Problem Of Losing The Colour Biology Essay

Consumers of hair coloring merchandises face a common job of losing the coloring material after a certain period of clip, which requires frequent repeats of the coloring intervention. How can you continue color keeping for colour-treated hair?Coloured hairs play an of import function in the universe of manner. Concept of hair coloring material was occurred many old ages ago and people were utilizing the works and minerals to color the hair. Keratin, eumelanin and phaeomelanin are proteins which are responsible for coloring material of the hairs. Ingredients are used for readying of the hair dye including dissolver, wetting agent, base, buffer, intoxicant, conditioner, developer and dye precursor.

These constituents impart the coloring material to the hairs by surfacing, perforating in to the cuticle and or by lodging coloring material on to cortex. But dye precursors are used in the high concentration in these yearss which is responsible for the allergic reaction, harm of hair. To accomplish long permanent consequence of the lasting hair coloring materials while cut downing their side consequence, henna is used in the preparation.

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Henna being natural colorant, has fewer side effects, moreover it is inexpensive and easy available. Lawsone molecule, present in henna colours the hair by adhering to the hair shaft and ceratin. From this survey it can be concluded that the color keeping of lasting coloring material of colored hair can improved by adding natural dyes such as henna and the hurtful effects of dyes can be decreased by cut downing the per centum of the dye precursor parity phenylene diamine.

Problem statement

Nowadays hair coloring material plays an of import function in society.

Concept of hair dye is occurs many old ages ago when people utilizing workss and minerals for coloring to hair. Recently man-made dyes are used which incorporating following ingredients ; ( 1 )Table 1: Components of hair coloring material with its maps ( 5 )




SolventDye vehicleWater, propene ethanediolWetting agentFoaming, inspissatingSodium lauryl sulfate, ceteareth-25, cocoamide MEA, oleth-5BaseSwell hair, decoloringAmmonia, monoethanolamineBufferStabilize, consistentDisodium phosphate, citric acidDye precursorsImpart coloring material1-napthol, P- Phenylenediamine, P-aminophenol.AlcoholCreamCetearyl intoxicant, glyceryl stearateConditionersConditioningCetrimonium chlorideDeveloperOxidant, decoloringHydrogen peroxideHenna, black walnut shells etc natural colorants are used for coloring hair. Main disadvantage of natural coloring material is, the coloring material is non a long lasting.

Natural coloring material gives colour by surfacing shaft of hair. After shampooing coloring material will vanish after few yearss. Dyes which contain man-made ingredients such as PPD, ammonium hydroxide, H peroxide etc cause allergic reactions and harm to the hair. Mechanism of lasting coloring material is to take original coloring material of hair and in topographic point of original coloring material attention deficit disorder hair coloring material which is being used. ( 3 ) Permanent coloring material should non be easy washable by shampooing to demo the long permanent consequence. New growing of the hair is non affected by hair dye therefore periodical reapplication of hair dye is necessary.

To avoid the repeat of dye lasting hair coloring material is used. ( 2 )

Summary of preferable solution

Eugene Schuler a Gallic scientist who used hair coloring materials commercially in 1909. He used p-phenylenediamine as a coloring agent in hair coloring material.

At that clip he established a little graduated table industry. After few old ages the name was changed to L’Oreal, one of the best hair dye industry. In 1950 about 7 % of American adult females used hair dyes but today 75 % of American adult females are coloring their hair with dyes. ( 7 ) .

Keratin ( protein ) is a chief component of a hair, nails and tegument. Hair besides contains a two more proteins eumelanin and phaeomelanin which is responsible for their natural coloring material. Eumelanin covers black to brown hair and phaeomelanin shows aureate blond, ginger, and ruddy colors.

