Questions Bussines Essay
In a short essay, list and explain the six key elements in designing an organization’s structure. a. Work specialization this concept describes the degree to which tasks in an organization are divided into separate jobs. b.
Departmentalization the basis by which jobs are grouped together is called departmentalization. The five common forms of departmentalization include functional, product, geographical, process, and customer departmentalization. c. Chain of command this is the continuous line of authority that extends from upper organizational levels to the lowest levels and clarifies who reports to whom.
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. Span of control this concept is important because, to a large degree, it determines the number of levels and managers an organization has. e. Centralization and decentralization centralization describes the degree to which decision making is concentrated at a single point in the organization. f. Formalization this refers to the degree to which jobs within the organization are standardized and the extent to which employee behavior is guided by rules and procedures. 2.
In a short essay, list five of the six major sources of potential job candidates.Include a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each major source to support your answer. a. Internet the advantages are that this source can reach large numbers of people and can get immediate feedback. The disadvantage is that it generates many unqualified candidates. b. Employee referrals the advantages include knowledge about the organization may be provided by current employee and can generate strong candidates because a good referral reflects on the recommender. A disadvantage is that this source may not increase the diversity and mix of employees.
. Internal source the advantages include low cost, builds employee morale, and candidates are familiar with the organization. The disadvantages include limited supply and this source may not increase the proportion of employees from protected groups. d. Company Web site the advantages include wide distribution and this source can be targeted to specific groups.
A major disadvantage is that it may generate many unqualified candidates. e. College recruiting one advantage is that there is a large centralized body of candidates.
The disadvantage is this source is limited to entry-level positions. f. Professional recruiting organizations the advantage is that the candidates have a good knowledge of industry challenges and requirements. The disadvantage is candidates have little commitment to the specific organization. 3. In a short essay, list and describe the four most common types of teams likely to be found in today’s organizations. a.
Problem-solving teams these teams are teams from the same department or functional area who are involved in efforts to improve work activities or to solve specific problems. . Self-managed teams these teams are formal groups of employees who operate without a manager and are responsible for a complete work process or segment. c.
Cross-functional teams these teams are a hybrid grouping of individuals who are experts in various specialties and who work together on various tasks. d. Virtual teams these are teams that use computer technology to link physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal. 4. In a short essay, explain organizational change.
Then briefly discuss the three types of change.Most managers, at one point or another, will have to make changes in some aspects of their workplace. We classify these changes as organizational change which is any alteration of people, structure, or technology. Organizational changes often need someone to act as a catalyst and assume the responsibility for managing the change process that is, a change agent. There are three types: structure, technology, and people. Changing structure includes any change in structural variables such as reporting relationships, coordination mechanisms, employee empowerment, or job redesign.Because an organization’s structure is defined in terms of work specialization, departmentalization, chain of command, span of control, centralization and decentralization, and formalization, managers can alter one or more of these structural components.
Another option would be to make major changes in the actual structural design. Changing technology encompasses modifications in the way work is performed or the methods and equipment that are used. Competitive factors or new innovations within an industry often require managers to introduce new equipment, tools, or operating methods.Automation is a technological change that replaces certain tasks done by people with tasks done by machines. Probably the most visible technological changes in recent years, though, have come through managers’ efforts to expand computerization.
Most organizations have sophisticated information systems. Changing people refers to changes in attitudes, expectations, perceptions, and behavior of individuals or groups. The term organizational development (OD), though occasionally referring to all types of change, essentially focuses on techniques or programs to change people and the nature and quality of interpersonal work relationships.