0 Overview of Renewable Energy
The term renewable energy refers to energy produced from beginnings that are invariably and of course renewable ( Allen & A ; Todd, 1995 ) . While ( Myrh, 1998 ) refers to renewable energy as any energy resource that is replaced quickly, by natural procedures. Renewable energy beginnings include natural resources like the sunshine, rain, tides, air current, and geothermic heat. It was estimated that in the twelvemonth 2006 that approximately 18 % of the planetary energy ingestion came from renewable energy from which 13 % emanated from biomass ( Global Status Report, 2007 ) .Hydroelectricity is known as the 2nd largest resource of the renewable energy which conduced 3 % of the energy ingestion and 15 % of electric coevals across the Earth in the twelvemonth 2008 ( Global Status Report, 2007 ) .
Wind power is besides a celebrated signifier of the renewable energy which has a singular growing rate of around 30 % yearly with a installed capacity of over 121,000 megawatts in the twelvemonth 2008, which has been massively used in Europe and in the United States of America ( USA ) ( Renewable Global Status Report: 2009 Pg- 9 ) . As per appraisal the one-year fabrication end product of the photovoltaic industry breached the degree of 6900 MW in the twelvemonth 2008.The photovoltaic power Stationss are rather popular in Spain and Germany because of their believable public presentation. Solar thermic power station is besides one of the celebrated Stationss which chiefly operate in USA and Spain. The largest of the solar thermic power station produces 354 MW operated in the Mojave Dessert. The Geysers is the universe largest Geothermal Power Station ( GPS ) which is located in California, with a record or rated capacity of 750 MW ( Calpine Corporation — The Geysers ” . “Retrieved fromhypertext transfer protocol: www.
geysers.com” ) . Brazil is the state who has the largest setup plan of the renewable energy ; it besides involves the production of ethyl alcohol fuel which has been produced with the aid of the sugar cane and the kernel of the ethyl alcohol provides 18 % of the state ‘s automotive fuel.Apart from the Brazil, ethyl alcohol fuel is besides richly available in USA, while most of the renewable energy undertakings and its production on the big graduated table are besides suited to the little off-grid applications which sometimes located in the rural and distant countries, wherein the constituent of the energy are so indispensable for the human development ( World Energy Assessment ( 2001 ) . Renewable energy engineerings, pg.
221 ) . Kenya is the state which has the universe ‘s highest family solar ownership rate with approximately 30,000 little ( 20-100 W ) solar power systems sold per twelvemonth ( What Solar Power Needs Now Renewable Energy Access, 13 August 2007 ) . The market of the renewable energy has been envisaged to see uninterrupted growing but the clime alteration like the high oil monetary values and mounting authorities support are driving spurring renewable energy statute law inducements and commercialisation.
1.1 Types of Renewable Energy
Some of the renewable energy engineerings that could be used in Nigeria are discussed below. One of import making applies to all these energy beginnings. Whatever the agencies of the production of useable energy, it ‘s non possible without some ingestion of other natural stuffs and some environment impact. The pattern of sustainable development is closely linked to the preservation of natural resources.
In the industrialised societies, some argue, utilize excessively many virgin resources and degrade the environment in many ways. ( Kibert, 1999 ) for illustration, suggests that the built environment uses 40 per centum of all extracted energy resources in most indusial states and 30 to 40 per centum of all generated energy. ( Kibert, 1999 ) argues that such patterns can non go on much longer without really serious effects. Indeed, energy supplied from a renewable beginning may imply a greater investing in other resources than energy supplied by fossil fuel.
Apart from the general impact of high energy monetary value the lone renewable engineerings with a important architectural impact are direct usage of both geothermic energy and solar radiation for warming intents. ( Hawkes & A ; Owers,1982 ) renewable energy engineerings that could be used in Nigeria are ;
- Biomass Energy
- Ocean Energy
- Geothermal Energy
- Wind Energy
- Solar Energy
1.2 Biomass Energy
Biomass can merely be defined as life or late dead biological stuffs that can be used as an energy beginning. It is an emergent engineering in Nigeria, particularly as there are abundant dependable beginnings of natural stuffs. Biomass as a signifier of renewable energy is by and large used for cooking in the signifier of fire wood and besides to supply heat, generate electricity or thrust CHP engines. Most Nigerian biomass energy is produced as a byproduct of lumber fabrication and is consumed as woodchip. With its high efficiency burning based on wood pellets can make coevals efficiencies of up to 92 per centum, but volumes of biomass required can be really large.
According to ( Rawlinson, 2007 ) Biomass place in the zero-carbon hierarchy is a small equivocal in that their productions, transit, burning all produce C emanations, albeit most is offset during a program ‘s growing rhythm. The key to neutrality is that the turning and burning rhythm demand to over a short period so that burning emanations are truly offset ( Table 2.1 ) . Biomass scheme is besides concerned about understating waste and usage of landfill, and the ash produced by burning can be used as fertilizer. However the continual addition of fossil fuel monetary values has swung considerations resolutely in favor of engineerings such as biomass. ( Rawlinson, 2007 ) besides noted that recent research by the C Trust has demonstrated that, with oil at ?25 a barrel, rates of return of more than 10 per centum could be achieved with both little and big warming installings ‘
1.2.1 Technology options and position of Biomass Energy
There is big assortment of natural stuffs and intervention processs which makes the usage of biomass a complex system that offers a batch of options.
Wood pellets are one of the most common signifier of biomass energy.Biomass energy transition engineerings can bring forth heat, electricity and fuels these are in the signifier of ;
In the cold climes and developing states like the UK, the development and debut of improved ranges for cookery and warming has a large impact on biomass usage.
Anaerobic digestion of biomass has been demonstrated and applied commercially with success in many state of affairss and for a assortment of provender stocks, including organic domestic waste, organic industrial waste, manure, and sludge, as show in ( plate 184.108.40.206 ) In India there is widespread biogas production from animate being such as cow droppings and other wastes, harmonizing to ( Germany ‘s Renewable Energy Agency Information Platform, 2009 ) A cow weighing 500 kg corresponds to e.
g. a gas output of maximal 1.5 three-dimensional meters per twenty-four hours. In energy footings, this equates to around one liter warming oil. Non grow able natural stuffs supply between 6,000 three-dimensional meter ( meadow grass ) and 12,000 three-dimensional meter ( silo maize/fodder Beta vulgaris ) biogas per hectare cultivable land yearly.
3 Biomass Fuel
Conversion of biomass to liquid, gaseous and solid fractions can besides be achieved by heating up to 500 grades Celsius in absence of O. Bio-diesel can be obtained from oil-rich seeds, utilizing extraction and etherification techniques.
