Relationship between compensation and benefits Essay
This chapter serves as the debut portion of this research, which addresses the nucleus value of the research. Here, the overview of the relationship between the compensation and benefits and the occupation satisfaction among the university staff will be discussed in the well-manner.
Background of Study
Forty old ages ago, University of Malaya is the lone one university in Malaysia. In today fast traveling universe, instruction is become really important for the immature coevals. Nowadays, there was many new public or private universities occur in the market. There were 20 public universities and 18 private universities in Malaysia.
There are become more and more rivals in the higher instruction industry and pupils have more picks when they want to come in to the university. The current tendencies for pupils taking the universities are non depended on the mentality but they will take the universities which have good faculty members public presentation and quality. Therefore, to pull more pupils and vie with others universities, each university must increase their competitory advantages.Thankss to the cyberspace and the attach toing high velocity of communications, today technological and services distinction is no longer a key to competitory advantage in higher instruction industry. So, what the chief grounds to do some university more successful than others? What is the cardinal competitory advantage in today globalise universe? The reply is employees. In a university, university staff is played an of import function to run the twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours operation of the organisation. University with gifted and motivated staffs will offer outstanding service to their pupils.
This will increase the university public presentation and likely to draw the university in front the rivals, even if the services offered are similar to those offered by their rival.Harmonizing to Tang, Roberto, Toto & A ; Tang ( 2004 ) from United States and Spain, occupation satisfaction is an affectional reaction to a occupation that consequences from the officeholder ‘s comparing of existent results with those that are desired or expected. Job satisfaction of the employees is merely every bit of import as client satisfaction in footings of the organisational public presentation. Therefore, employers must do certain all their employees are satisfied with their occupation. But, how to do certain the staffs are motivated? How to guarantee the staff are satisfied with their occupation? Here, the compensation and benefits is the key to those inquiries.Presents, compensation and benefits are one of the fastest altering Fieldss in Human Resources, as many company are continue to look into assorted ways of honoring employees for increase their occupation satisfaction and their public presentation.
Here, compensation refers to all signifiers of fiscal return and touchable services and benefits employees receive as portion of an employment relationship, which includes subjects in respect to rewards or salary plans ; for illustration, salary scopes for occupation descriptions, virtue based plans, fillips based plans, committee based plans, long term or short footings inducements plans, and etc. Besides, employee ‘s benefit includes the allowances, income protection, life insurances, life balance, holiday, and etc. Benefits are signifiers of value, other than payment, that are provided to the employee in return for their part to the organisation, that is, for making their occupation.Why the compensation and benefits is so of import for all the employees? The reply is compensation is the chief beginnings of employee ‘s fiscal security. As we know, everyone is works in outlook of some wagess ; employees may see compensation as a return in an exchange between employer and themselves, as an entitlement for being an employee of the company and as a wages for a occupation good done. Besides, compensation is a incentive for employees. Now, people look for a occupation that non merely accommodate their interested and talent, people besides look for the wage and the other benefits which the company will be offer, for illustration, life insurance, inducement, allowances, SOSCO, EPF and etc.
Besides, in the economic downswing, based rewards is become really of import beginnings to employees for life. Therefore, if the employers give higher wage to their staff, this will be motivates them to execute good and they will more satisfy with their occupation. By making so, the employees will cognize that the company is appreciate their part and their attempts are noted by direction.
As reference before, there are many new public or private universities occur in market. To vie with other rival, each university must increase their competitory advantage. The cardinal competitory advantage is employees.
Therefore, the issues of the employee occupation satisfaction go really of import for the employer. There are many factors which can act upon occupation satisfaction among university staff, for illustration, occupation security, compensation and benefits, chances to utilize accomplishments and experiencing safe in the work environment. But, this research merely will look into the influence of compensation and benefits towards occupation satisfaction among university staff.For a university, there are many staffs to cover and the employer does non truly understand what their staffs need. It is impossible for taking all employees ‘ compensation and benefits throughout the house into consideration to put up the wages system. This is because different section staffs have different demands. For illustration, for lecturer the flexible working hours and higher fillip will be more favoured by them.
But, for the selling section the flexible working hours and more inducements and allowances will be favoured by them.Compensation and benefits is a primary incentive for employees. Nowadays, people look for a occupation non merely accommodate their creativeness and endowments, but compensate them- both in term of salary and other benefits-accordingly. ( Enotes.com, 2008 ) Therefore, when the jobs occur to the compensation and benefits of the staffs are traveling to hold impact on employee ‘s occupation satisfaction. When the staffs receives the wage less than he or she expected, he or she will experience that he or she is non appreciated by the university and what he or she did is meaningless. So, the staff will experience occupation dissatisfaction and less motivated by the university.
Harmonizing to the Society for Human Resources Management study, occupation dissatisfaction can lend to multiple organisational jobs and has been associated with increased degrees of turnover and absenteeism, which finally cost the organisation in footings of low public presentation and reduced productiveness. ( SHRM, 2009 ) Therefore, employer must guarantee that the compensation and benefits system is just and just to all the staffs and understanding the system. By making so, employer can make a existent occupation satisfaction and actuate their employees.
