Production Technique and Raw Materials Essay
3 Production Technique and Raw MaterialsThere are many type of natural stuff that normally use as a substrate for the production of citric acid. Hydrocarbons, starchy stuffs, agro-industrial waste residue and molasses have been used as substrate for the commercial production of citric acid. Molassess, a byproduct of sugar industry is preferred than other natural stuffs due to its lower costs and the higher sugar contain that is ( 40 % -55 % ) in the signifier of saccharose, glucose and fruit sugar.However, there are assorted factor that will impact the composing of the molasses like the assortment type of Beta vulgaris and cane, methods of cultivation of fertilisers and harvests, the pesticides that is applied during cultivation, status of storage and e.t.c ( Soccolet.al,2006 ) .
The Beta vulgaris molasses is more preferred to used than cane molasses because of the higher output production of citric acid and lower content of the hint metal. Since the hint metal which have retarding consequence on the synthesis of citric acid ( Grewal & A ; Kalra, 1995 ) .There are besides many assortment of natural stuff have besides been used for the citric acid agitation.
Table 1.1 shows the assortment of natural stuff that is used with different type of agitation that is used with the per centum of the output.Table 1.1 Raw stuffs used for citric acerb agitation.
|Raw Material||Type of Agitation||Output ( % )||Mention|
|Turnip whey||Surface||27-46a||( Chandaet.al,1990 )|
|Carob sugar||Surface||46-60a||( Macris, 1975 )|
|Brewery waste||Surface||78.5a||( Roukas & A ; Kotzekidou, 1986 )|
|Whey permeate||Submerged||19-33a||( Somkuti & A ; Bencivengo, 1981 )|
|Date sirup||Submerged||60a||( Al-Obaidi & A ; Berry, 1979 )|
|Apple Pomace||Solid province ( SSF )||88a||( Hang & A ; Woodams, 1984 )|
|Mandarin Orange Waste||SSF||55-65B||( Kumagai, Usami, & A ; Hattori, 1981 )|
a-based on sugar consumeb-based on entire sugar1.6 Factor Affecting Citric Acid ProductionCitric acid ( CA ) production can be affected by the fluctuation of the civilization status.
It is indispensable that average civilization contains major food like C, N, P, growing factor and hint metals to achieve the higher output production of citric acid. Table 1.2 shows the summarize of the chemical that will impact the citric acid production. The agitation besides is influenced by the physical factor such as aeration, temperature and pH.1.6.1 Chemical factor that impacting citric acid productiona ) Carbon BeginningsThe accretion of citric acid is strongly affected by the type and the concentration of the C beginnings.
The micro-organism will quickly taken up the saccharides for the production of the citric acid.Hossein et. , Al.
( 1984 ) had reported that saccharose is the most preferred C followed by glucose, fructose and lactose. The concentration of C beginnings for the maximal production rate of citric acid is 14-22 % sugar concentration and 10-14 % for the optimal production rate ; no production will happen at the concentration of C that is less than 2.5 % ( Grewal & A ; Kalra, 1995 ) . ( Grewal & A ; Kalra, 1995 ) . However, for the micro-organism that is usedA.
niger, the maximal production of the citric acid is at the concentration of C in the optimal concentration. Since, high sucrose concentration will take to lower output and increased polyol information ( Grewal & A ; Kalra, 1995 ) .B ) Nitrogen BeginningsConcentration and the nature of N beginning will straight impact the citric acid production.
The add-on of N beginnings salts such as urea, ammonium nitrate, sulfate, peptane, malt infusion and e.t.c will impact the fungous growing and the synthesis of citric acid ( Soccolet.al,2006 ) .Nitrogen ingestion in the media will take to diminishing of pH which is of import in the agitation procedure. However, the pH at the beginning of the agitation demand to be maintain for the biomass production ( Vandernbergheet. , Al.
,1999 ) .The concentration of N beginning that is required for the citric acid agitation is about 0.1 to 0.4N/L, since a high N concentration can take down the output of citric acid, even though it can increase the fungous growing and sugar ingestion ( Soccolet.al,2006 ) .degree Celsius ) PhosphorusThe nowadays of the phosphate in the medium will give a great consequence on the output of citric acid, since its act as the degree of enzyme activity and non the degree of cistron look.
The extra concentration of phosphate in the medium was shown to take the formation of certain sugar acid, a lessening in the arrested development of CO2and the stimulation of the growing ( Vandernbergheet. , Al.,1999 ) .The most suited beginning of phosphate to the medium is Potassium dihydrogen phosphate ( Vandernbergheet. , Al.,1999 ) .For the fungus micro-organism the P had been reported at concentration 0.5 to 5.
0 g/L ( Shu & A ; Johnson, 1948 ) .The concentration of phosphate will be different harmonizing to the strains used.vitamin E ) Trace elementsTrace elements such as Zn, manganese, Fe, Cu and Mg may likely the chief factor that will act upon the output production of citric acid byA.
niger( Dhillionet. , al.2011 ).For the higher output production of citric acid, it is of import to see the type of agitation, physiological demand of the micro-organism with the concentration of different hint metal ( Dhillionet.
, al.2011 ) .Different hint elements give different consequence of the production of citric acid.
Table 1.2 shows the different consequence of the hint component at the production of citric acid. Pretreatment is needed in the procedure if the hint component concentration is higher. Concentration of the hint metal in civilization media can be controlled by purify the medium in order to take certain metal ions, so added known sum of the needed metal ion and another method is to add metal chelating agent to the medium to diminish the concentration of free metal ions with the needed sum. This 2nd method can move as ”metal buffer ” which reversibly dissociates to let go of Fe as they are utilize by by the turning micro-organism ( Dhillionet.
, al.2011 ) .degree Fahrenheit ) Lower intoxicantLower intoxicant will heighten the production of citric acid if added into rough saccharides but it will suppress the citric acid production when added in pure stuff.Ingram and Buttke ( 1984 ) had studied and found that intoxicant will excite citric acid production by impacting growing and through the alterations in lipid composing of the cell wall every bit good as monogenesis on infinite organisation of the membrane. Alcohol beginning neutralize the negative consequence of metals in citric acid production, that as already given at the Table 1.2 with the needed concentration.
g ) Other compoundsSome compounds such as Ca fluoride, Na fluoride and K fluoride Acts of the Apostless as inhibitors of metamorphosis to speed up the citric acid production ( Vandernbergheet. , Al.,1999 ) .However other compound like K ferrocyanide has been found to diminish the production output of citric acid. There are besides many compounds that can assist to roll up the citric acid production by impair the action of metal ions and other toxic compound that influence the growing at the initial stage ( Vandernbergheet. , Al.
,1999 ) .In add-on oil and fat besides used in the production of citric acid to command the froth formation ( Soccolet.al,2006 ) .
The lipid stuffs such as vegetable oils can besides increase the output production by act as a C beginnings and will devour during the agitation.