1.2.3 Environmental and societal issues of Biomass energy
Biomass energy can be a C impersonal energy beginning, which makes it really attractive. However, eroding is a job related to the cultivation of many one-year harvests. The best-suited energy harvests are perennials, with much better land screen than nutrient harvests.
Furthermore the usage of pesticides can impact the quality of groundwater and surface H2O, which in bend impacts on workss and animate beings. The usage of plantation biomass will ensue in remotion of foods from the dirt that has to be replenished in one manner or another.Biomass plantations can besides be criticized because the scope of biological species they support is much narrower than what natural forests support. However, if plantations are established on debauched land or extra agricultural lands, the restored lands are likely to back up a more diverse ecology. Finally, the aggregation, transit and usage of biomass increases the usage of vehicles and substructures and causes emanations to the ambiance.
A broad assortment of societal issues, some related to environmental factors, are barriers to a greater usage of bio energy. ( Johansson, 2004 )
1.3 OCEAN ENERGY
Tidal energy, wave energy, and ocean thermic energy make up the types of ocean energy resources that appear most likely to travel beyond bad premises. The theoretical potency of each type of ocean energy is rather big, but dominated by ocean thermic energy. However, like other renewable energy, these energy resources are diffuse, which makes it hard to utilize the energy. The troubles are specific to each type of ocean energy, so proficient attacks and advancement differ as good. Harmonizing to bbbbb The potency of ocean thermic energy is hard to measure but is known to be much larger than for the other types of ocean energy. The estimation used here assumes that the potency for ocean thermic energy is two orders of magnitude higher than for tidal, beckon, or salt gradient energy and the usage of all the universe ‘s rivers with devices of perfect efficiency.
1.3.1 Technology options and position
The energy of the oceans is stored partially as kinetic energy from gesture of the moving ridges and currents, and partially as thermic energy from the Sun.
3.1.1 Tidal energy
The rise and autumn of the tides creates, in consequence, a low-head hydropower system.
Tidal energy has been exploited in this manner on a graduated table for centuries in the signifier of H2O Millss. Harmonizing to Neij ( 2004 ) , The one big modern version is the ( 240 MW ( vitamin E ) La Rance strategy, built in France in the 1960s, the universe largest tidal bombardment, utilizing a conventional bulb turbine. A smattering of smaller strategies have besides been built.
3.1.2 Wave energy
Wave energy remains at an experimental phase, with merely a few paradigm systems really working. Entire grid-connected moving ridge power is really little, dwelling of several hovering H2O column ( OWC ) devices. A new coevals of larger devices is under development. Besides marine currents can be used to bring forth electricity if the speed of the current is high plenty.
The assorted turbine rotor options that are developed to utilize marine current energy by and large coincide with those used for air current turbines
220.127.116.11 Ocean thermic energy
Exploiting natural temperature differences in the sea utilizing some signifier of heat engine, potentially the largest beginning of renewable energy of all, has been considered and discussed for the best portion of a century.
But the Torahs of thermodynamics demand as big a temperature difference as possible to present a technically executable and moderately economic system. Harmonizing to ( Neij 2004 ) Ocean thermic energy transition ( OTEC ) requires a temperature difference of about 20 grades Celsius, and this limits the application of this engineering to a few tropical parts with really deep H2O.
2 Environmental and societal issues
Offshore environmental impacts for marine energy engineerings tend to be minimum. Few produce pollution while in operation. An exclusion is tidal bombardments, where the creative activity of a big human-made saltwater lake behind the bombardment has the possible to impact fish and bird genteelness and eating. Another exclusion is OTEC, which may do the release of C dioxide from saltwater to the ambiance. The chief issues, nevertheless, tends to struggles with other users of the seas, for fishing, Marine traffic, and leisure activities.
None of the engineerings discussed seems likely to do mensurable injury to angle or marine mammals.
This is another outstanding beginning of renewable energy.
An appraisal of its energy potency requires elaborate information on the local and geographical factors of overflow H2O. It is common in states that have rivers, both in developing and less-developed states. The entire theoretical potency of hydro energy is estimated at 150 Exajoules a twelvemonth while the proficient potency of hydroelectricity is estimated at 50 Exajoules a twelvemonth ( see Table 1 ) . Because rainfall varies by part and state, hydro energy is non equally accessible. Rain may besides change in clip, ensuing in variable one-year power end product. ( Turkenburg, 2004 )
1.4.1 Technology options and position of Hydropower
Today, hydroelectricity coevals is regarded as a to the full developed engineering, likely non likely to progress any farther.
Therefore in the instance small-scale hydropower, there could be room for farther proficient development and with the pick of really suited sites, the usage of bing administrative constructions and bing civil plants for flood-control intents, the costs of small-scale undertakings could come down well ( Johansson 2004 ) .The installed capacity in 2001 is estimated at 690 GW for big hydro and 25 GW for little hydro.
4.2 Environmental and societal issues of Hydro power
In every bit much as hydroelectricity dams produce renewable energy, there is unfavorable judgment to their building. Today modern building attempts to include in the system design several engineerings that could understate the societal and ecological impacts. Some of the most of import impacts are the supplanting of local communities, peculiarly autochthonal people, alterations in fish sum and fish biodiversity, deposit, biodiversity disturbance, H2O quality criterions, human wellness impairment, and downstream impacts. The World Commission on Dams has done significant work on this issue and elaborated a comprehensive set of recommendations for accommodating conflicting demands environing big dikes. However, it is of import to observe that hydropower dike produce zero nursery gas emanations or air pollutants.
1.5 Geothermal Energy
Geothermal energy could be defined as heat coming from the Earth. Ground-source heat pumps are connected to the land to do usage of the really high temperatures within the Earth ‘s nucleus. Geothermal heat beginning has been taped in a figure of states for residential usage. Soon, its capacity to a really big extent is based on guesss. Therefore merely a much smaller sum can be classified as resources and militias ( Table 2.
1 ) . Nevertheless, even the most accessible portion, classified as militias. Similarly to other renewable resources of renewable energy, geothermic energy is widely dispersed. Thus the technological ability to utilize geothermic energy, non its, will find its hereafter portion for sustainable energy.High-temperature Fieldss used for conventional power production with temperatures above 150 grades Celsius are mostly confined to countries with immature volcanism, seismal, and magmatic activity. But low-temperature resources suited for direct usage can be found in most states. ( Friedman Sustainable residential development 2007 )
5.1 Environmental and societal issues of Geothermal energy
Naturally geothermic fluids contain a variable measure of gas, largely are nitrogen and C dioxide with some H sulfide and smaller per centum of ammonium hydroxide, quicksilver, Rn, and B. Most of these chemicals are concentrated in the disposal H2O, routinely re-injected into drill holes, and therefore non released into the environment. The concentrations of the gases are normally non harmful. The gas emanations from low-temperature geothermic resources are usually merely a fraction of the emanations from the high-temperature Fieldss used for electricity production
1.6 Wind Energy
Wind energy is another good beginning of renewable energy. In the UK, air current power is potentially most cost effectual.