Besides, research has shown that both acquiring less than you want and acquiring more than you want leads to big disagreements between desires and result and finally leads to low occupation satisfaction therefore to low quality if on the job public presentation. ( Rice, Bennett, & A ; McFarlin, 1989 ) Hence, desires play an of import function in measuring if increasing income impacts an person ‘s occupation satisfaction and work public presentation. Furthermore, if the desires of the person are already met, so an addition in income will non increase satisfaction every bit good as working public presentation.
( Solberg, Diener, Wirtz, Lucas, & A ; Oishi, 2002 ) In other words, increasing compensation and benefits may non ever lead to employee ‘s occupation satisfaction.Besides, employers must plan an appropriate compensation and benefits system to their staff. This is because inappropriate compensation and benefits will hold negative consequence to employee occupation satisfaction. For illustration, assume that university staffs have received one 1000 and 50 ringgit ( RM ) each month, no allowances and overtime claim and his or her still necessitate to work 8 hours per twenty-four hours. Will you believe this staff will fulfill with his or her occupations? The reply is perfectly no.
Therefore, an appropriate compensation and benefits system is really important to an organisation.As a decision, in today fast traveling universe, the issue of the compensation and benefits are acquiring more and more of import. This is because it is have much influence on an employee ‘s life, for illustration, wellness, personality, outlook and therefore lead to employee ‘s occupation satisfaction. Therefore, employers must guarantee themselves understand the manner of how compensation and benefits act upon the employees occupation satisfaction.
Aims of the Study
The aims of this survey are as followers:
- To research the influence of compensation and benefits towards occupation satisfaction among University staff
- To analyze the consciousness of the importance of compensation and benefits
- To look into the importance of occupation satisfaction among university staff in Malaya
- To place about the sentiment of the university staff about compensation and benefits on occupation satisfaction
Scope of Study
The range of this survey is all about the relationship between the compensation and benefits with the occupation satisfaction among university staff. This survey will carry on a study to back up the determination. The respondents of the study are the administrative staff among the university. The ground of taking these respondents is because administrative staffs represent an of import constituent in the university.
They are played an of import function to run the twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours operation of the organisation. By taking administrative staffs as study object, this research can be strengthened by the study consequences.
Significance of Study
The information addition from this research will be able to supply valuable penetration on the influence of compensation and benefits towards occupation satisfaction among university staff.The purpose of the research is to look into and understand the relationship between compensation and benefits and occupation satisfaction. This research is conducted in a local populace and private university is needed to garner the university staff basic information of wage, basic demand of compensation and benefits, thoughts of bettering the entire wages system of the university. From the consequence of the research, we can hold a clear image and construct of the relationship between compensation and benefits and occupation satisfaction among the university staff. Besides, we besides can place clearly the variable of the occupation satisfaction among the university staff.
In add-on, the significance of the survey is to supply an chance to the university staff to show their sentiments and therefore the grudges on the compensation and benefits they receive. By making so, this can assist the employer to acquire a better understand on what their employees need. This research besides enhances the apprehension of both the employer and the university staff on managing and planing the compensation and benefits of staff. Therefore, the communicating spread between the employer and the staff can be removed indirectly. From the information obtained, the employer can able to plan an appropriate compensation and benefits system for their employees.
As a consequence, the employer can increase the employee ‘s occupation satisfaction more efficaciously and expeditiously by utilizing appropriate compensation and benefits.Compensation and benefits are evidently important to either the employer or the university staff. Appropriate compensation and benefits will turn to equity, openness and lucidity. This can assist employees to increase their occupation satisfaction, encourage and actuate them to give themselves to the university therefore better the public presentation of the whole university.
Organization of the Study
In this Concluding Year Undertaking 1 will be constructed into five different chapters. The followers is the item of each chapter.Chapter 1: IntroductionThis chapter will supply the nucleus value and a clear image of the survey and besides a briefing of the whole survey.
This chapter will includes background of survey, job statement, aims of the survey, range of survey, and the significance of the survey.Chapter 2: Literature ReappraisalThe 2nd chapter is related to the literature reappraisal. In this chapter, all the chief point will be drumhead and related information of the articles and diaries will be used which related with the research.Chapter 3: Research MethodologyThis chapter for the research is the method of probe on the influence of compensation and benefits towards occupation satisfaction among university staff, which include theoretical model, research design, trying and informations aggregation and so on.
As discussed and highlighted in the old chapter, this research examines the relationship between compensation and benefits and occupation satisfaction among university staff. In order to derive a better understanding about this issue, an scrutiny of literature on related survey were carried out. This chapter will dwell of six subdivisions.
First, key footings definitions of the occupation satisfaction, compensation and benefits are provided on the undermentioned subdivisions. For exhaustively capturing the significances of compensation and benefits, the choice related literature is explained in item. And, the relationship between compensation and benefits and occupation satisfaction among university staff is being discussed and explored in the undermentioned subdivisions by utilizing some states and different industry for illustrations. Last, the comprehensive reappraisal of all the related surveies will be provided.
The Definition of Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction has been explored in a assortment of ways, and is defined otherwise by assorted research workers. It is besides a to a great extent researched country of enquiry. Locke ( 1976 ) estimated that, as of 1976, about 3350 articles or thesiss had been written on the subject. Cranny ( 1992 ) indicated that more than 5000 surveies of occupation satisfaction have been published.
