Robotics And Automation Essay Research Paper Robotics

Roboticss And Automation Essay, Research PaperRoboticss and Automation A good manner to specify Robotics is a field in which automatons, orautomated machines, are devised and created to execute a varietyof undertakings.

These undertakings can run from weapons-grade cleaningservices, to policing a atomic power works. There are manyaspects involved in making a automaton. A great trade of natural philosophies, technology, electronics, every bit good as general building techniquesmust be known before trying to construct a automaton.

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Robots cancome in two different types: there is the drone type which iscontrolled by worlds, and there is the unnaturally intelligent type, which runs from its ain scheduling. There is a great sum of natural philosophies involved in robotics. Forexample, natural philosophy is to a great extent involved when seeking to make a robotto walk on the Moon. A automaton has to be specially designed to beable to work in that sort of environment. Physics helps peoplefigure out what allowances need to be made for such things as thedifference in gravitation, the fact that infinite is a vacuity, the fact thatthe automaton might fall over without any worlds around to pick itback up, how the automaton is traveling to bring forth power, every bit good as howthe automaton is traveling to be constructed so it can steer freely inthat environment. Besides, small things such as where the legs andarms should travel, and how the weight should be distributed alsoneed to be figured out, with natural philosophies.

Another field which goes manus in manus with robotics is thefield of unreal intelligence. Artificial intelligence ( or AI ) dealswith doing computing machines believe, and do determinations on their ain. When coupled with robotics, an unnaturally intelligent automaton put onthe Moon would be able to walk around, and collect informationwhich it feels is of import for us worlds to hold. Another illustration would be an unnaturally intelligent hatchet man automaton, which could roll about, detect interlopers, make adecision as to how unsafe they are, and take attention of thesituation. However, most of this is a long manner off, asdemonstrated by what is known as the Turning Test. In 1950, Alan Turning made up a trial to find machineintelligence. The Turning Test goes like this: a humaninterrogator is in one room, and a computing machine and another human arein another.

Each room has a terminus in it, through which theinterrogator will discourse with both the computing machine and the otherhuman, one at a clip. If the inquisitor can non state which one heis speaking to, so the computing machine is considered intelligent. In 1991, Hugh Loebner created the Loebner Prize. This competition allowedpeople to come in their intelligent plans, which woulddemonstrate their intelligence through conversations. The Loebnerprize would give $ 100,000 to the victor, nevertheless to this twenty-four hours noone has won it. As mentioned before, moon-walking atomic power plantroaming, and the hatchet man automaton are all practical applications ofrobotics. However, there truly are no boundaries to what robotswill be able to make. One illustration of a automaton which exists now is theDante II, a tethered walking automaton, which explored the Mt.

Spurrvolcano in July 1994. Dante II is able to fall down sheercrater walls in a rappelling-like mode, and his intent is togather and analyze high temperature gasses from the crater floor. In general, the intent of the Dante II plan is to demonstrateRobotic geographic expedition of utmost terrains and environments. Another undertaking whose end is to research terrain is theAutonomous Helicopter Project. However, unlike the walkingDante II, this automaton is a vision-guided automaton chopper which canautonomously carry out ( certain ) missions in any weatherconditions and utilizing merely on-board intelligence and computerpower. These missions include automatically taking off, winging toa designated country while avoiding obstructions, seeking and locatingobjects of involvement, visually lock on to objects and prosecute them, directing back images to a land station, and safely returninghome and set downing. This automaton is in the conceptual phase nevertheless, but the undertakings deductions are enormous.

The Godhead of thisproject, the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon, have veryinteresting thoughts as to how this automaton can be used: hunt andrescue, surveillance, jurisprudence enforcement, review, aerial function, and even filming. Today, we have automatons which do a assortment of things for us. This includes infinite geographic expedition, atomic works patrolling and wastedetection, every bit good as cleansing, and mining automatons.