Though there is an copiousness of good quality wind resource in the UK, the major hurdle is be aftering. Therefore big graduated table air current power is the most preferable renewable energy option. A part ‘s mean air current velocity and its frequence distribution have to be taken into history to cipher the sum of electricity that can be produced by air current turbines.
One factor peculiarly relevant to micro wind flow can hold an consequence on the end product degrees, efficiency and unit length of service. Poor wind quality is frequently experienced in urban location. Here neighboring edifices disrupt turbine operation.( Mc Cormick 2004 )Technical progresss are expected to open new countries to development. The undermentioned appraisal includes parts where the mean one-year air current power denseness exceeds 250 to 300 Wattss per square meter at 50 meters high
1 Technology options and position of Wind energy
Modern electronic constituents have enabled interior decorators to command end product and bring forth first-class power quality. These developments make air current turbines more suited for integrating with electricity substructure and finally for higher incursion. There has been gradual growing in the unit size of commercial machines, from 30 kWs of bring forthing capacity in the seventiess( rotor diameter 10 meters ) to 5 megawatts ( 110 to 120 meters diameter ) and more at present, less ocular impacts on the landscape per unit of installed power, and outlooks that offshore possible will shortly be developed. Particular offshore designs are being implemented.
Modern air current turbines besides have fewer constituents. By the terminal of 2002, worldwide installed capacity had topped 30,000 MW, with 22,000 MW in Europe, chiefly Germany, Spain and Denmark. In fact, electricity production from grid-connected air current turbines has been turning at an impressive rate of about 30 per centum per twelvemonthNote: Refers to weave energy with mean one-year power denseness of more than 250-300 watts per square meter at 50 meters ( resources category 3 and higher in the U.S. categorization of wind resources ) . The energy equivalent in exajoules is calculated based on the electricity coevals potency of the referenced beginnings by spliting the electricity coevals potency by a factor of 0.
3 ( a representative value for the efficiency of air current turbines, including transmittal losingss ) , ensuing in a primary energy estimation. Sums are rounded.Note: The energy equivalent in exajoules is calculated based on the electricity coevals potency of the referenced beginnings by spliting the electricity coevals potency by a factor of 0.3 ( a representative value for the efficiency of air current turbines, including transmittal losingss ) , ensuing in a primary energy estimation.
2 Environmental and societal issues of Wind energy
Environmental and societal facets of air current energy comes into drama in the several stages of a air current turbine undertaking, which are constructing and fabrication, normal operation, and decommissioning. Negative environmental facets connected to the usage of air current turbines are discussed as acoustic noise emanation, ocular impact on the landscape, impact on bird behavior, traveling shadows caused by the rotor, and electromagnetic intervention with wireless, telecasting, and radio detection and ranging signals. In pattern the noise and ocular impact cause the most jobs for development of air current farms.
1.7 Solar Energy
This is a really popular beginning of renewable energy. Solar energy has immense theoretical potency. Large-scale handiness of solar energy depends on a part ‘s geographic place, typical conditions conditions, and land handiness.
The appraisal here is made in footings of primary energy. In other words, the energy before the transition to secondary or concluding energy is estimated. The sum of concluding energy will depend on the efficiency of the transition device used such as the photovoltaic cell applied.
1.7.1 Technology options and position of solar energy
Solar energy is various and can be used to bring forth electricity, heat, cold, steam, visible radiation, airing, or H.
It appears that several factors will find the extent to which solar is utilized. These include the handiness of efficient and low cost engineerings, effectual energy storage engineerings, and high-efficiency end-use engineeringsNote: The lower limit and maximal reflect different premises on one-year clear sky irradiance, one-year norm sky clearance, and available land country.
One technique to bring forth electricity is the direct transition of solar visible radiation to electricity utilizing photovoltaic ( PV ) systems. The presently runing solar PV capacity is estimated at 1.
1 GW ( vitamin E ) . The major constituent of PV systems is the solar faculty, usually a figure of cells connected in series. At present, crystalline Si cells and faculties are ruling the market. The transition efficiency of these commercially available faculties ( Turkenburg 2004 ) is 12 to 15 per centum.
This figure may increase to 12 to 20 per centum in the twelvemonth 2010 and up to 30 per centum or more in the longer term. Higher efficiency may be achieved by stacking cells with different optical belongingss. There are many types of solar cells under development or in production. It is still excessively early to place victors or also-rans among the PV engineerings.
18.104.22.168 Solar thermic electricity
Solar thermic systems that produce high temperature heat can be used to bring forth electricity.
Examples of solar thermic electricity ( STE ) engineerings are parabolic trough systems, parabolic dish systems, and solar power towers surrounded by a big array of two-axis tracking mirrors reflecting direct solar radiation onto a receiving system on top of the tower. ( Turkenburg 2004 ) The sum installed capacity is presently about 0.4 GW ( vitamin E ) .
STE systems can be designed for solar-only applications, but besides hybridised with fossil fuels to let power production without sunshine.
22.214.171.124 Solar thermal heat
The universe ‘s variant temperature that is, low and average temperature heat ingestion, is estimated at about 100 EJ a twelvemonth ( Turkenburg 2004 ) . Harmonizing to Turkenburg ( 2004 ) , this can at least partly be met utilizing solar aggregators. At present the sum installed aggregator country is about 100 million square meters.
The solar domestic hot H2O system ( SDHW ) , holding a collector country of 2 to 6 square meters and a storage capacity of 100 to 300 liters, is the most of import application. The SDHW systems in Northern and Central Europe are designed to run on a solar fraction of 50 to 65 per centum ( Turkenburg 2004 ) . Subtropical climes by and large achieve solar fractions of 80 to 100 per centum. Large H2O heating systems find widespread usage amongst others in swimming pools, hotels, infirmaries, and places for the aged.
2 Environmental and societal issues of Solar energy
The engineerings behind solar energy do non do emanations during operation ; instead they do do emanations during fabrication. One of the most controversial issues for PV was if the sum of energy required to fabricate a complete system is greater or lesser than the energy produced over its life-time. ( Mc Cormick 2004 ) . Nowadays the energy payback clip of grid-connected PV systems is 3 to 9 old ages, and is expected to diminish to 1 to 2 old ages in the longer term. For stand-alone PV systems with battery storage the state of affairs is less favorable.