Color is changing between how much per centums of sum of that protein nowadays in hair. If this type of melanin is absent in persons so hair shows either white or grey coloring material. ( 3 )For readying of effectual hair coloring material, lasting hair coloring material should be incorporating a dye for color and developer for the gap of a cuticle which is an outer bed of a hair. The concentration of each ingredient varies in all lasting hair dye. Peoples choose a lasting hair dye which is best suited for their hair and skin color. Ingredients which are used in hair dyes cause side effects depends on the grade of concentration they are used.


Ingredients of normally used hair dyes:


Ammonia water:Most of the expensive hair color trade names such as Garnier, Pantene, Sunsilk do n’t utilize ammonia, as it may do tegument allergic reaction, annoyance and hair loss. Ammonia swells the hair and acts as a bleaching agent.

Unlike hyderogen peroxide it does non move as a coloring material developer. Along with decoloring action it besides act as conditioning agent. In our proposed expression, natural colorant henna, it shows conditioning belongingss.

P-Phenylene diamine ( PPD ) :Most of the lasting hair dyes contain PPD because it is really effectual than any other dyeing agent. But in PDD incorporating dye, add-on of coloring material developer is necessary, which may do side effects. Concentration scope of PPD is really short, means it is effectual in really low concentration ( 0.04 % -0.250 % ) .Hydrogen peroxide:It acts as developer or oxidizing agent.

Hydrogen peroxide is used to open cuticle and shows the long permanent hair color consequence. If the sum of developer is increased, so big sum of sulfur is lost from hair. Such sulphur loss causes the hardness of hair hence the concentration of developer such as H peroxide is maintained 3 – 12 % .

In the decorative industry assorted types of chemicals are used to fix hair dyes which are extremely reactive. Water plays an of import function in the light speed of dyes on the fibers of the hair. Water gets diffused into hair to ease O and do the puffiness of fibers. By the aid of the thermic transmutation and 310nm exposure transmutation we can analyze what O does into hair when it enters. Categorization of hair dyes are depend on ingredient used and retention clip of dye on hair. On this footing hair dyes are classified as follows ;Impermanent dyes:The atom size of ingredients used in these dye are big in size, which ca n’t come in cuticle. Color atoms are adsorbed and can be easy removed by shampooing.Semi-permanent dyes:In semi -permanent hair dye size of atom is smaller than that of impermanent dyes.

The atoms partly penetrate into cuticle and it will be washed out after 12 – 24 shampoos. It contains really low degrees of oxidizing agent and ammonia hence can be used for damaged hair.Permanent dyes:This coloring material is non wholly lasting. It gets faded after several washes. It is really easy to do a dark hair into a light shadiness by utilizing these dyes. First hair is lightened and so application of coloring material is done.

( 8 )Mechanism of lasting hair coloring material:Cuticle is an outer bed of a hair shaft and it should be opened first before the lasting coloring material entered into the hair. After opening of cuticle coloring material reaction takes topographic point with interior bed of the hair that is cortex and coloring material is bound to the cerebral mantle. In most of the instances lasting coloring material shows lightning of a hair followed by the deposition of a new coloring material. Permanent hair coloring material contains oxidizing agent or developers such as peroxide.

The function of oxidizing agent is to take bing coloring materials by interrupting the chemical bonds in hair strand. Besides contain alkalizing agent such as ammonium hydroxide, utile for the gap of the cuticle and deposition of coloring material on the cerebral mantle. When oxidizing agent and alkalizing agent come together a chemical reaction occurs. Because of this chemical reaction cuticle gets swelled and entry of colored pigment into the cerebral mantle takes topographic point. ( 3 ) Melanin is present in the cerebral mantle which is being lightened and in topographic point of original coloring material dye coloring material is obtained.

Conditioners and intoxicants besides added in the hair coloring material. Aim of conditioner is to shut the cuticle after completion of coloring and forestall new coloring material from easy wash out. Characteristic smell of hair coloring material is because of sulfur which is released during chemical reaction. ( 4 )

Figure 2 Consequence of natural and chemical dyes on hair ( 6 )



Henna is natural coloring agent used for hair dyeing. Henna is scientifically called as Lawsonia inermis, normally known as henna or ruddy henna. The foliages of Lawsonia contain a reddish-orange dye pigment known as Lawsone ( hennotannic acid ) .