Job satisfaction defines as a worker ‘s sense of accomplishment and success, is by and large perceived to be straight linked to productiveness every bit good as to personal well-being ( Answer, 2008 ) . Job satisfaction is a step of the grade to which the employee is satisfied and happy with the occupation. Prince and Patche ( 1972 ) defined occupation satisfaction as the grade to which the members of a societal system have positive and affectional orientation towards rank in the system. Smith ( 1969 ) perceived occupation satisfaction as the “ extent to which an employee expresses a positive orientation towards a occupation ” .Oshagbemi ( 2003 ) stated that occupation satisfaction is an affectional reaction to a occupation that consequences from the comparing or existent results with those that are desired. Job satisfaction is a enjoyable and emotional province ensuing from the perceptual experience of one ‘s occupation as fulfilling or leting the fulfillment of one ‘s of import occupation values, provided these values are compatible with one ‘s demands ( Locke, 1976 ) .
Katzell ( 1964 ) argues that if there is consensus about occupation satisfaction, it is the verbal look of an officeholder ‘s rating of his or her occupation. On this footing, it is an affectional or hedonistic tone, for which the stimulations are events or conditions experienced in connexion with occupations or businesss. Job satisfaction refers to an employee ‘s overall affectional rating of the occupation state of affairs. There is increasing involvement in the occupation satisfaction of frontline employees, given their outstanding function in developing relationships ( Schneider, Benjamin & A ; Bowen, 1993 ) .Besides, harmonizing to Stephen and Mary ( 2004 ) a individual with a high degree of occupation satisfaction has a positive attitude towards the occupation, while a individual who is dissatisfied with the occupation has a negative attitude. When people speak of employee attitude, they normally are mentioning to occupation satisfaction.
Job satisfaction is a really important issue in higher instruction industry ; even less grounds is available related to occupation satisfaction in higher instruction for non-western states. However, there has been a turning involvement in occupation satisfaction in higher instruction over past several old ages chiefly due to the realisation that higher educational institutes are labour intensive and their budgets are preponderantly devoted to forces and their effectivity is mostly dependent on their employees ( Kusku,2003 ) , both academic and administrative.
The Importance of Job Satisfaction in an Organization
Job satisfaction is a really of import property which is often measured by organisations. The subject of occupation satisfaction is besides of import because of its deductions for occupation related behaviors such as productiveness, absenteeism or turnover ( Oshagbemi, 2000 ) . Besides, it is besides can be an of import index of how employees feel about their occupations and a forecaster of work behaviors such as organisational citizenship, absenteeism, and turnover. Further, occupation satisfaction can partly intercede the relationship of personality variables and aberrant work behavior ( Answer, 2008 ) .Extensive survey has shown that occupation satisfaction has a direct impact on the public presentation of employees in different degrees of profession. It is related to employee motive and public presentation ( Ostroff, 1992 ) .
For the organisation, occupation satisfaction of its workers means a work force that is motivated and committed to high quality public presentation. On the other manus, to the worker, occupation satisfaction brings a enjoyable emotional province that frequently leads to a positive work attitude. A satisfied worker is more likely to be originative, flexible, advanced, and loyal ( Answer, 2008 ) . Therefore, the issue of occupation satisfaction among employees must be explored and discussed in the well-manner.
The Definition of Compensation
Compensation has been defined in a assortment of ways. In English, “ compensation ” is defines as something that counterbalances, beginnings, or makes up for something else ‘s.
However, if we look at the beginning if the word in different linguistic communications, we can acquire a sense of the profusion of the significance, which combines entitlement, return, and wages ( Atul, Matt & A ; George, 2002 ; Mark, 2002 ; Mansour, Peter, Mary, & A ; Robert, 2006 ) . In Nipponese, compensation is defines as kyuyo, which is made up of two separate character ( kyu and yo ) , both intending “ giving something ” . Besides, in China, the traditional characters for the word “ compensation ” are based on the symbols for logs and H2O ; compensation provides the necessities in life ( Milkovich & A ; Newman, 2008 ) .Harmonizing to Deluca ( 1993 ) and Rajkumar ( 1996 ) , compensation is defines as wage, wages, wage, or salary and pay direction. These footings are frequently used interchangeably in organisation. In an organisation position, compensation is frequently defines as an of import human resource direction map where it emphasizes planning, forming, and commanding assorted types of wage systems.
For illustration, direct and indirect payments, pecuniary and non-monetary wagess and hard currency and non-cash payments, those compensation is used for honoring employees who perform in their work or service ( Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart & A ; Wright, 2004 ) . In this research, compensation refers to all signifiers of fiscal returns and touchable services employees receive as portion of employment relationship. It can be seen as a step of justness. Normally, it is the major beginning of employees ‘ fiscal security ( Milkovich & A ; Newman, 2008 ) .
Zhou, Qian, Henan and Lei ( 2009 ) stated that compensation provides competitory base wage degrees necessary to pull and retain endowment and compensates for daily duties performed at to the full acceptable degree and above. Chen and Brian ( 2004 ) propose that the types of compensation typically contain the undermentioned constituents basal salary, overtime wage ( OT ) , fillips, committees, the dollar value of restricted stock awards and additions from exerting stock options, net income sharing, and so on. The followers is the definition for the two constituents of compensation.