The energy payback clip of modern Solar Home Systems is now 7 to 10 old ages. This may come down to approximately 6 old ages, of which 5 are due to the battery. This is a small mark as to what has to go on in research and development for solar energy. The handiness of some of the elements in thin-film PV faculties ( like In and Te ) is besides a topic of concern, although there are no short-run supply restrictions.
1.8 Brief History of the part under survey
The Niger Delta
Harmonizing to Report on Climate Change in Niger Delta – by Community Research and Development Centre ( CREDC ) . The Niger Delta is located in the Atlantic Coast of southern Nigeria where River Niger divides into legion feeders.
It is the 2nd largest delta in the universe with a coastline crossing about 450 kilometers ending at the Imo River entryway.The part spans over 20,000 square kilometers and it has been described as the largest wetland in Africa and among the three largest in the universe. About 2,370 square kilometers of the Niger Delta country consist of rivers, brooks and estuaries and while dead swamp covers about 8600 square kilometers.The delta, with mangrove swamps crossing about 1900 square kilometres has the largest Rhizophora mangle swamps in Africa. The part falls within the tropical rain forest zone.
The ecosystem of the country is extremely diverse and supportive of legion species of tellurian and aquatic vegetations and zoologies and human life. As opined by ( Iyayi, 2004 ) it is richest wetland in the universe. The part is divided into four ecological zones viz. coastal inland zone, mangrove swamp zone, fresh water zone and lowland rain forest zone.Politically, the Niger Delta country cuts across nine provinces in southern Nigeria which include Abia ( 1 ) , Akwa Ibom ( 2 ) , Bayelsa ( 3 ) , Cross River ( 4 ) , Delta ( 5 ) , Edo ( 6 ) , Imo ( 7 ) , Ondo ( 8 ) and River ( 9 ) States ( Plate 2.
9 ) . The part has emerged as one of the most ecologically sensitive part in Nigeria. Resources ( oil and gas ) from the part are the chief beginning of gross for the Nigerian province, accounting for approximately 97 % of the state ‘s entire export. Oil was foremost discovered in the part in 1958 and since the early 1970s, oil has dominated the state ‘s economic system.
1.9 The Nigerian Energy Situation
From the abode enlargement based rating description on the Niger Delta Environment, it was acknowledged that H2O and oil which are the two rich normal resources in the part are the springs and evidences of suffering lack. The equivalent can be said about vigor ownerships such as gas, coal etc. in Nigeria, which is in immense big measure, yet there is energy famine in the state.
Harmonizing to ( Okoro,1999 ) present NEPA ‘s installed power bring forthing capacity sums over 5000MW and made up of 8 bring forthing Stationss, 28 major power conveying Stationss and 45 distributing territories see ( plate 2.7 ) .Furthermore the generating Stationss is distributed in the signifier of three hydro-based Stationss at Kianji, Jebba and Shiroro with a combined capacity of 1930MW, and five thermic Stationss at Afam, Sapele, Egbin, Ughelli and Ijora with a combined capacity of about 3708MW. However, as consequence of hapless distribution, much of this capacity is non-operational or operates at sub-optimal degrees, due to hapless buttocks to the countries, like some communities of the Niger Delta.Therefore existent power coevals is typically between 1500 and 2500 MW, current existent end product is a mere 1400MW, at least, 1000MW short of the recorded peak demand in the state put at between 2400 and3000 MW in 1999 ( Akarakiri, 1999 ; Kasali, 1999 ) . Nigeria ‘s beginning of electricity is diverse and preponderantly dependent on dodo fuels which histories for over 64 % of the chief grid electricity Distribution of power is implemented through a 5500 kilometer of 415V web in 9 regional zones crossing 50 consumer territories ( Ige, 1999 ) .
2.0 Government attempt
Government attempt in the country of developing energy sector to the betterment of the hapless position quo is ongoing as seen in the current legislative procedure on national energy measure for an act that will take to the constitution of a national bureau that will take charge of regulation, implementing policies and developing the energy sector in Nigeria. Just as its now have the National Nuclear Regulatory Authority ( NNRA ) , so there is hope to hold the national energy regulative bureau when the measure is enacted into jurisprudence.In malice of recent attempts to reinvigorate the renewable energy sector in Nigeria the institutional model is still really weak. Yet, if there must be accomplishments in energy efficiency, gas flaring must non be and in the face of authorities ‘s detering attempt in that way, much is expected to be done, peculiarly by the civil society.
Although the issue of deadline for flares-out, January 2008 is sensible, whereas its committedness to recognizing it is perfectly detering due to miss of conformity on hard currency calls to the melody of $ 4billion ( N508 billion ) annually for joint venture undertakings ( JVP ) . This is due to the fact that the Federal Government throughNNPC owns the largest interest in the JVP. The oil/gas sector have since been working on assorted gas use undertakings, by manner of utilizing gas for power coevals to, at least, better epileptic nature of power supply in the state, while some are working on exporting the gas.
2.1.1 On Gas-to-Power Project
The International Finance Institutions ( IFIs ) and the World Bank are presently helping the Agip ‘s Kwale Partners ‘ Flaring-Reduction to utilize the natural gas to bring forth electricity. The undertaking is farther supported by Global Gas Flaring Reduction ( GGFR ) – a Public Private Partnership ( PPP ) undertaking and is to be registered as a Clean Development Mechanism ( CDM ) undertaking under the Kyoto Protocol. The Kwale Partners ‘ Flaring Reduction Project which is 40 % interest to Nigerian AGIP and 60 % to NNPC, will be the first to set associated natural gas into bring forthing electricity in Nigeria and will extinguish 1.5 million dozenss of CO2 – therefore going the 10th largest in the 2,160 undertakings in CDP grapevine of Kyoto Protocol.
There are besides plans to construct a $ 10billion ( N 1.27 trillion ) gas grapevine web across the Sahara Desert through Niger, Algeria, across the Mediterranean for export of gas from Nigeria to Europe by Shell. In add-on to that, the West Africa Gas Pipeline ( WAGP ) undertaking spearheaded by Chevron is to besides export gas from Nigeria to Benin, Togo and Ghana, with capacity of 75 billion cubit pess a twelvemonth and would be $ 590 million ( N 74.6 billion ) . SPDC, NNPC are every bit spouses in the undertaking. And for Ghana Pipeline stretch,the World Bank has already provided warrant for $ 50 million ( N 6.3 billion ) while $ 75million ( N 9.5billion ) political hazard warrant has besides been provided for West African Gas Pipeline Company ( WAGPCO ) – that will run the undertaking.