Chemically, the molecule of Lawsone is 2-hydroxy-1, 4-naphthoquinone.Advantages of henna ( 10 ) :Henna acts as an Anti bacterial, anti fungal and styptic.Henna conditions the hair.

Henna controls reoccurrence of dandruff.Henna makes hair soft, strong, tangle free and cures disconnected terminals.In market black henna and impersonal henna are besides available, but really they do non incorporate henna. Black henna is obtained from a works called Indigofera tinctoria and Neutral henna is obtained from the works Cassia obovata.Black henna, which is known to incorporate p-phenylenediamine ( PPD ) stains the hair black but causes allergic reactions to teguments.

Henna releases dye onto the hair optimally in acidic, humid and warm environment, due to these optimum conditions colour keeping clip will be increased for some clip. However usage of lemon juice with henna can be excessively rough for the scalp ( 12 ) .The strength of developed coloring material depends upon the natural coloring material of hair. If the natural coloring material of hair is dark so the coloring material developed by henna will be dark.The original henna i.

e. , Lawsonia inermis shows assorted species holding ruddy, white, pink and xanthous flowers. The workss with white flowers are used in the readying of the dye. Cloves can be added to henna to acquire dark colorss. Neutral henna contains a aureate dye molecule that stains gray hair into yellow.We can acquire other colorss by utilizing henna and mixture of other dyes or metallic salts. Henna when assorted with other works dyes gives assorted colorss these include ( 11 ) ,Natural ruddy: hennaViolet: anilBrown: henna and woadAGolden: henna and sadr ( Crocus sativus ) AChestnut brown: henna and woadADark warm brown henna: karchak and vashmaABlack henna: A karchak, vashma and anil

How Henna Works on Hair

Diagram of Henna Dyeing Hair

Diagram of Henna Dyed Hair

Henna hair dye color chart ( 9 ) :

Henna coloring material

Your natural hair coloring material

Light blonde



Dark blonde

Light brown

Med. Brown

Dark brown

ImpersonalConditioning consequenceConditioning consequenceConditioning consequenceConditioning consequenceConditioning consequenceConditioning consequenceAuburnGolden auburnCoppery aburnAuburnSoft auburn brownMed.auburn blackWarm coppery blackBlackRed blackRed blackRed blackAsh brownRich ash brownDark ash brownBright redBright redMed. Bright redRich bright ruddyBright ruddy brownBright auburnRich coppery brownBurgundyRich BourgogneMed. BurgundyBurgundysBurgundyRich BourgogneDeep BourgogneDark brownMed. brownRich brownMed. Rich brownWarm brownRich coppery brownDeep coppery brownLight brownLight honey brownHoney brownRich honey brownLight aureate brownMed. Golden brownWarm coppery brownLight redSoft visible radiation red blondeLight red blondeLight naturalredlight aureate brownConditioning consequenceConditioning consequenceMedium brownLight brownMedium brownRich brownWarm auburnWarm brownRich coppery brownRedRedMed.

RedNatural redRed brownauburnWarm auburn

Catherine Cartwright-Jones ‘s Quick Mix Chart

If your hair is:

Use Cassia

Use A? cassia and A? henna

Use Henna

Use 2/3 henna and 1/3 anil

Use A? henna and A? anil

Use 1/3 henna and 2/3 anil

Use Henna foremost, so indigo


Glossy blondeStrawberry blondeVivid redLight brownMedium brownDarker brownBlack, though it make take more than one attempt to acquire complete black.

Dark Blonde

Glossy dark blondeCoppery redVibrant redLight brownMedium brownDarker brown ; it may take more than one application to acquire it.Black, it may take more than one attempt to acquire complete black.