Base- wage is the one-year and monthly salary rates of an employee which are established under current forces policy for each place. Besides, base- wage is to stand for the employee ‘s straight-time wage for a standard 40- hr workweek ( Anonymous, 2007 ) .
Harmonizing to wikipedia.com ( 2009 ) , base- wage is a signifier of periodic payment from an employer to an employee, which may be specified in an employment contract. It is contrasted with piece rewards, where each occupation, hr or other unit is paid individually, instead than on a periodic footing. In other position of running a concern, base- wage can besides be viewed as the cost of geting human resources for running operations, and is so termed forces disbursal or salary disbursal.
Besides, Henderson ( 2006 ) and Young ( 1999 ) are stated that base-salary is a basal wage that is given to employees on a hebdomadal, monthly or annual footing based on occupation construction.
Overtime Pay ( OT )
Overtime wage ( OT ) is ever included in hard currency compensation. It is the wage to clip worked in surplus of an agreed upon clip for normal on the job hours by an single employee ( Answers.com, 2008 ) .
In add-on, Overtime Pay ( OT ) is defines as the payment of premium clip and one-half rates in signifier of pecuniary compensation or clip off is required for hours worked in surplus of 40 in one a hebdomad, with exclusion of those considered exempt. The overtime wage rate normally is 1.5 times of base pay per hr ( Anonymous, 2007 ) .
Bonus is refers as a hard currency payment provided to employees based on their public presentation. For illustration, pecuniary inducements for accomplishing occupation marks ( Bloom & A ; Milkovich, 1998 ; Gupta & A ; Shaw, 1998 ; Lowery, Beadles, Petty, Amsler & A ; Thompson, 2002 ) .
Steven and Loring ( 1996 ) stated that fillip is a individual, one-off, lump-sum payment which can be in the signifier of hard currency or other originative pecuniary strategy, such as stock options. Bonus is defines as all payments to employees which is non paid on a regular basis at each wage period, for illustration fillips paid at fixed periods. Besides, fillip payments are by and large linked to single or corporate public presentation. Bonus can be distributed indiscriminately as the company can afford to pay a fillip, or the sum of the fillip wage can be specified by contract ( Anonymous, no day of the month ) .
The Definition of Benefits
Benefits refer to the portion of the entire compensation bundle provided to the employee in whole or in portion by payments from the employer and it ‘s did non include the wage for clip spent on work ( Milkovich & A ; Newman, 2008 ) . Besides, benefits are group rank wagess that provide security for employees and their household member. Benefits are a non-compensation paid to employees. Some benefits are mandated by jurisprudence, for illustration societal security, unemployment compensation and worker compensation.
Employees ‘ benefits include pension, wellness insurance, periphery benefits, public assistance and etc ( Lee, Hsu & A ; Lien, 2006 ) . Benefits are a important portion of an employee ‘s entire compensation bundle. Benefits bundles are became popular after World War II, when pay controls made it more hard to give competitory wages ( Enotes.com, 2008 ) .
Besides, benefits can be treated as the payment or entitlement, such as one brand under an insurance policy or employment understanding, or public aid plan or more by and large, something of value or utility. Benefits may besides be seen as a contemplation of justness in society ( Herman, 2005 ) .Harmonizing to Carter ( 2008 ) , benefits are signifiers of value, other than payment, that are provided to the employee in return for their part to the organisation, which is for making their work. Zhou, Qian, Henan and Lei ( 2009 ) argued that benefits are provides flexible and market competitory wellness benefits to back up employment trade name and support attractive force and keeping. Employee ‘s benefit includes disability income protection, retirement benefits, work-life balance ( for illustration, ill leave, holiday, jury responsibility and etc ) , allowances ( for illustration, alveolar consonant, insurance, medical, transit, lodging, nomadic phone and etc ) , and so on.
The followers is the definition for the two constituents of benefits.
Bergmann and Scarpello ( 2002 ) and Milkivich and Newman ( 2008 ) stated that allowances is frequently related to extra fiscal wagess lawfully provided to employees based on the employment contract or organisation related service, for illustration, amusement allowance or allowance fixed for peculiar occupations or service strategies. Allowances is besides defines as a sum paid to employees as portion of their salary bundle, or defray their out of pocket disbursals incurred on behalf of the house ( Business Dictionary.com, 2009 ) .
Work-life balance is refers to the efficaciously pull offing the juggle act between paid work and the other activities that are of import to people. Besides, work-life balance can specify as holding adequate clip for work and adequate clip to hold a life therefore the work life balance. The construct of work-life balance is includes the precedence that work takes over household, working long hours and work intensification ( Dr. Mervyl, 2007 ) . Harmonizing to Milkovich & A ; Newman ( 2008 ) , work-life balance is a plans that help employees better integrate their work and life duties include clip off from work ( holiday, jury responsibility ) , entree to services to run into specific demands ( drug guidance, fiscal planning, referrals for kid and elder attention ) , and flexible work agreements ( telecommuting, non-paid clip off ) . Besides, Melissa ( 2007 ) besides stated that work-life balance is about making and keeping supportive and healthy work environments, which will enable employees to hold balance between work and personal duties and therefore beef up employee trueness and productiveness.