Chevron has 36.7 % interest in WAGPCO, Shell, Tokoradi Power Company Limited of Ghana, Togolaise de Gaz and Societe Beninoise de Gaz are other stockholders in the company.
2.1.2 Impacts and Statisticss
Meanwhile, United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ( NOOA ) in its surveies revealed that Nigeria flares 75 % of its Natural gas for deficiency of processing installations and that amounted to 20 % of flared gas Worldwide. Second, harmonizing to Earth Trend Country Profile ( 2003 ) , its study on Nigeria shows that Nigeria flares 2.
5billion three-dimensional pess per twenty-four hours of associated gas and that represents 40 % of all natural gas consumed in the continent of Africa and farther represents the individual largest beginnings of GHG emanations on planet Earth.On that note the Nigerian Government is duplicating its attempt in seeking support on how to undertake the issue of flares-out. Soon, the Government is seeking aid from Norway, while World Bank is soon interceding between it and the Multinational oil/gas companies for a via media on the ultimatum to stop gas flame uping January 2008.
2.2 Status of Renewable Energy in Nigeria
Nigeria has immense potencies for all signifiers of renewable energy, some of which have non been exploited. By virtuousness of her place in West Africa, Nigeria is situated on the on the equator were the sun strength is high, there by promoting a really good flora, with tick wood in the mid-west and mangrove wood in the Niger Delta, Nigeria besides enjoys a cost line of the Atlantic Ocean, that runes from the West to east of the state and with the River Niger and River Benwe with their feeders fluxing into the sea through the brook of the Niger Delta.Renewable beginnings of energy runing from Hydro power, Wind energy, Solar PV, Ocean power merely to advert a few, are under utilized. Nigeria is besides human resource rich with a entire population of 88.5 million by the 1991 population nose count, and an one-year population growing rate of about 2.8 % ( Akinbami et al, 2001 )
1 Wind Energy Potentials
Nigeria ‘s location is every bit low to chair air current energy zone. Ojosu and Salawu ( 1989 ) carried out the most comprehensive countrywide survey on air current energy handiness and potency in Nigeria. The survey uses Data on Wind velocities and waies for 22 meteoric Stations from the Nigerian Meteorological office, Oshodi near Lagos. The meteoric informations are based on the 3-hourly records of air current for periods runing from 12 to 33 old ages ( 1951 – 1983 )The isovents at 10m highs are drawn and four different air current zones/regimes are identified as shown in figure 7. The air current energy potency for air current energy use in Nigeria is loosely appraised as shown in Appendix 1 ( Ojosu and Salawu, 1990 ) .Ojosu and Salawu estimated the maximal energy gettable from a 25m diameter air current turbine with an efficiency of 30 % at 25m tallness to be about 97 MWh year-1 for Sokoto, a site in the high air current velocity parts, 50 MWh year-1 for Kano, 25.
7 MWh year-1 for Lagos and 24.5 MWh year-1 from Port Harcourt. Appendix 2 shows the air current energy densenesss for other sites. ( Ojosu and Salawu, 1990 ) .
2.2.2 Solar Energy Resources in Nigeria
Harmonizing to ( Bala et al, 2000 ) Nigeria is endowed with an one-year Average day-to-day sunlight of 6.
25 hours, runing between about 3.5 hours at the coastal countries and 9.0 hours at the far northern boundary ( Figure 8 ) .
Similarly, it has an one-year mean day-to-day solar radiation of about 5.25 KW/m2/day, changing between about 3.5 kWm2/day at the coastal Area and 7.0kW/m2/day at the northern boundary ( 8 ) . Nigeria receives about 4.
851x 1012 KWh of energy per twenty-four hours from the Sun. This is tantamount to about 1.082 million tones of oil Equivalent ( mtoe ) per twenty-four hours, and is approximately 4 1000 times the current day-to-day petroleum oil decrease, and about 13 thousand times that of natural gas day-to-day production based on energy unit. This immense energy resource from the Sun is available for approximately 26 % merely of the twenty-four hours. The state is besides characterized with some cold and dust-covered ambiance during the harmattan, in its northern portion, for a period of about four months ( November-February ) yearly ( 13 ) .
The dust has an rarefying consequence on the solar radiation strength ( Bala, et Al, 2001 )Based on the land country of 924 ten 103 km2 for the state and an norm of 5.535 kWh/m2/day, Nigeria has an norm of 1.804 ten 1015 kWh of incident solar energy yearly. This one-year solar energy sunstroke value is about 27 times the state entire conventional energy resources in energy units and is over 117,000 times the sum of electric power generated in the county in 1998 as depicted in Table 6 ( Chendo, 2002. )In other words, approximately 3.7 % merely of the national land country is needed to be utilized in order to one-year collect from the Sun an sum of energy equal to the state ‘s conventional energy modesty.
2.2.3 Biogas Energy Resources
The biomass resources of Nigeria can be identified as wood, eatage grasses and bushs, animate being as waste originating from forestry, agricultural, municipal and industrial activities, every bit good as, Aquatic biomass. The biomass resources of the state have been estimated to be about 8 tens 102 M.J. Plant biomass can be utilised as fuel for small-scale industries. It could besides be fermented by anaerobiotic bacteriums to bring forth a really various and inexpensive Fuel Gas i.
e. biogass ( Garba and Bashir, 2002 ) .Akinbami et Al ( 2001 ) ‘s appraisal indicated that in Nigeria, identified feedstock substrate for an economically executable biogas programme includes H2O lettuee, H2O jacinth, droppings, manioc leave, urban garbage, solid ( including industrial ) waste, agricultural residues and sewerage. Tables 7 and 8 present the assorted agricultural and livestock resources and their associated residues as the possible substrates for biogas production in the state. Akinbami et Al ( 2001 ) ‘s positions include the undermentioned ; Nigeria produces about 227,500 dozenss of fresh carnal wastes daily. Since 1 kg ( kilogram ) of fresh animate being wastes produces about 0.
03 M3 gas, so Nigeria can bring forth about 6.8 million M3 of biogas every twenty-four hours. In add-on to all these, 20kg of municipal solid wastes ( MSW ) per capital has been estimated to be generated I the state yearly. By the 1991 nose count figure of 88.5 million dwellers, the sum generated MSW will be at least 1.77 million tones every twelvemonth. With increasing urbanisation and industrialisation, the one-year MSW generated will go on to increase. Biogas production may hence be a profitable agencies of cut downing or even extinguishing the threat and nuisance of urban wastes in many metropoliss by recycling them.
