Prostate included in the blood test to

            Prostatecancer is relatively critical and serious disease among men especially those above40 years old which is death-causing. In 2004, approximately 230110men were found out with prostate cancer and 29900 of them were died from thiscancer in United States (Albertsen,2005).

There are some common signs and symptoms for those suffered fromprostate cancer such as frequent urination, blood in urine or semen, burningsensation during ejaculation and urination. Thus, the biomarker for prostatecancer such as prostate specific antigen (PSA) is included in the blood test tocheck on the level of this protein whether it is under normal range that canindicate the presence of prostate cancer. In fact, numerous factorscould be led to prostate cancer initiation.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

For instance, gene mutation,inflammation and abnormal increased the rate of cell proliferation(Ramalingam, Ramamurthy and Njar, 2017) will give rise to prostate cancer. This cancer also associatedwith dysregulation of PI3K/AKT pathway and other signalling pathway. When allthese pathways are not regulated or well-controlled, it leads to reduction inapoptotic rate, tumour progression and metastasis (Claudio, 2016) and this willsubstantially increase the risk from getting prostate cancer.             Inflammationand abnormal cell proliferation can cause the epithelium of normal prostateinitiate the cascading, which induce the lesions to form. This directly gives aprimary prostate cancer or proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) and simultaneously,it stimulates an intermediate stage known as prostatic intraepithelialneoplasia (PIN) (Ramalingam, Ramamurthy and Njar, 2017).

Otherthan that, there are a lot of scientific proofs elucidating that the applicationof molecular and pathological analysis with prostate cancer of human and animalmodel depicted that infectious agents, estrogenic hormone, age, race, genetic andenvironmental factors can quicken the deterioration in the prostate epitheliumand provoke inflammation which might be attributed to make prostate cancer toreach critical level (Ramalingam, Ramamurthy and Njar, 2017).            Lastly,the pathways are inter-connected and regulated to have a normal prostate due tothe effect of cross-talk mechanism. Androgen receptors (AR) regulation is oneof the major pathways must be under control to avoid prostate cancer. Thosepathways involve with the kinase and the phosphorylation actions are the corewhereby related to the development and progression of prostate cancer.

Besides,molecular changes also responsible and produce androgen-independence prostatecancer cells (Ramalingam, Ramamurthy and Njar, 2017) which promote itsprogression. 


I'm Ruth!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out