Glossy redWarm redVibrant redRed brownMedium brownDarker brown ; it may take more than one application to acquire it.Black, it may take more than one attempt to acquire complete black.

Medium Brown

Glossy medium brownRed high spotsAuburnMedium BrownMedium brownDark brownBlue-black

Dark Brown

Glossy dark brownRed high spotsDark AuburnDark BrownWarm brownDark brownBlue-black


Glossy blackSlight red high spotsBlack with ruddy playWarm BlackWarm blackWarm blackBlue-black


GrayGolden CuCoppery redLight brownMedium brown, though it may take more than one application to acquire full coloring material.

Dark brown, though it may take more than one application to acquire full coloring material.Black, though it make take more than one application to acquire full coloring material

Oxidative hair dyes:

In US the oxidative hair dyes holding about 80 % market portions. Oxidative dyes contain oxidising agent ( developer ) , ammonia as an alkalizing agent. Primary intermediates, oxidizers and couplings are normally used ingredients in the modern oxidative dyes. Some illustrations of the primary intermediates and couplings are as follows:Primary intermediates: Para- Phenylenediamine ( PPD ) , para-toluenediamine ( PTD ) , Para- diamine, ortho- or Para- aminophenol.These primary intermediates are used in preparation in different proportion as 0.

05 % used in light shade dyes and 2.0 % used in dark shade dyes.Couplings: meta-phenylene- diamines, meta-aminophenol, resorcinolCouplings gives a concluding coloring material shadiness to hair by carry oning an oxidising reaction with a primary intermediates. There is equal proportion of primary intermediates and couplings in modernOxidative dyes as molar ratio of 1:1.Hydrogen peroxide and ammonium hydroxide are used in the dyes readying as oxidant and alkalinising agent severally. ( 13 )Para-phenylenediamine is the chief substance which is mostly used in the oxidative hair dyes.

Recently Para- phenylenediamine have been by experimentation observed that it is Allergen. When the PPD is used into repeatedly in 0.3 % , the skin country gets accumulated and may do dermatitis. Children are really sensitive to PPD allergic reaction and may even necessitate hospitalization in terrible instances.hypertext transfer protocol: // may happen in some rare instances due to allergy of para-phenylenediamine. Skin inflammation is besides one of the inauspicious consequence occur on the organic structure tegument.

Largely it occurs on the face, manus and thorax parts of the tegument. Skin annoyance, tegument itchiness, skin roseolas are besides happening due to allergy of Para-phenylenediamine.hypertext transfer protocol: // study from the ‘British medical diary ‘ say that the allergic reactions happening due to PPD have been increase more in immature kids with usage of hair dyes.

In twentieth century the allergic reaction due to PPD have been such a critical job and because of that PPD was purely banned from hair dyes in Sweden, Germany and France.hypertext transfer protocol: // control trial to mensurate the sum of a p-phenylenediamine in the human organic structure.

Selected checks are carried out to mensurate the sum of p-phenylenediamine and its metabolites present in the human organic structure. The sum of PPD absorbed in the human organic structure due to utilize of oxidative hair dyes is really of import to guarantee safety of the dye. Large sum of a PPD may move as carcinogens or mutagens, which have been found in the TA 1538 and TA 98 strains of salmonella typhimurium and animate beings.To happen out the sum of a p-phenylenediamine and its metabolites of oxidative hair dyes in human organic structure and in coney biological fluid. There is a method called liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical sensor has been developed. This quantitative method calculate the 3 different derived functions as N, N’-p-phenylenebisacetamide, 4-aminoacetanilide and p-phenylenediamine in human piss and coney blood, urine and fecal matters.


In the experimental point of position eight healthy human voluntary were selected who had non used hair dyes last 6 months. And on other manus coneies with nightlong fasting were selected.