2.3 SUSTAINABLE Housing
The fast growing of the universe ‘s population and human activities, industrialisation poses a large dainty to our really being. ( Smith, 2003 ) Because of the high demand of power to prolong this inevitable alterations and development, Electricity and energy is now becomes an built-in portion of our everyday life. Believe or non we are wholly on the clemency of the energy to carry through our different undertaking. It has been observed, and besides noticed that ; the fright of energy crisis has been billowing from past few old ages chaotically, which intervenes between the states to viable economically.It appears beyond sensible daupt that harmonizing to ( Bonta & A ; Snyder, 2008 ) most of the energy-based pollution comes straight from our places.
It is instead excessively unfortunate that the building activities, the fabrication of edifice stuffs and their use including our day-to-day warming, chilling and illuming all of the things people love about modern life usage an amazing sum of fossil fuel and send lay waste toing sums of pollution into our ambiance.The large inquiry is ‘’what can we make? ” Obviously the job is tremendous, and clearly there is no individual solution, instead we have to make it separately by ;
- Understanding energy use
- Adopt an Energy-Conscious Life style
- Determine What Your Energy Loads Are
- Use an Energy Monitor
- Watch Your Thermostat
- Know your H2O warmer
- Get an energy Audited account
- Use Power Strips
Harmonizing to (Bonta & A ; Snyder 2008 )the good intelligence is that because we are so personally responsible for the job, we have enormous power right in our ain custodies to alter this theoretical account. In other for us to accomplish this dream of sustainable lodging, we need to believe inwards, make some accommodations in our lodging forms, utilizing sustainable edifice stuffs, distinguish our demands and wants in our day-to-day demands and being more conservative for a Greener hereafter.
2.3.1 ENERGY CONSERVATION
After listen the name of the energy crisis, the thing which immediately clicks in our head is the extenuation program for this action and to foreshorten its menaces consequently. The pattern of diminishing the measure of energy used is known as the energy preservation.
Efficiently uses any thing will heighten the productiveness of that thing and will distill the jeopardies associated with it. A figure of properties are associated with the preservation of energy like infering the fiscal cost which finally effects on the bottom line, other advantages includes national security, personal security and human amenitiess.One of the of import signifiers of energy is the Electrical energy, which is in usage by the human existences hyperbolically that is why the preservation of energy is termed as an built-in component of the energy policy ( Mike Adams, 2008 ) . There are a figure of jobs connected with the energy preservation which exacerbates the state of affairs, which we will analyze in inside informations when we move farther.
2.3.2 PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE ENERGY CONSERVATION
Before traveling in to the inside informations of the jobs of the energy, I want to make a head set of my readers sing the utilizations of energy. Let me advert some illustrations associated with the transmutation of different types of energy into the signifier of energy and heat.
I have found a procedure of energy transmission and processing which is mentioned below.
- Oil is being Burnss to bring forth heat.
- Heat boils the H2O
- Water so turns into steam
- Steams Pressure than turns a turbine
- Turbine usage to on the electric generator
- Generator than generates electricity.
- Electricity than empowers the visible radiation bulbs, which gives us ( the terminal users ) visible radiations and heat.
The chief job lies with the energy is the halitus of different types of deleterious and devastative gases which spoil the wellness of a individual in an hideous mode. Carbon dioxide is one of the chief menaces for the wellness of the human being. A figure of people consensuses that the gas act as a transparent cover due to the atmospheric work.
Synthetically talking, C dioxide is burning of gas, coal and oil which uses in the warming system and in auto engines ( Mike Adams, 2008 ) . Health professionals and Doctors said that, C dioxide is the most parlous gas for the homo being which demolishes the respiratory system of a individual after incursion that is why the Doctors exhorts a batch to maintain distance with workss at dark because the workss excrete the C dioxide which can be disperse in a individual if he does n’t take the safety big leagues into consideration.Apart from the jeopardies of C dioxide S dioxide is besides a major enemy of the homo ‘s wellness. Sulfur dioxide emitted in the air when the coal is being burned. Sulfur dioxide produces with the combustion of coal which penetrates in the clouds after react with H2O and O to from precipitation which normally knows as “acid rain” , which is non even deleterious for the human being but besides for the sea spices.
Acid rain is really harmful for the homo ‘s tegument and sometimes it plays a critical function to blow up the fright of tegument malignant neoplastic disease.There are a figure of factors which influences on the preservation of energy, menaces of terrible disease are the some illustrations of it.
2.3.3 HOW ENERGY CONSERVATION MITIGATE SUCH PROBLEM
We are in an epoch where the engineerings truly affairs and we ca n’t bear the crisis of this energy.
Energy preservation is a brave and bold measure towards expeditiously use the energy in diversified sectors. Electrical energy and oil is the chief thing which we have to use for the economic development of a state. The inaccessibility of these two things will do the state of affairs chaotic for a state. Let ‘s see in inside informations what value efficient energy preservation can add in the histories for a state.
- Increase in the energy efficiency, resultantly makes the energy comparatively cheaper, which is every bit good for the users and for the Government as good.
- Increased energy efficiency will decidedly take to heighten the economic and physical growing, which spikes the graph of energy usage in the whole economic system.
- Efficiently uses the fuel energy will assist to increase the production among the industries of a state which leads to a higher quality of life.
- The menaces we discussed earlier, which will be born from the poisonly gases like C dioxide and sulfur dioxide can be abate with the aid of energy preservation. It will assist to cut down the effects of concern, emphasis, blood force per unit area, weariness and work force per unit area.
- Telecommunication becomes a major portion to viable a company economically as a figure of concern been done on the telephone, so we have to be argus-eyed sing the efficient usage of telecommunication energy from a concern base point.
- It is observed that electric motors, like lifts, H2O pumping machines, iceboxs and other electric place contraptions consume more than 60 % of all electrical energy, which become a major cause of the loss of 10 to 20 per centum of all electricity. In order to undertake with this threat, we have to be cautious granted the wastage of energy.
What can we make in this respects, is non an acclivitous undertaking at all, use the electrical contraptions when we use it like bulbs, Fe, drinker liquidizer and all such sort of things.
- The job of energy crisis persists in the whole universe, because of the inaccessibility of the natural resources to bring forth the electricity energy.
- Use of bike and walking strictly alternatively of driving to get the better of on the fuel crisis.
- Use air to dry apparels instead than the apparels dryer machine.
- Install a programmable thermoregulator in your room ice chest and air conditioners, which automatically adjusts the temperature when you are in bed or off.
- Switch over off visible radiations when go forthing a room.
The position of energy preservation, is been defined to give a thorough overview of renewable energy, now let ‘s take a brief expression over the stance of renewable energy.
