Reappraisals: Railway Books Essay, Research Paper
Steamed up Locomotives of the LNWR Southern Division Harry Jack 300pp, RCTS The Railway King: A Biography of George Hudson, Railway Pioneer and Fraudster Robert Beaumont 274pp, Review Brunel: The Life and Times of Isambard Kingdom Brunel Angus Buchanan 294pp, Hambledon & A ; London Harry Jack & # 8217 ; s brother, Ian, the editor of Granta, is a railroad partisan who has wondered if his passion for railroads and steam engines is a healthy one. Ian Jack hides transcripts of railroad magazines inside of import literary reappraisals, he says, when going by train, in instance he is taken for a wacko or deviant. I know precisely how he feels. Admit to a love of railroads in knowing, dry, privatise-or-bust, celebrity-obsessed Britain, and you might every bit good strap yourself into a straitjacket and delay for the reaching of the work forces in white coats. And yet, for all the media & # 8217 ; s superciliousness, there are 1000000s of railroad partisans ( a few, believe it or non, still work for the railroads themselves ) and any figure of people for whom a steam engine, simple or compound, Single or Consolidation, superheated or distilling, Stirling or Churchward ( wear & # 8217 ; t inquire me to explicate ) , is a thing of sulfurous beauty, a mechanical joy for of all time. Harry Jack & # 8217 ; s meticulously researched book & # 8211 ; at least 30 old ages in the devising & # 8211 ; goes some manner to show that an apprehension of railroad history is one absolutely utile and frequently bewitching manner of interpretation and doing sense of our yesteryear. There was, of class, ne’er anything dry or dust-covered in the sight or sound of a & # 8220 ; Bloomer & # 8221 ; or a & # 8220 ; Crampton & # 8221 ; thundering along the universe & # 8217 ; s first bole line from London to Birmingham, with coachloads of crinolined ladies and top-hatted gentlemen taking portion in an escapade that would embrace the Earth and alteration it for of all time. Jack & # 8217 ; s narrative is that of the creative activity, calling and running of the universe & # 8217 ; s first long-distance mainline engines. It is a narrative of professional competitions, of technology reputes won and sometimes below the belt forgotten, of cylinder diameters, boiler force per unit area scenes and smoky escapade. It is a sober history written for railroad historiographers and partisans, who will however acquire a echt bombilation from watching this early and frequently bewilderingly documented railroad history come into crisp focal point. They will besides bask the rainy-day lists, diagrams, technology drawings and Victorian exposure. The importance of the London and Birmingham Railway ( L & A ; B ) , opened in 1838, can barely be exaggerated. It connected the capital non merely to the & # 8220 ; workshop of the universe & # 8221 ; , but beyond its ain boundaries, via the Grand Junction Railway, to the & # 8220 ; Cottonopolis & # 8221 ; of Manchester and the great port of Liverpool. Engineered by the Stephensons, it was intended chiefly for express rider traffic. The first public train was pulled up by rope from Euston to Camden at 8.10am on September 17 1838. Off from Camden at 8.25, the 20-coach train with its 200 passen gers arrived in Birmingham Moor Street to great cheers and a lineside & # 8220 ; rural banquet & # 8221 ; at 1.58pm after Michigans at Watford, Tring, Wolverton, Roade, Weedon, Rugby and Coventry. The journey clip of the fastest trains was down to four hours for the 113 stat mis between Euston and Moor Street in 1844, and under three the undermentioned twelvemonth. Early trains were non about every bit slow as most people imagine. The hardy 2-2-0 designs of Edward Bury ( 1794-1858 ) , first director of the L & A ; B & # 8217 ; s locomotor section, could run safely at 50mph. Just before the line opened, the Duke of Wellington treated Marshal Soult, a former antagonist in the battleground and now the Gallic embassador, to a run up to Liverpool from Birmingham on the Grand Junction Railway: every bit thrilling as any Peninsular or Napoleonic horse charge, the train maintained a velocity of 64mph for 10 faster-than-fairies, faster-than-witches proceedingss. No admiration that the great rushing path of the L & A ; B was described as & # 8220 ; unimpeachably the greatest public work of all time executed, either in antediluvian or in modern times & # 8221 ; . Edward Bury, a Georgian in an early-Victorian universe, erred on the side of cautiousness and dependability in the design of his stubby L & A ; B locomotives. He suffered much from the intrigues of his technology challengers, the canny Stephensons, and resigned, exhausted, from the L & A ; B when merely 54. Because his was non the rags-to-riches narrative beloved by Samuel Smiles of Self Help celebrity, he has been all but written out of history ; Jack has merrily reinstated him. Bury & # 8217 ; s is non the lone shade revived in this great escapade. Others include those of the dashing ( and somewhat haphazard ) Irish-born James Edward McConnell ( 1815-83 ) , Bury & # 8217 ; s replacement. McConnell designed the & # 8220 ; Bloomers & # 8221 ; . These were non extremely engineered Victorian ladies & # 8217 ; unmentionables, but high-stepped and graceful engines that took to the tracks in 1851. They got their name from the sudden manner for pantss, named after Mrs Amelia Bloomer, the American women’s rightist who inv