The future ofrobotics looks really bright, with self-navigating vehicles ( independent autos ) , replacing limbs, every bit good as unreal visionand hearing systems. As it was seen in the films Six MillionDollar Man and the Bionic Woman these bionic replacementsmight really become world. You may inquire why the general way of robotics hasalways been known to an extent, when there are so manyindependent research undertakings traveling on, each concentrating on differentthings.

The reply to this inquiry can be found easy bywatching films. For about 70 old ages, film managers havepredicted where the field of robotics was headed. The generalthing that happens is that in the films, automatons are shown making acertain undertakings, and so subsequently one person really develops a robotto do that undertaking. In the 1927 film, Metropolis, a automaton was designed to domanual labour. Today, we have industrial automatons, constructing our autos, painting our chairs, and cutting our cloths.

In the film Forbidden Planet ( 1956 ) , Robbie the Robot is used as a personalworkman and retainer. We don Ts have these yet, but as mentionedbefore, we have the automatons in the atomic power workss, every bit good ascleaning automatons, which acts as the same thing. In the 3rd film, 2001: A Space Odyssey ( 1968 ) , Hal was a automaton in charge of aspaceship. Today, we have those infinite geographic expedition automatons. In thefourth film, Logan s Run ( 1976 ) , there is a computercontrolling an full metropolis and all of its maps.

As mentionednumerous times earlier, we have atomic power works robotsrunning the workss during off hours. In the 5th film, TheEmpire Strikes Back ( 1980 ) , shows the two automatons R2D2 andC3PO making a assortment of undertakings non suited for worlds. Once once more, this can be related to the atomic power works automatons and miningrobots, some of which really do resemble R2D2. In the finalexample, Aliens ( 1986 ) , there was a perfect ringer done of ahuman. This hasn t been done yet, nevertheless someplace down theline ( likely within 100 old ages ) this may be a possibility. What will go on in the approaching old ages for robotics? Noone truly knows, nevertheless it has been noted that Bill Gates has nointention of suppressing this industry. If he does, the hereafter ofrobotics is really inexorable, with really small invention, long delaysbetween new theoretical accounts, and finally, he may piece apersonal ground forces of automatons to take over the universe, which woulddefinitely non be good.

However, since he is non traveling to make that, the hereafter of robotics is really promising. Numerous thing havebeen mentioned of what I envision go oning in the hereafter buthere is a drumhead: self-driving autos, personal automatons, enforcerrobots, soldier automatons to contend our wars, chopper automatons, toyrobots ( similar to what we have now ) , replacing limbs, eyes, ears, which get more into the mechanical side of robotics. Whatever the instance it will be interesting to watch this evolutioncontinue to turn. Automation can be defined as a system of manufacturedesigned to widen the capacity of machines to execute certaintasks once done by worlds, and to command sequences ofoperations without human intercession. Automation has alsobeen used to depict nonmanufacturing systems in whichprogrammed or automatic devices can run independently ornearly independently of human control.

In the Fieldss ofcommunications, air power, aeronauticss, for illustration, such devicesas automatic telephone exchanging equipment, automatic pilots, andautomated counsel and control systems are used to performvarious operations much faster or better than worlds couldaccomplish. Elementss of Automation Automated industry arose out of the stopping point relationship ofsuch economic forces and proficient inventions as the division oflabor, power transportation and mechanisation of the mill, and thedevelopment of transportation machines and feedback systems. The division of labour was formed in the latter half of the 18thcentury. The simplification of work that was made from theformation made it possible to plan and construct machines thatduplicated the gestures of the worker.

As the engineering of powertransfer evolved, these specialized machines were motorized andtheir production efficiency was improved. The development ofpower engineering besides gave rise to the mill system ofproduction, because all workers and machines had to be locatednear the power beginning. The transportation machine is a device used to travel a workpiecefrom one specialized machine tool to another, in such a mode asto properly place the workpiece for the following machine operation.