4 Implementing the usage of Solar Energy in Nigeria
Sing the current regretful province of energy supply or dependable energy in Nigeria, and authorities ‘s attempt to hike supply through renewable beginnings, it is likely that solar power will supply a major portion of the renewable energy needed to accomplish this. ( Bonta and Snyder, 2008 ) besides said that the measure of energy from the Sun that reaches the Earth is amazing, he besides stated that ; all the energy of the Earth ‘s known oil, coal, and natural gas militias is equalled by the energy from merely three hebdomads of solar energy.However, over the old ages at that place has development in solar energy engineering. With the recent promotions in solar energy engineering and recorded successful consequences of their applications in lodging all-overs the universe, one could state the execution of theses engineering in the part under survey will non merely assist work outing the state ‘s energy crisis but will every bit will make a cleaner environment.Solar power is now more low-cost and more widely available to householders than of all time before. Harmonizing to ( Smith, 2003 ) the solar thermal recourses other wise known as photovoltaic ( PV ) serves two energy demands: warming and electricity.
Photovoltaic ( PV ) energy harnesses the power of sunlight to provide the place with electricity. PV power is really dependable and virtually maintenance free, it dose non bring forth green house gases, unlike Diesel generators and above all, is renewable every bit long as the Sun keeps reflecting.
2.4.1 Solar Buildings
Solar aggregators are one of several renewable engineerings that together do a solar edifice. Harmonizing to ( Smith, 2003 ) well- designed solar hours can cut down demand by a factor of four against conventional places. This how of all time has been demonstrated by the IEA Solar Heating Advanced Low Energy Buildings.
He besides went farther to state that with the add-on of PV ; it is possible for edifices to go energy manufacturers.Harmonizing to ( Smith, 2003 ) Towns and metropoliss present an ideal chance for the development of PV ‘s. He noted further that put ining PV ‘s on suited walls and roofs could bring forth up to 25 % of entire energy demand.Solar faculties last really long.
( Bonta and Snyder, 2008 ) pointed out that the oldest residential faculties are still working absolutely after 30 old ages. This makes them dependable and care free, and could turn out cost effectual on the long tally. Nowadays old edifice which originally were designed to depend on the grid for electricity, can still follow renewable alternate energy were by the renewable alternate alcoholic will move as a backup system were the grid power fails.
Harmonizing to Williams ( 2008 ) Grid connected solar electric systems are tied to the electrical grid. When the Sun is reflecting and the solar panels are bring forthing electricity, the system provides electricity to the edifice. If the electricity generated by the solar panels is non adequate to cover the edifice ‘s demands, extra electricity is purchased from the grid. At dark, or during periods of heavy cloud screen, the edifice draws electricity wholly from the grid. If the solar electric system generates more electricity than the edifice demands, the excess electricity is “sold back” to the grid, running the electricity metre backwardsThis grid connected house on the seashore of Maine generates electricity and domestic hot H2O from an incorporate array of solar thermic aggregators and big country PV modules that organize the individual, unvarying glass window glass visible on the south facing roof.Grid connected systems can be designed with battery backup if desired, so that the edifice continues to run away of stored electricity during a power outage. Most grid connected systems are non designed in such a manner, nevertheless, as such backup adds complexness and cost to the system.
2.5 Deductions for lodging policy
Housing development issues in Nigeria are possibly every bit diverse as the states ‘ societal, economic, cultural and technological fortunes. The policy waies here revolve round the outstanding lodging issues earlier identi ” erectile dysfunction in the paper and besides argued in line with the place of this paper that the populace sector has performed less than respectably. It is argued thatthere is demand for a displacementfrom public to private proviso of lodging.The public presentation of authorities as supplier of lodging units is non applaudable in Nigeria. The option for lodging development in Nigerian metropoliss is to enable private sector suppliers, including self-help builders, who account for over 90 % of the lodging stock in the state. Therefore, cardinal to future lodging policies should be the use of institutional, “ nancial, legal and other policy instruments to ease the vitamin E! orts of the private sector, including families and small-scale manufacturers of brooding units.
It is argued here that if enabling scheme to lodging development improves the avenues through which, families, little contractors and formal and informal private developers, addition entree to “ fagot, constructing secret plans, edifice stuffs, favorable planning ordinances, it would be able to do signi ” cant impact on lodging in Nigeria. Speci ” degree Celsius policy issues are identi ” erectile dysfunction below.
2.5.1 Sustainable Housing in Nigeria
These yearss, a batch of accents are being placed on lodging. Firstly of all adult male ‘s basic demands, lodging dubiously, constitutes and demonstrably poses the supreme challenge.Second, dynamic and light hearted adjustment sectors are a proposition of a physically powerful course of study of nationwide investing and are to be certain the basis of and the first measure to future pecuniary growing and societal development. However edifice should concentrate on cut downing the environmental effects of new edifices.
there are demands and criterions to be adhere to in order to do edifices sustainable in nature, these demands and standard references societal and economic factors, and most significantly it is expected to concentrate on the decrease of emanations and the environmental impact of the stuffs specified.In order to accomplish the “very good” criterion, a edifice must possess some elements that contribute to bettering environmental public presentation. These could include material sourced from local or sustainable beginnings, a specification that contributes to moo C emanations or excess sound insularity.
Harmonizing to ( EcoHomes standard ) . ( Plate 4.8 ) These include pollution, energy consumed and stuffs used.
Cardinal elements of the EcoHomes standard some of which include:
- The usage of sustainably resourced stuffs with low environmental impacts
- The usage of stuffs with a high evaluation in the Green Guide to Specification
- The usage of stuffs obtained from sustainable beginnings
- Reducing C emanations and running costs through increased energy efficiency with high degrees of insularity with high-efficiency low emanation boilers by utilizing A-rated contraptions
- Low-water-use healthful adjustments and cut downing H2O ingestion and
- run-off besides doing proviso for H2O recycling
- Decrease of nursery gas emanations by good usage of edifice footmark
The unpleasant lodging bringing is accordingly a most of import factor in the state ‘s gross domestic merchandise ( GDP ) and so this reflects the mirror and the gage of the province of wellness of the Nation.Financially feasible activities are good recognized to include all facets of human endeavor that are heading for towards the construct of wealth. It is besides known that one of the foundations of individual demands is to seek to happen to augment our ego worth by educating our life criterions.
Economic growing is hence a natural Hunt in any single set-up as such sweetenings is predictable to take to amplified wealth and richness both for persons and the complete state.In regulate to keep the heightened lack of sanctuary in the state, the NHP for the period crossing 1994 to 1998 was likely to construct 121,000 lodging units. In add-on, the sum of Licensed Primary Mortgage Finance Institutions ( LPMFI ) rose from 251 in 1993 to 276 in 1994. However, by the terminal of 1998, it has declined to 115. Similarly, the Federal Government resources expense on someplace to populate addition by over 500 per cent to N4818.3 million in 1995 from N776.