ented the eye-popping garment in the year of the Great Exhibition. McConnell was forced to resign when the locomotive works at Crewe in Cheshire took precedence over the L&B’s Wolverton works, Buckinghamshire, under the direction of his rival, John Ramsbottom. Heavy British manufacturing was, from this moment, increasingly concentrated in the north. Since then, Wolverton, the first railway town, has all but shrugged off its Victorian ancestry. Locomotive production ceased here as early as 1863. The last remnant of the original workshop went in 1991. Today the site is a Tesco car park. For book-lovers, however, the great virtue of Crewe taking control under Ramsbottom, and effectively bringing Jack’s narrative to the buffer-stops, is that LNWR locomotives, unlike those of the L&B, bore a litany of lovely names: Chimera, Sybil, Onyx, Prometheus, Cygnet, Scorpion, Mazeppa . . . If you really think that travelling from London to Birmingham by road today is truly more civilised than steaming along behind a “Bloomer”, the men in white coats should be after you. The passion for rail, however, was originally rooted in riches rather than locomotives. The newly laid railways, as Robert Beaumont’s fond romp through the rise and fall of George Hudson (1800-71), The Railway King , reminds us, were seen as iron roads to instant fortunes. A Yorkshire farmer’s son, Hudson worked as a draper before inheriting a fortune of ?30,000 in slightly suspicious circumstances at the age of 27. He took to the railways like a Bloomer to the track and by 1848 was a millionaire, a Tory MP and the controller of a third of Britain’s embryonic rail network. His interest in railways bought him a palatial Italianate house in Kensington and a baroque estate in east Yorkshire. Feted by London society, tugging at his appropriately massive coat-sleeves – he was a big man in every way – Hudson was also a figure of fun because of his coarse manners and his wife’s notorious malapropisms. When the railway bubble exploded and Hudson’s accounting methods proved to be more than a little wayward, he was tipped from his throne. He served time in a debtors’ prison before going to live, a broken man, in cheap French guesthouses. The Bob Maxwell of his day as far as the Victorian press was concerned, Hudson was lambasted by any number of eminent commentators. Carlyle described him as “this big swollen gambler . . . who, in his insatiable greed and bottomless atrocity, had led multitudes to go in the ways of gilded human baseness, seeking temporary profit where only eternal loss was possible”. Lord Macaulay, the Whig historian, likened Hudson to “Mammon and Belial rolled into one”. As for Dickens, the novelist found “a burning disgust arising in my mind – a sort of morbid canker of the most frightful description – against Mister Hudson”. And yet, as Beaumont insists, Hudson was a philanthropist of sorts, as well as the man who got the railways up and running with an energy and optimism denied us in the age of Railtrack. If Hudson’s enthusiasm for building railway was exaggerated, then what should we make of the grandiloquently named Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806-59)? Angus Buchanan’s thorough, intelligent life of this prodigious Victorian engineer is a worthy successor to Tom Rolt’s standard biography of 1957. The image of Hudson that has come down over the years is the grand portrait painted in oils by the society artist, Sir Francis Grant. Our image of Brunel could hardly be more different: it is the famous photograph – with battered stovepipe hat, hands thrust into waistcoat pockets, broad mouth clamped on a big cigar – taken by Robert Howlett in front of the iron chains restraining the engineer’s mighty steamship, Great Eastern, before her launch on the Thames in 1858. Where Hudson’s passion for the railway age was driven by money, Brunel’s heroic engineering enterprises were inspired by a passion for making new things work. A small man, he thought and built on a massive scale. He engineered the Great Western Railway from Paddington to Temple Meads with grandeur and elan. None of Hudson’s miserly four-foot way for Brunel: his tracks were set seven feet (and a quarter of an inch) apart, allowing Daniel Gooch’s magnificent new locomotives to run comfortably at great speed. With Brunel, the railway became a work of engineering art rather than purely a mechanical means of transporting goods and people. He was, says Buchanan, “a driven man” who did more than most to change the way we live. To understand the contribution of a Hudson or Brunel, a Bury, McConnell or Stephenson, or simply to appreciate the revolutionary and compelling things they created, is to seek to understand the way the modern world steamed into all our lives. And to see that when the hunger for pure profit overtakes even such impassioned engineering marvels as Flying Scotsman and Mallard, our railways, like George Hudson, are very likely to hit the buffers.