The Importance of Compensation and Benefits in an Organization
In today fast traveling universe, developments have made it more of import than of all time for companies to do certain they have a strategic, holistic and incorporate attack to compensation. To vie in a tough sphere, organisations now more than of all time necessitate the support of an informed, involved and motivated their employees ( Chen & A ; Hsieh, 2006 ) . Here, compensation and benefits is a primary incentive and wagess for employees. As noted by Lawler ( 1995 ) , compensation can be an effectual incentive merely if it is of import to people and it is seen to be tied to their public presentation in ways that are perceived to be believable and direct. Without wagess, a company is seting seeds for high turnover, low productiveness and long-run failure.Harmonizing to Herman ( 2005 ) , compensation aid to concentrate on the place and responsibilities performed. And, it attempts to act upon employee ‘s current and future working public presentation. Besides, compensation waiters ‘ different aims, the chief 1s being to pull, retain and actuate high-voltage employees.
Meanwhile, the fulfillments of those ends are capable to restraints such as the care of equity, cost control and legal demands ( For illustration, pay and salary statute law ) ( Steven & A ; Loring, 1996 ) . To employee, compensation may be seen as a return in exchange between the houses they work for and themselves, as an entitlement for being an employee of the company, or as a wages for occupation good done. It is given to employees in exchange for work performed ( Milkovich & A ; Newman, 2008 ) .Steven and Loring ( 1996 ) observe that for employees, compensation is an of import issue since wage is perceived to be an indicant to their personal and market value to the organisation.
Based on about.com ( 2009 ) , for employers, compensation is one of the important communicating tools, to direct a message about your organisation ‘s outlooks and end accomplishment wagess. Besides, Yale and Donald ( 2002 ) stated that compensation wagess public presentation relative to others and progressive betterment in year-to-year consequences and supplying regular steps of success or advancement. It besides balances wagess with hazard and supplying capital accretion chance. Therefore, compensation has really important to non merely the employees but besides the employers.Carter ( 2002 ) proposed that benefits are progressively expensive for concerns to supply to employees, so the scope and options of benefits are altering quickly to include, such as flexible benefits program. For employers, they use benefits to pull and retain good and gifted workers. For employees, they rely on benefits ( for illustration, medical subsidies, holidaies, and retirement ) to procure their fiscal wellbeing.
By associating benefits ( for illustration, pension and vacations ) to senior status, workers will be loath to alter occupations ( Gerhart & A ; Milkovich, 1992 ) .Lee, Hsu and Lien ( 2006 ) stated that benefits are designed to safeguard employees and their household against jobs due to sickness, illness, accidents or retirements. Here, allow utilize some illustrations of constituents of benefits to convey out its consequence of employees. Work life balance with respect such as temporal flexibleness, leave benefits, and interpersonal relationships has the possible to cut down or increase emphasis on workers with life duties. The proviso of work life balance schemes can supply a positive and direct consequence on an employee ‘s determination to stay with an employer ( Macran, Joshi & A ; Dex, 1996 ) .
Based on Milkovich & A ; Newman ( 2008 ) , income protection helps protect employees from the fiscal hazards built-in in day-to-day life. It serves as a backup to employees ‘ wages in the event that an employee is ill, handicapped, or no longer able to work. Besides, workers allowances are perfectly needed for employees. It helps to cut down the fiscal load of employees and besides can treated as excess amount of wages so ( Herman, 2005 ) . Therefore, a benefit has great significance to the whole organisations.
The Relationship between Compensation and Benefits towards Job Satisfaction
In today ‘s globalizes universe, organisations are confronting alterations generated by increased competition, amalgamations and acquisitions, switching markets and altering employee demographics ( Chen & A ; Hsieh, 2006 ) . Therefore, it is important for organisation to strategies their competitory and benefits programs in order to pull appropriate endowment, maximise return on human capital and increase employees occupation satisfaction.
A cardinal constituent for a successful organisational intercession is the meaningfulness of the intercession to the employee. One intercession that may be meaningful to many employees is the sum of their compensation and benefits addition ( Mayuri & A ; Mark, 2005 ) .Compensation and benefits is a powerful communicator of organisational ends and precedences and companies that expect to be successful must do employees go spouses in their success ( Shuster & A ; Zingheim, 1993 ) .
Pam ( 2007 ) observes that employee compensation can be a sensitive topic, and people get really passionate when seeking to find the most appropriate compensation program for any concern. Nowadays, many human resources related concerns need to be addressed, but every bit of import understands the fiscal facets of employee compensation and benefits. Therefore, compensation and benefits play an of import function in an organisation.Harmonizing to the study study conducted by the Society for Human Resource Management ( 2009 ) , they found that compensation and benefits would impact employees ‘ occupation satisfaction. In the study study, compensation and benefits are on a regular basis among the top three factors impacting employee occupation satisfaction.