7 million in 1988, but deteriorates somewhat by about to per cent to N722.0 million in 1998 ( CBN 1994 and 1998 ) . The Federal and the State Government were likely to pass N2.
7 billion on lodging proviso during the 1996-8 NRP.Over N3.0 billion was expected to be disbursement by the two degrees of authoritiess during the 1999-2001 NRP ( NPC, 1998 and 2000 ) . Regardless of all these interventions and innovations and immense investings in lodging demands since the colonial times and to day of the month, Nigeria ‘s lodging jobs still remain intractable. In fact, entree to decent shelter has wretched for increasing sections of the urban population in Nigeria.For case, it was reported that out of 121,000 lodging units pencilled down to be built between 1994 and 1995, merely 1,014 houses were completed ( CBN, 1994 and 1998 ; and Vision 2010 Main Report ) .
Besides, it was estimated that about 85 per cent of urban population live in individual suites, and the figure of renters per room scope from 8 to 12 with inauspicious effects on sanitation and wellness. The deteriorating lodging state of affairs in Nigeria, particularly at the urban Centres is excessively critical to go forth for authorities to level out entirely.Nigeria is the 6th biggest Godhead of unfinished oil in the privileged alliance known as OPEC, whose members account for over two -third of the universe ‘s entire supply of this merchandise. Besides the state ‘s awaited militias of natural gas runs into one million millions of metric tones and the first train of the liquified Natural Gas ( LNG ) has late being shipped out with the building all to the full committed to buy ‘s from abroad. In footings of gross gaining capableness and latent, it is deserving adverting that Nigeria to day of the month has realized over S200 billion from rough oil gross revenues.
For a state that could blow her ain horn of such immense sum of ownerships, it is really saddening and upseting to observe that really small of the wage package have been put into usage to hike the luck of the Housing Industry and substructure. The industry should hold seen a batch more disturbance and authorities support, in big graduated table development strategies, and betterment and providing of substructure ; proviso of big graduated table community lodging, making and acquiring higher new towns.A superficial expression at the present province of the lodging status tells an noticeable narrative of a immense paradox – An absurdness of accomplishing so small with so many contributions. This measures the insufficiency on the portion of the authorities that is expected to supply the lead.
6 Concept of Renewable Energy and Sustainable Housing
The construct of sustainability as applied to a metropolis is the ability of the urban and its part to go on to work at degrees of quality of life desired in that community without curtailing the options available to the present and future coevalss and without doing inauspicious impacts inside and outside their boundary. ( Adedeji, 2005 ) .Harmonizing to ( Spence and Mullighan, 1995 ) the thought of sustainable development was good summarized by the study of the universe committee on environment and development which starts with the premiss that “Humanity has the ability to do development sustainable to guarantee that it meets the demands of the present without compromising the ability of future coevalss to run into their ain demands.
The building industry which is to a great extent relied upon with respects to creative activity of the physical assets which are the footing of every development contributes significantly to several countries of emphasis suffered by the environment today. Construction is responsible for air pollution through the emanation of toxic exhausts, dust and fiber atoms, parts to loss of wild lands and forest due to the usage of lumber as natural stuffs during building and its heavy dependance on non renewable energy i.e. fossil fuels for its operations.In position of the effects of building on the environment, and the demand for uninterrupted enlargement and development due to the of all time increasing human population, the demand to prosecute in sustainable development to cut down impairment of the physical environment is necessary. ( Spence and Mullighan, 1995 ) identified preconstruction environmental impact assessments, bettering land-use and pollution emanation statute law and control and widening the life and reuse of bing edifices as ways in which building and development activity can be changed to do it less environmentally damaging.Sustainable planning in architecture has become a factor in edifice as economical-ecological capital can no longer be ignored but the society is required to re invest into ecology to do good depredation ensuing from inauspicious environmental impact of edifices and constructions. ( Sa ‘ad, 1998 ) .
In Nigeria today, an mean urban inhabitant spends between 40 % to 60 % of his income on lodging ( Nubi, 2000 ) . This is due to the of all time increasing constructing cost in Nigeria. The conventional lodging bringing system in Nigeria that is mostly of piece repast entity in nature whereby single household efforts to supply their lodging is plagued with tremendous waste and inefficiency ensuing in high cost of lodging.
( Adedeji, 2005 )Adedeji noted further that this lodging plan which involves sourcing of land, finance, sourcing of stuffs for building and labor is haphazard in its nature and can non proffer solution to lodging demands in metropoliss. Harmonizing to him, these assorted non coordinated resources in battles to accomplish personal lodging could hold been harnessed together in a good co-ordinated system of mass-housing to accomplish a better result peculiarly in metropoliss he refers to as no adult male ‘s land in Nigeria.The Ogun State authorities in Nigeria has highlighted critical elements to an integrated attack to sustainable mass lodging. This is contrary to the fact that since the attainment of political independency in 1960, Nigeria has adopted several provider-oriented public-driven schemes such as federal and province lodging programmes, slum clearance and relocation and public but international aided colony upgrading and sites and services.
( Ogu, 1996 ) . He noted that these have had really limited impact at best on lodging development and betterment in the state. The critical elements highlighted by the Ogun State Government includes:
The Medium Income Housing programme made efforts to set up a lasting and sustainable attack to lodging development. The get downing point is the survey of the land usage form in the province.
What would hold been preferred is an incorporate maestro program of substructures, commercial and industrial development and lodging production. This range was, nevertheless, beyond the competency of LSDPC, who had to beginning land one at a clip.
In the average income lodging programme being implemented by LSDPC, we sought to unify lodging types with building methodological analysis, disposable income and building cost. The premium was on making houses within the disposable income, instead than merely making the houses and selling at cost plus, irrespective of the disposable income. The LSDPC will so seek support from the most cost-efficient beginnings for the building, and assist prospective buyers through mortgage funding programmes. Up till now, merely short term financess are available for the undertakings with the ensuing impact on selling monetary values.
2.6.3 APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY
A direction system that attempts to capture the bing engineerings in the society and better on them for execution was designed. It aimed at call uping the whole of the local building industry and encouraging invention for the undertaking. It besides included research and development attempts to make new merchandises.
CPMS developed the undertaking direction attack for the strategy based on the nine cognition countries of the Project Management Book of Knowledge. It started with the constitution of clear aims for the strategy and a thorough apprehension of the environment in which it is traveling to be implemented. Thereafter, the range of work, clip and cost aims were set. Human resources issues, communicating, procurance and hazard facets of the undertaking were carefully addressed. The direction system had to turn to both the undertaking and engineering.