Research And Development Institutions In China Economics Essay
As the biggest developing state, China has attracted a great many transnational companies. In recent old ages, as China ‘s sustained economic growing, transnational companies increase optimistic about China ‘s huge market, combined with its rich human resources of high quality research and development of multinational corporations and authorities discriminatory policies, more and more transnational companies extended their concern in China.
Canada ‘s Northern Telecom is the China ‘s first transnational companies to set up R & A ; D Center – Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications in 1994 in north. In 1998, Microsoft has invested 80 million U.S. dollars in Beijing to set up Microsoft Research China ; INTEL put 50 million U.S.
dollars in the building of Intel China Research centre ; Lucent Asia Pacific Research was established in Beijing central office. So far, 400 of top 500 multinationals have investings in China with more than 2,000 undertakings have been established and more than 100 R & A ; D centres chiefly in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen.These R & A ; D establishments in China, both in scientific discipline and basic research, applied besides transfer experiments combined R & A ; D consequences, involved in computing machines, communications, package, machinery, car, chemical, pharmaceutical and many other Fieldss. From the undermentioned figure, we can happen the transnational company ‘s effects in China ‘s engineering trade. ( this topographic point you should add a really of import signifier or confabs based on the undermentioned information ) figure 1-12 of 2003 import and export of hi-tech merchandises are chiefly classified by the nature of concernBusinessType MonthOfImports Month-on-MonthGrowth TotalImports YearCumulativeAmount TotalAmountOfAccounting ExportMonth Month-on-MonthGrowth TotalExports YearCumulativeAmount TotalAmountOfAccountingState-owned endeavors 25.
1 2.6 267.7 9.
6 22.4 11.7 28.1 114.8 11.
3 10.4Foreign-funded endeavors 94.9 66.5 861.8 56.3 72.
2 116.2 84.7 924.7 69.
3 85.5Concerted endeavors 2.4 58.1 21.
8 28.1 1.8 2.3 13.2 23.5 18.
2 2.1Joint venture 23.5 45.8 216.3 28.6 18.1 29.9 63.
0 235.8 45.6 21.4Owned endeavors 69.
0 75.3 623.7 70.3 52.
3 83.9 97.6 683.4 82.3 61.9Corporate endeavors 1.5 46.
9 17.3 35.7 1.5 2.1 30.
6 20.4 61.4 1.8Private 4.
3 82.6 45.1 173.
2 3.8 2.8 232.8 25.3 321.8 2.3Other enterprises 0.
1 139.6 1.1 i??65.5 0.1 0.01 i??31.3 0.
1 i??44.7 0.01( Chinese Customs information )Fist, allow us look at the features of scientific and technological activities of multinational corporations in China.First, their R & A ; D engineering activities develop aggressively. As the “ World Investment Report 2001 ” said, 400 of the planetary top 500 multinationals have invested in China, set up more than 100 R & A ; D centres, of which about 40 have a reasonably big graduated table, chiefly in computing machines, communications, electronics, chemical, automotive and pharmaceutical industries, in add-on to a greater figure of client service centre. Investors include DuPont, Microsoft, Motorola, General Motors and Germany ‘s Siemens, the world-known big companies.Second, there are many new alterations in engineering scheme. Multinational companies investing is come ining the Chinese market in analogue with, and adopted a really prudent scheme.
The usual attack is: foremost the constitution of endeavors ( little graduated table ) , due to the transportation of the invested endeavor application engineering of production ; and so bit by bit expand the production graduated table and increase production of new merchandises, the corresponding addition engineering investing, and go on to set dynamic engineering. Finally, investing in China reached a certain graduated table in China, a considerable portion of the market portion, began to set up R & A ; amp ; D centre in China non merely to run into the planetary market for basic research.After China ‘s accession to the World Trade Organization, “ push ” engineering transportation becomes “ pull ” engineering input.
Multinational endeavors in China established more and more its engineering into China company. In add-on, they are from a simple transportation of engineering research and development to alterations in concern scheme. At present the constitution of foreign R & A ; D centres in China has reached more than 400, many of them place with a considerable graduated table.Third, Technical inputs and back uping the development combine. In one manner, Peoples have realized that transnational corporations puting in China to a certain degree, a more normally used method yes and universities and other research establishments to transport out assorted R & A ; D proficient cooperation, the research cost by multinational corporations, universities and other research establishments to carry on research. In another manner, Multinational companies in China give the proficient support to domestic endeavors, through OEM, ODM manner, and do non over-invested endeavors and domestic endeavors but to happen a provider for some domestic endeavors in engineering support.As international corporations develop so rapidly in China, it does convey some effects.