From here, it would look that compensation and benefits have a positive relationship with the employees ‘ occupation satisfaction. Therefore, it would be best to offer them a competitory wage and benefits, or cut down the spread between employees ‘ salary outlooks and employers ‘ offers ( IME, 2009 ) .The undermentioned charts are the really of import facets of occupation satisfaction among employees and human resource professionals in 2009 ( SHRM, 2009 ) .
Based on the study study conducted by the Society for Human Resource Management ( 2009 ) , compensation has remained one of the top three occupation satisfaction aspects most of import to employees. Therefore, we can infer that the influence of compensation towards employees ‘ occupation satisfaction is important and obvious. Here, there are several surveies can turn out this statement. Harmonizing to several research workers, compensation and occupation satisfaction are positively associated with each other. Souza ( 2000 ) observes that compensation is a forecaster of occupation satisfaction. Besides, employees who were paid extremely showed a greater occupation satisfaction ( Joanne, 1980 ) . All of these are strongly proofs to turn out the relationship between compensation and employee occupation satisfaction.And, the undermentioned charts are showed the importance of compensation or pay among employees and human resource professionals ( SHRM, 2009 ) .
Employee benefits are used by the organisations to enroll and retain gifted employees. In times of economic crisis, when organisations might non be able to offer their employees pay rises and fillips, benefits become one of the many tools employers use to increase trueness, productiveness and occupation satisfaction. Based on the study study conducted by Society for Human Resource Management ( SHRM ) , benefits have remained among the top two most of import factors of occupation satisfaction to employees. Therefore, we can deduce that the affect of benefits towards employees ‘ occupation satisfaction is important and obvious.Here, there are several research can turn out this statement. Uppal ( 2005 ) uses a step comprised of the figure of fringe benefits employees receive and finds that this is positively related to occupation satisfaction. Besides, occupation satisfaction has risen at the same clip that benefits satisfaction has raised. The alliance of these two tendencies continues to propose that benefits may assist workers happy with their occupations.
Of those who are satisfied with their benefits, 75 % are satisfied with their current occupation, compared to merely 25 % who is satisfied with their occupations among those who are non satisfied with their benefits. As employers focus on retaining employees, one possible attack is to get down with benefits. Robust benefits offering combined with effectual benefits instruction could better workers ‘ overall benefits satisfaction, which may interpret into greater occupation satisfaction ( MetLife, 2008 ) . All these are powerful cogent evidences to turn out the relationship between benefits and employees ‘ occupation satisfaction.And, the undermentioned charts are showed the importance of benefits among employees and human resource professionals ( SHRM, 2009 ) .Here, we compare the importance and satisfaction with compensation and benefits facets among employees ‘ , which has been showed in the followers ( provided by SHRM, 2009 ) .
John and Sons ( 1993 ) stated that the easiest manner to the morale, productiveness, and employees ‘ work quality is to efficaciously honor employees ‘ . Here, compensation and benefits play a critical function. It is of import to retrieve that developing and implementing a meaningful, cost-efficient wages system is one of the important challenges confronting by organisations today. Workers prefer occupations that reward them on the footing of what they perceive as economically justifiable ( Robbins, 1991 ) . It is non the sum of money one receives but it ‘s the occupation pay congruity based on worker perceptual experience that leads to occupation satisfaction ( Chimanikire, Mutandwa, Gadzirayi, Muzondo & A ; Mutandwa, 2007 ) .Generous wagess tend to retain people because high wages degrees lead to high occupation satisfaction, committedness, and trueness ( Chiu, Luk & A ; Tang, 2002 ) . Therefore, when employees feel they are non being rewarded as they expected, it will diminish their occupation satisfaction, motive may endure, taking to low morale and low quality public presentation.
For illustration, if one perceived equity about the benefits that one received from one ‘s employer, this may take to higher occupation satisfaction ( Buffardi, Smith, O’Brien & A ; Erdwins,2002 ; Dickhart, 2005 ; William & A ; Dreher,1992 ) .Note that, the three elements of compensation which are base- salary, overtime wage ( OT ) and fillip is the most popular offered to employees. Here, allow utilize some illustrations of constituents of compensation to convey its relationship with employees ‘ occupation satisfaction. Base-salary is identified as a “ hygiene factor ” and as such this could do employee occupation dissatisfaction if a base salary outlook is non realized ( Joseph & A ; Robert, 1995 ) . DeVaney and Chen ( 2003 ) proposed that wage or income as one of the chief variable that significantly influences employees ‘ occupation satisfaction. This is consistent with Sur, Mumcu, Soylemez, Atli and Idrim ( 2004 ) survey of touristry employees in Turkey who indicated that income was an of import factor impacting occupation satisfaction. Besides, Bonner ( 1997 ) obverses that overtime wage ( OT ) and bonus have positive relationship with occupation satisfaction.Besides, there are two elements of benefits which are allowances and work-life balance is more frequently offered to employees.
Here, allow utilize some illustrations of constituents of benefits to convey its relationship with employees ‘ occupation satisfaction. Based on Bonner ( 1997 ) , wellness plans including benefits, conveyance allowance, medical allowance and etc, have positive relationships with occupation satisfaction of employees. Consequences of the survey revealed that handiness of allowances had a important impact on occupation satisfaction. These consequences are consistent with Onu, Madukwe and Agwu ( 2005 ) survey in Nigeria who observed that auspicious conditions of service are of import facets of occupation satisfaction.