Industrial automatons originally designed merely to execute simple tasksin environments unsafe to human workers, are now extremelyskillful and are being used to reassign, manage, and place bothlight and heavy workpieces, therefore executing all the maps of atransfer machine. In existent pattern, a figure of separatemachines are integrated into what may be thought of as one largemachine. In the 1920s the car industry combined these constructs intoan incorporate system of production. The end of this assembly-linesystem was to do cars available to people whopreviously could non afford them. This method of production wasadopted by most car makers and quickly becameknown as Detroit mechanization. Despite recent progresss, it is thissystem of production that most people think of as automation.The Feedback Principle The feedback rule is indispensable to all automatic-controlmechanisms, which enables a designer to endow a machine withthe capacity for self-correction. A feedback loop is a mechanical,pneumatic, or electronic device that senses or measures a physicalquantity such as position, temperature, size, or speed, compares itwith a preestablished standard, and takes whateverpreprogrammed action is necessary to maintain the measuredquantity within the limits of the acceptable standard.

In manufacturing and production, feedback loops require thatacceptable limits or tolerances be established for the process to beperformed; that these physical characteristics be measured andcompared with the set of limits; and, finally, that the feedbacksystem be capable of correcting the process so that the measureditems comply with the standard. Through feedback devices,machines can start, stop, speed up, slow down, count, inspect, test,compare, and measure. These operations are commonly applied toa wide variety of production operations that can include milling,boring, bottling, and refining. Computer Use The invention of the computer has simplified the use offeedback loops in manufacturing processes. Computers andfeedback loops have promoted the development of numericallycontrolled machines and machining centers. More recently, the introduction of microprocessors andcomputer combinations have made possible the development ofcomputer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturetechnology.

When using these systems a designer draws a part andindicates its dimensions with the aid of a special light pen on atelevisionlike cathode-ray tube computer display screen. After thesketch has been completed to the satisfaction of the designer, thecomputer automatically generates a magnetic or punched tape thatdirects a machining center in machining the part. Another development that has further increase the use ofautomation is that of flexible manufacturing systems. FMSextends automation to companies in which small production runsdo not make full automation economically possible. A computeris used to monitor and govern the entire operation of the factory,from scheduling each step of production to keeping track of partsinventories and tool use. Automation has also had an influence on areas of theeconomy other than manufacturing.

Small computers are used insystems called word processors, which are rapidly becoming astandard part of the modern office. This technology combines asmall computer with a cathode-ray display screen, a typewriterkeyboard, and a printer. It is used to edit texts, to type form letterstailored to the recipient and to manipulate mailing lists and otherdata. The system is capable of performing many other tasks thatincrease office productivity.

Automation in Industry Many industries are highly automated or use automationtechnology in some part of their operation. In communicationsand especially in the telephone industry, dialing, transmission, andbilling are all done automatically. Railroads too are controlled byautomatic signaling devices, which have sensors that detect carspassing a particular point. In this way the movement and locationof trains can be monitored. Not all industries require the same degree of automation. Agriculture, sales, and some service industries are difficult toautomate. The agriculture industry may become more mechanized,especially in the processing and packaging of foods; however, inmany service industries such as supermarkets, for example, acheckout counter may be automated and the shelves or supply binsmust still be stocked by hand.

Similarly, doctors may consult acomputer to assist in diagnosis, but they must make the final decision and prescribe therapy. The concept of automation is evolving rapidly, partlybecause the applications of automation techniques vary bothwithin a plant or industry and also between industries. The oil andchemical industries, for example, have developed thecontinuous-flow method of production, owing to the nature of theraw materials used. In a refinery, crude oil enters at one point andflows continuously through pipes in cracking, distillation, andreaction devices as it is being processed into such products asgasoline and fuel oil. An array of automatic-control devicesgoverned by microprocessors and coordinated by a centralcomputer is used to control valves, heaters, and other equipment,thereby regulating both the flow and reaction rates. In the steel, beverage, and canned food industries, on theother hand, some of the products are produced in batches. Forexample, a steel furnace is charged (loaded with the ingredients),brought up to heat, and a batch of steel ingots produced.

