Reovirus of both humans and animals. Reovirus
Reovirus or mammalian orthoreovirus is a double-strand RNAvirus that has been isolated from the gastrointestinal and respiratory tractsof both humans and animals. Reovirus infections are usually effectivelycontrolled by the immune system. However, the mechanisms by which our immunesystem controls Reovirus infection are not well understood.Reoviruses are enteric and respiratory viruses thatdisseminate within their hosts by a combination of hematogenous and neuralpathways. However, the predominant pathway the viruses use to spread systematicallywithin their hosts is through the blood. Since, every organ system in the bodyis fed by the bloodstream, it allows the viruses to traffic from its initialsite of infection to different organs where they cause the disease. Early works have shown that Reovirus infection would inducethe production of large amounts of CXCL8 by monocytes, sufficient to promotethe chemotaxis of CD56+ NK cells.
In addition, reports using tumor models,since Reovirus effectively infect tumor cells as well, have shown that naturalkiller (NK) cells recognize Reovirus attachment protein sigma1 through the NKcell-activating receptor NKp46. This finding has provided evidence for theimportance of NKp46 in the control of Reovirus infections.Furthermore, in a model of Reovirus infection of the gut, twopopulations of DCs have been identified to be involved in generating CD4+Tcellsresponse to the virus. CD8? DC and CD11b DC subsets.
This latter subset appearsto be analogous to the CD11b found in the lung and visceral LN both inphenotype and function, and they were found to be important for transportingapoptotic material from the gut epithelium to the mesenteric LN for transfer tothe resident CD8? DC. This study highlights the importance of migratorytissue-derived DC in transporting viral antigens to the draining LN fortransfer to the LN-resident DC as a generalized mechanism for amplifying theCD8+T cells immune response to Reovirus infection.