Work-life balance plans have been demonstrated to hold an impact on employees in footings of enlisting, keeping or turnover, committedness and occupation satisfaction, absenteeism, productiveness and accident rates ( Melissa, 2007 ) . Furthermore, occupation satisfaction is found to be negatively correlated with work to household intervention. Burke and Green Glass ( 1999 ) found that the employees are more satisfied and committed to their occupation if organisations are supportive of work life balance.Ali and Akhter ( 2009 ) have done the research in higher instruction industry. Based on the research, Ali and Akhter showed that the old proverb “ you get what you for ” tend to be true when it comes to staff members. If persons believe they are non compensated good, they will be unhappy.
Normally higher instruction this industry in our state provides less compensation comparison with other industry. Universities may offer comparable wages and benefits to retain compatible staffs.In drumhead, many researches from different industry have been devoted into the field of the influence of compensation and benefits towards occupation satisfaction among university employees ‘ . Although the consequences of the literature reappraisal are somewhat different, the positive relationship between compensation and benefits and employee occupation satisfaction is still being pointed out.
This chapter is illustrates the research methodological analysis explored in the present survey. In chapter three, six subdivisions will be examined. Section 3.
2 will be including the theoretical model of the research. The hypotheses development is discussed in Section 3.3.
Furthermore, Section 3.4 references about the beginnings of the research informations that utilizing in the research. Section 3.5 describes the informations aggregation methods of the research. Next, trying, design and technique that utilizing in the research showed in Section 3.6. Last, chapter three ends with a treatment on the information analysis of the research.
A theoretical model is a conceptual theoretical account of how one theorizes or makes sense of the relationship among the several factors that have been defined as of import to the job.
Here, theoretical model will be discusses the interrelatednesss among dependent variable and independent variable. Based on theoretical model of the research, the independent variable is compensation and benefits. Compensation can split into three elements, which are basal salary, overtime wage ( OT ) and fillip, whereas benefits can divided into two elements, which are include allowances and work-life balance. The dependent variable of the research is employee occupation satisfaction. From the theoretical model, it ‘s showed the influences of compensation and benefits towards employees ‘ occupation satisfaction.
A hypothesis is defines as a logically conjectured relationship between two or more variables expressed in the signifier of a testable statement. As mentioned earlier in the theoretical model, there are two footings which are the compensation and benefits influence occupation satisfaction among university staffs. Based on the study study conducted by Society for Human Resource Management ( 2009 ) , compensation and benefits has a positive relationship with employees ‘ occupation satisfaction.
Here, there are five hypotheses on this research survey.
Compensation- Base Salary
Base wage is an sum paid for a peculiar occupation, irrespective of worked hr, and these employees are called “ exempt ” ( Enotes.com, 2008 ) . DeVaney and Chen ( 2003 ) observe that base wage as one of the chief variables that significantly influences employees ‘ occupation satisfaction. Based on the research conducted by Terpstra, David, Andre and Honoree ( 2004 ) , universities that have overall salary degrees that are externally competitory are more likely to hold university staffs that are more satisfied with their occupations and with their wage. Hence, the undermentioned hypotheses are proposed:Hypotheses 1:H0: There is no important relationship between base wage and occupation satisfaction among university staffs.H1: There is a important relationship between base wage and occupation satisfaction among university staffs.
Compensation-Overtime Pay ( OT )
Based on the answers.
com ( 2008 ) , overtime wage is ever included in hard currency compensation. It is the wage to clip worked in surplus of an agreed upon clip for normal on the job hours by an single employee. Overtime wage ( OT ) is defines as the payment of premium clip and one-half rates in signifier of pecuniary compensation or clip off is required for hours worked in surplus of 40 in one a hebdomad, with exclusion of those considered exempt ( Anonymous, 2007 ) .
Bonner ( 1997 ) proposed that overtime wage ( OT ) have a positive relationship with employees ‘ occupation satisfaction. With this, the undermentioned hypotheses are being developed:Hypotheses 2:H0: There is no important relationship between overtime wage ( OT ) and occupation satisfaction among university staffs.H1: There is a important relationship between overtime wage ( OT ) and occupation satisfaction among university staffs.
Bonus is refers as a hard currency payment provided to employees based on their public presentation. For illustration, pecuniary inducements for accomplishing occupation marks ( Bloom & A ; Milkovich, 1998 ; Gupta & A ; Shaw, 1998 ; Lowery, Beadles, Petty, Amsler & A ; Thompson, 2002 ) . Bonuss are progressively linked to wider concern ends, replacing the traditional focal point on end product or net income steps. Bonner ( 1997 ) stated that fillip have a positive relationship with employees ‘ occupation satisfaction. Harmonizing to what has mentioned on above, the undermentioned hypotheses are being developed:Hypotheses 3:H0: There is no important relationship between fillip and occupation satisfaction among university staffs.
H1: There is a important relationship between fillip and occupation satisfaction among university staffs.