In thisphase very little automation is evident. These ingots, however,may then be processed automatically into sheet or structuralshapes by being squeezed through a series of rollers until thedesired shape is achieved. The automobile and other consumer product industries usethe mass production techniques of step-by-step manufacture andassembly. This technique approximates the continuous-flowconcept but involves transfer machines; thus, from the point ofview of the auto industry, transfer machines are essential to thedefinition of automation. Each of these industries uses automated machines in all orpart of its manufacturing processes.

As a result, each industry hasa concept of automation that fits its particular production needs.More examples can be found in almost every phase of commerce.The widespread use of automation and its influence on daily lifeprovides the basis for the concern expressed by many about theinfluence of automation on society and the individual. Automation and Society Automation has made a major contribution toward increasesin both free time and real wages enjoyed by most workers inindustrialized nations. Automation has greatly increased production and lowered costs, thereby making automobiles,refrigerators, televisions, telephones, and other goods available tomore people. It has allowed production and wages to increase, andat the same time the work week has decreased in most Westerncountries from 60 to 40 hours.

Employment Not all the results of automation have been positive,however. Some commentators argue that automation has causedoverproduction and waste, that it has created alienation amongworkers, and that it generates unemployment. Of these issues, therelationship between automation and unemployment has receivedthe most attention. Employers and some economists argue thatautomation has little if any effect on unemployment-that workersare displaced rather than dismissed and are usually employed inanother position within the same company or in the same positionat another company that has not automated. Some claim that automation generates more jobs than itdisplaces.

They point out that although some laborers may becomeunemployed, the industry producing the automated machinerygenerates more jobs than were eliminated. The computer industryis often cited to illustrate this claim. Business executives wouldagree that although the computer has replaced many workers, theindustry itself has generated more jobs in the manufacturing,sales, and maintenance of computers than the device haseliminated. On the other hand, some labor leaders and economists arguethat automation causes unemployment and, if left unchecked, willbreed a vast army of unemployed that could disrupt the entireeconomy.

They contend that growth in government-generated jobsand in service industries has absorbed those who becameunemployed due to automation, and that as soon as these areasbecome saturated or the programs reduced, the true relationshipbetween automation and unemployment will become known.Automation and the Individual The effect of automation on the individual has been moredrastic. The worker is either displaced or unemployed. Workerswho remain must operate or maintain technologically advancedmachines, and they may also be required to monitor more of theplant operation and to make on-the-spot decisions. Thus, theeducation and experience levels of these workers are considerablyabove those of the workers who were displaced. Many researchers have described the effect that Detroitautomation has on the individual worker as one of alienation.

Excessive absenteeism, poor workmanship, and problems ofalcoholism, drug addiction, and sabotage of the production linesare well-documented symptoms of this alienation. Many studieshave been made since the 1930s, and all conclude that much of thealienation is due to the workers’ feelings of being controlled bythe machine (because workers must keep pace with the assemblyline), boredom caused by repetitious work, and the unchallengingnature of work that requires only a minimum of skill. The number of workers in more automated industries,especially those using continuous flow processes, tends to besmall, and the capital investment in equipment per worker is high.The most dramatic difference between these industries and thoseusing Detroit automation is the reduction in the number ofsemiskilled workers. It would appear then that automation haslittle use for unskilled or semiskilled workers, their skills being themost easily replaced by automated devices. The labor force neededin an automated plant consists primarily of such skilled workers asmaintenance engineers, electricians, and toolmakers, all of whomare necessary to keep the automated machinery in good operatingorder. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Angeles, Jorge.

Fundamentals of Robotic Mechanical Systems: Theory, Methods, and Algorithms (Mechanical Engineering Series). New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. 2.

Leonard, Andrew (1998). Bots: The Origin Of New Species. Chicago: Salem Press Inc. 3.

Grover, M. and Grover, M. (1987). Automation, Production Systems, and Computer Integrated Manufacturing. New Jersey: Summit Books, Inc.

4. Kortenkamp, David (1998). Artificial Intelligence and Mobile Robots: Case Studies of Successful Robot Systems. Rhode Island: Savanti Inc.


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