For one thing, transnational R & A ; D globalisation, localisation of the cardinal purpose is to accomplish its upper limit planetary benefits. Therefore, the nature of transnational R & A ; D globalisation, transnational corporations can non make up one’s mind to reassign its most advanced engineering in China, or even take all the limitations that impede the transportation of engineering to Chinaaˆ‚First, TNCs more engagement in China engineering development countries lead China in technological advancement and invention produce attachment therefore lose independent growing some basic conditions. TNCs independent RD constitution, can foster heighten TNCs proficient degree, widen China and developed technological spread. Second, TNCs proficient monopoly further strengthenTechnology advantage is corporation operates sustains therefore TNCs frequently latest engineering transportation to their subdivisions, while put the older engineering transportation to local company or joint venture. Previously venture through Chinese employees simulation besides can larn to foreign certain advanced technologyaˆ‚ But with independent RD establishments constitution and ain IPR stronger protection, this engineering diffusion channels on foreclosed the, mostly cut downing TNCs advanced engineering spillovers limits our advanced engineering obtain.
Third, Multinational companies to take the engineering lock scheme will keep China ‘s engineering invention. China ‘s car industry is a graphic illustration. Established in the early 80s Shanghai Volkswagen, Santana ‘s localisation rate will be above 95 % grade, The ground is that the localisation rhythm ever lags behind the public merchandise replacing rhythm, Santana Ordinary localisation rate merely over 90 % the populace has launched a Santana 2000, and domestic Begin once more ; when the new localisation rate of 85 % , the populace has introduced a new coevals of theoretical accounts, so trapped in the debut, localisation, backward, and so imported, so the localisation, and so the barbarous circle of backwardness state of affairs.For another, to some extent, Multinational R & A ; amp ; D establishments set up for our industry create the conditions for technological advancement.
First and first, By working with our universities, research establishments and endeavors in cooperation with RD activities, transnational corporations will convey the universe ‘s latest engineering and advanced cognition direction, invention direction methods to cut down China ‘s spread with the international advanced engineering, to advance China RD administration degree. Second, Most transnational companies in China for hi-tech cutting-edge R & A ; amp ; D Research, has excellent research environment and attractive wage degrees, non merely keeping the escape of endowment, but besides to pull abroad Chinese pupils and Chinese bookmans engaged in scientific research and return to work So to some extent to maintain the Chinese people. Such as the Motorola provided the engineering in the local enlisting of staff should be trained for months to enable them to exert good invention environment grow. This will non merely maintain a figure of possible flow of foreign endowment, but besides through the preparation so that they rapidly become the proficient anchor ; the long tally, one time the domestic inducements in topographic point, there must be some endowment back, transnational corporations to make China ‘s ain high Degree of forces provided valuable chance. Third, as the distance shortened and enhanced common apprehension and cut down the proficient trouble of trade dialogues to ease Chinese endeavors to purchase the market through engineering RD transnational scientific research establishments, to cut down international engineering trade, ruddy tape, negotiate, and assorted followup, thereby greatly cut downing the cost of engineering import of domestic endeavors.
However, some scientific research workers put frontward some thought based on the advantages and disadvantages to successfully meet the challenge of the modern-day market.First, we should Strengthen planning, usher and encourage multinationals to set up R & A ; amp ; D establishments in China, particularly in non-wholly owned endeavors to set up R & A ; D establishments in ChinaSecond, we should set up a stable mechanism for R & A ; amp ; D investing through revenue enhancement inducements, the constitution of R & A ; amp ; D development fund, etc. , to promote endeavors to go inventions, better the degree of concern R & A ; amp ; D construction.
Third, set up a market economic system employment system and advance transnational R & A ; D endowment back to China within the engineering.Forth, in today ‘s universe R & A ; D investing and human resources are chiefly concentrated in Europe and the United States and Japan, which are engineering, knowledge-intensive developed states. Chinese endeavors should actively travel out, full usage of external resources, which means set uping company in these states.Fifth, merely the being of strong rivals and maintaining the market competitory can promote multinational corporations to the domestic transportation of the latest engineering, rushing up the gait of transportation of the latest engineering. In a certain engineering country authorities should present at least two transnational companies in China to avoid monopoly ; and so, we should speed up development of anti-monopoly jurisprudence, the formation of effectual anti-trust mechanisms.At last, the hi-tech development scheme must be independent invention.As China is a big developing state, from economic, political, military, defence and other security considerations, we must set up ain R & A ; D system.