Allowances is frequently related to extra fiscal wagess lawfully provided to employees based on the employment contract or organisation related service, for illustration, amusement allowance or allowance fixed for peculiar occupations or service strategies ( Bergmann & A ; Scarpello, 2002 ; Milkivich & A ; Newman, 2008 ) . Onu, Madukwe and Agwu ( 2005 ) proposed that allowance had a important impact on occupation satisfaction.
With this, the undermentioned hypotheses are being developed:Hypotheses 4:H0: There is no important relationship between the sum of allowances and occupation satisfaction among university staffs.H1: There is a important relationship between the sum of allowances and occupation satisfaction among university staffs.
Benefits-Work Life Balance
Work-life balance is about making and keeping supportive and healthy work environments, which will enable employees to hold balance between work and personal duties and therefore beef up employee trueness and productiveness ( Melissa, 2007 ) . Muhammedi and Qaisar ( 2009 ) stated that a supportive direction is required to minimise the struggle between work and household. Top direction should recognize the importance of work life balance and its inauspicious affect on occupation satisfaction.
Besides, satisfaction with the HR patterns, such as household friendly policies reduced the intervention of work in the household and therefore additions occupation satisfaction ( Kinnie, Hutchinson, Purcell, Rayton & A ; Swart, 2005 ) . Hence, the undermentioned hypotheses are proposed:Hypotheses 5:H0: There is no important relationship between work life balance and occupation satisfaction among university staffs.H1: There is a important relationship between work life balance and occupation satisfaction among university staffs.
Beginnings of Research Data
In this research, both primary and secondary informations are used. Primary beginnings means that the beginnings are original beginnings signifier which researcher straight collects informations and it have non been collected by others researcher. Therefore, primary informations are first manus by the research worker on the variable of for the specific intent of the survey. Basically, the primary informations will be obtained from the replies of the study forms that will administer by the respondents and the analysis of the study. For illustration, unrefined informations, tabular array, figure collected from study, questionnaire, experiments and etc, to which a significance or reading.
Beginnings of primary informations include persons, focal point groups and panels. On the other manus, secondary beginnings mean the beginnings incorporating informations which have been collected and compiled for another intent. Therefore, secondary informations are the researches or informations done by other research workers. Basically, we can seek secondary informations from diary, web site, books, newspaper, authorities and other states ‘ statistical studies and article.
Data Collection Methods
To understand the influences of compensation and benefits towards occupation satisfaction among university staffs, questionnaires will be used to roll up informations. In this research, questionnaires are the chief informations aggregation method to be used. The ground of utilizing questionnaires is because research workers can roll up back the completed responses in a short period of clip. Distributing questionnaires to big figure of respondents at the same clip is low cost. Therefore, it is an efficient and effectual manner to obtain informations from a big figure of respondents. Besides, mail questionnaires besides have been used in this research. By utilizing mail questionnaires a broad geographical country can be covered in this study. Respondents can finish the study at place, therefore it give convenience to the respondent.
To acquire a good questionnaire design, its demand to developing the questionnaires and proving it. Therefore, it can be time-consuming and complex. Pilot trial will be used to guarantee the questionnaires design. In the pilot trial, approximately 15 or 20 respondents will be given the questionnaires to make full in. From the informations collected from little group of respondents, the dependability and cogency of the inquiry can be accessed.
Besides, by making the pilot trial, research worker can happen out and understand which inquiry has job. Therefore, research workers can take some accommodation to the questionnaires design. After completed the questionnaires design, the questionnaire signifier will be distributed to the respondents in this research.
Sampling, Design and Technique
The trying methods can split into chance sampling and non-probability sampling. Probability sampling is based on the theory of chance. Basically, the elements in the population have some known opportunity or chance to being selected as sample topics. On the other manus, non-probability is non based on the theory of chance.
Basically, the elements do non hold a known opportunity of being selected. Since the research is study about the influences of compensation and benefits towards occupation satisfaction among university staffs, the simple random trying attack is being used.A simple random trying attack are gives each component an equal and independent opportunity of being selected. The population of this research is widely unfastened to all the administrative staffs who are working in private or public universities.
These people can be the employees from selling, fiscal, human resources, proficient and etc. Peoples who are selected besides will be from low-level place to high-ranking place. The questionnaires signifiers will be distributed to 400 employees who working in universities in Malaysia. The questionnaires will be distributed indiscriminately in the universities located at Kuala Lumpur, Malacca and Perak. Therefore, these 400 employees will be the sample size of this research.
After collected all the informations, the collected informations will be analysis by utilizing Social Package for Social Science ( SPSS ) . Besides, the descriptive statistics such as frequence, per centum, norm, and standard divergence will be used to depict the information. To analysis the information colleted, the analysis of discrepancy ( ANOVA ) , saloon chart and pie chart will being used.
Besides, to mensurate the relationship between the independent variable and dependent variable, the pearson correlativity is being used. The correlativity is one of the most common and utile statistics. Two variables are named as Ten and Y.
If the correlativity, R is zero, it means there is no additive relationship between X and Y. Furthermore, to beef up the dependability and cogency of the information analysis, the dependability trial is being used. Last, based on Sekaran ( 2003 ) , preciseness and assurance are of import issues in sampling because when sample informations is used to pull illations about the population, the consequence should be reasonably “ on mark ” , and have some thought of the extent of possible mistake.
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