to 350 pound ) . The great curving horns, which

may take more than one bend, attain a length of up to 127 centimeter ( up to 50 in ) . The

Ewes have smaller horns, rarely transcending 38 centimeter ( 15 in ) . The coat is non woolly

but long, full, and coarse, like that of a caprine animal. The animate beings have a short coupling

season, during which the random-access memory clash head-on in a conflict for the Ewe ; for the

remainder of the twelvemonth the sheep normally divide into separate male and female herds.

The Bighorns leap from shelf to ledge at great velocity and clasp slippery surfaces

with the shock-absorbing elastic tablets of the pess. The animate beings have

exceptionally acute senses of sight, odor, and hearing. Two other assortments

found in northwest North America are the white sheep, or Dall sheep, and the

deep grey or grey-brown Stone & # 8217 ; s sheep. The Bighorn is related to the Asiatic

Ovis ammon, the moufflon, and the domestic sheep. Scientific categorization: The

bighorn sheep belongs to the household Bovidae, in the order Artiodactyla. It is

classified as Ovis canadensis. Ground Squirrel, common name for certain

burrowing, tellurian, western American gnawers characterized by big cheek

pouches opening inside their oral cavities. Land squirrels are frequently mistakenly

called goffers. Like the true goffers, they are agricultural threats, destructing

grass and grain. Their surrogate name, ground squirrel ( Greek for “ seed

lover ” ) , is derived from their usual diet. The land squirrel resembles

both the prairie Canis familiaris and the chipmunk. Most land squirrels are chocolate-brown or

yellowish-gray, with light musca volitanss on the upper parts. Some species have

longitudinal chevrons along their dorsums. In the northern portion of their scope they

hibernate during the winter ; the continuance of hibernation varies with the

environment, and in some species hibernation may widen from September to May.

Land squirrels are found in unfastened state, frequently in waterless parts. The Great

Plains land squirrel, found west of the Rocky Mountains, is typical of most of

the ground squirrels. The rough-haired land squirrel is 28 centimeter ( 11 in ) long and has

an 8-cm ( 3-in ) bushy tail. Its dorsum is brown and its lower parts yellowish-gray ;

it has a white mentum and a white ring around each oculus. The caput is stubby, with

unit of ammunition, broad ears. The legs are short. These animate beings seek their nutrient near to

their tunnels. They mate after they emerge from hibernation in the spring ; the

female bears 5 to 13 offspring at a clip. The 13-striped ground squirrel, found near

the Mississippi River, has 7 grayish-yellow chevrons running down its dorsum,

interspersed with 6 chevrons composed of musca volitanss. Its lower parts are fawn coloured.

This carnal subsists on mice, insects, and grain. Scientific categorization:

Land squirrels belong to the household Sciuridae. The Great Plains land

squirrel is classified as Spermophilus elegans, the 13-striped land squirrel

as Spermophilus tridecemlineatus. Further Reading Mule Deer, common name for a

big cervid of the western and cardinal United States, so called because of its

highly big ears, which step about 25 centimeter ( about 10 in ) in length. This

animate being attains a tallness of 107 centimeter ( 42 in ) at the shoulder. The name black-tailed

cervid is sometimes applied to a races of the mule cervid populating the Rocky

Mountains. The tail of this cervid along the basal two-thirds is white above and

dark below ; the terminal tierce is black. Scientific categorization: The mule

cervid belongs to the household Cervidae. It is classified as Odocoileus hemionus.

Rocky Mountain Goat, besides mountain caprine animal, common name of a species of antelope

that inhabits the high mountains from the northwesterly United States to Alaska.

Mountain caprine animals live in parts of heavy snowfall and tend to populate vicinities

with many crags and drops. They are first-class climbers, and their hooves, which

hold soft tablets rimmed with crisp borders, enable them to mount and run on snow,

ice, or bare stone. The Rocky Mountain caprine animal is 90 to 120 centimeter ( 36 to 47 in ) tall at

the shoulders. The organic structure is hardy and the legs are short and stout. Both sexes

hold black horns, which contrast with the yellow-white, bushy hair covering

the full organic structure, and a beardlike tussock of hair underneath the mentum. Rocky

Mountain caprine animals are herbivorous ruminants, feeding on any exposed flora they

discovery. They are non gregarious, except during the coupling season between November

and early January. The immature are born by and large between May and June. Scientific

categorization: The Rocky Mountain caprine animal belongs to the household Bovidae. It is

classified as Oreamnos americanus. Wolf, carnivore related to the Canis aureus and

domestic Canis familiaris. Powerful dentitions, bushy dress suits, and unit of ammunition students characterize all

wolves. Certain features of the skull separate them from domestic

Canis familiariss, some strains of which they otherwise resemble. There are two species of

wolves: the grey, or lumber, wolf, one time widely distributed but now found merely in

Canada, Alaska, and northern Europe and Russia, except for a few stray battalions

in other parts ; and the ruddy wolf, found merely in Texas and the southeasterly

United States. An grownup grey wolf measures up to 2 m ( 6.5 foot ) in length,

including the tail ( less than half the organic structure length ) , and weighs up to 80 kilograms ( 175

pound ) . The pelt of the grey wolf is red-yellow or yellow-grey with black spots on

its dorsum and sides, and white on its thorax and venters. There are besides black or

brown grey wolves, and those in the far north may be pure white. The ruddy wolf is

smaller in size and normally darker in colour. Wolfs are every bit at place on

prairies, in forest lands, and on all but the highest mountains. In the winter

they travel in battalions seeking for nutrient. Small animate beings and birds are the common

quarry of wolves, but a battalion sometimes attacks caribou, reindeer, sheep, and other

big mammals, normally choosing weak, old, or really immature animate beings for easier

gaining control. When no unrecorded quarry can be found, wolves feed on carrion ( disintegrating flesh

of dead animate beings ) . They besides eat berries. The lair, or den, of a wolf may be a

cave, a hollow tree bole, a brush, or a hole in the land dug by the wolf.

In the spring, females have litters of one to eleven whelps. Adult wolves

sometimes feed immature whelps by regurgitating partially digested nutrient for them. The

whelps usually stay with the parents until the undermentioned winter but may stay

much longer. Parents and immature constitute a basic battalion, which establishes and

defends a district marked by urine and fecal matters. Larger battalions may besides piece,

peculiarly in the winter. The battalion leader is called the alpha male and his

mate is the alpha female. As societal animate beings, wolves exhibit behavioural forms

that clearly communicate laterality over or entry to one another. The

communal ululation of a battalion may function to piece its members, communicate with

other battalions, publicize its territorial claims, or it may be merely a manner of

showing pleasance. Ocular and scent signals are besides of import in

communicating. Although grey wolves are still abundant across northern Europe

and Asia, merely remnant populations exist elsewhere in Europe. Their Numberss in

North America besides have been greatly diminished. They are reasonably abundant merely

in Alaska and Canada ; smaller Numberss exist in the Pacific Northwest and upper

Midwest, chiefly in Minnesota. Under the Endangered Species Act, the United

States Fish and Wildlife Service ( USFWS ) as threatened in Minnesota and as an

endangered species elsewhere in the United States except Alaska list the grey

wolf. The ruddy wolf, besides listed as endangered species, was the first species for

which the USFWS developed a recovery program. The diminishing Numberss of wolves are

the consequence of invasions on their district by worlds, who have long regarded

wolves as rivals for quarry and every bit unsafe to livestock, pets, and people.

However, few if any healthy wolves have attacked worlds, whom they alternatively seek

to avoid. Wolfs are valuable marauders in the nutrient web, and their decimation

has led to the overpopulation of certain other carnal species in assorted countries.

Active attempts to re-introduce wolves to national Parkss in the United States are

now underway, although such attempts are controversial. Because prairie wolfs have

hybridized with some ruddy wolves, an effort to re-introduce ruddy wolves to parts

of North Carolina has involved placing ruddy wolves that are non portion prairie wolf.

The success of this undertaking is non yet clear. In 1995 and 1996 the USFWS

reintroduced Canadian grey wolves into Yellowstone National Park and the

Sawtooth Mountain part in cardinal Idaho, despite protests from nearby ranchers

and some life scientists. The reintroduced wolves are bring forthing more offspring than

expected. When 10 genteelness braces reside in these parts for three old ages, the

grey wolf will be taken off the list of endangered species in the northern Rocky

Mountains. Wolf biologists estimate that this end may be met by the twelvemonth 2002

without transfering extra wolves from Canada. By 1997 these

reintroduction attempts were wining beyond outlooks of wolf life scientists.

Scientific categorization: The wolf belongs to the household Canidae. The grey, or

lumber, wolf is classified as Canis lupus. The ruddy wolf is classified as Canis



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