60mg PPD by the unwritten disposal with 10 ml H2O had been given at the clip of experiment to coneies.The urine sample collected at each clip period at an interval of 6 hours after disposal of sample. However the blood, urine and fecal matters were collected as prescribed clip period and stored at -300C boulder clay analysed it. This coney samples were centrifuged at 2000g for 30 min, and makes it deproteinized with same process.After completing with the sampling, the experiment carried out with the usage of liquid chromatography ; where the standard solutions, stock solutions are prepared from methanol-deionised H2O ( 1:1 v/v ) with 1 * 10-2mol/L of oxidative dyes. The lichrospher RP- select B analytical column were use.

The sensing has been carried out with usage of an ultraviolet sensor set at 240 and 256nm. The electrochemical sensor used at +1.0V.

Consequence and decision:

By the graphs and ciphering values of per centums sum of a p-phenylenediamine, we come to the decision that the method described to cipher p-phenylenediamine and its metabolites offers good analytical consequences and selective for such measurings in human organic structure. The marketed hair dyes contains PPD upper limit up to 2 % concentration, which has been proved to be safe for human usage and may non do carcinogenic or mutagenic symptoms.1.

Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 147 ( 2002 ) 225-231Short communicatingPhotochemical and thermic alterations of lasting hair dyesLaurence Motz-Schalck, Jacques Lemairea?-Laboratoire de Photochimie Moleculaire et Macromoleculaire, Universite Blaise Pascal, UMR CNRS 6505, F-63177 Aubiere Cedex, FranceReceived 17 July 2001 ; received in revised signifier 18 October 2001 ; accepted 23 October 20012. Journal of Dermatological ScienceReview articleTargeting to the hair follicles: Current position and potencyHanna Wosicka a, Krzysztof Cal B, *a Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznan, PolandB Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Medical University of Gdansk, Hallera 107, 80-416 Gdansk, Poland3. hypertext transfer protocol: // cited on 18 April 20104. The World of HYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: // id=3S-tkpUu7S0C & A ; pg=PA112 & A ; dq=ingredient+of+permanent+hair+colour & A ; cd=7 ” HairHYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: // id=3S-tkpUu7S0C & A ; pg=PA112 & A ; dq=ingredient+of+permanent+hair+colour & A ; cd=7 ” HYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: // id=3S-tkpUu7S0C & A ; pg=PA112 & A ; dq=ingredient+of+permanent+hair+colour & A ; cd=7 ” ColourHYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: // id=3S-tkpUu7S0C & A ; pg=PA112 & A ; dq=ingredient+of+permanent+hair+colour & A ; cd=7 ” aˆZ – Page 112John Gray – Health HYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: // q=+subject: ” Health+ & A ; +Fitness ” ” & amp ; HYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: //books. q=+subject: ” Health+ & A ; +Fitness ” ” Fitness – 2005 – 121 pages5. www. id=539 cited 28april6.http: // on 25 April7.

hypertext transfer protocol: // cited on 21 April8 hypertext transfer protocol: //

hypertext transfer protocol: // # grey10. hypertext transfer protocol: //www. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.hennaforhair.

com/science/index.html12. hypertext transfer protocol: //

pdf13 Safety appraisal of personal attention products/cosmetics and their ingredientsGerhard J. Nohynek a Eric Antignac a, Thomas Re B, Herve Toutain aa L’OREAL R & A ; D, Global Safety Evaluation, 92600 Asnieres, FranceThere are many options which are in the market but they have many inauspicious effects.1 ) KOOL-AID MIX: AKool-aid drink mix is a homemade death but it is less effectual. It does n’t supply lustre, sleek expression to hair and it ‘s a impermanent death.Side effects: A- & gt ; Unpleasant odor and farinaceous texture.

A A A – & gt ; Uneven attenuation of dye after several figure of shampooing.A A – & gt ; It gives best expression for one twenty-four hours. And we need to use once more for even colour.



2 ) Walnut: AWalnut and H2O is besides used for deceasing but it provides merely brownA coloring material. This is besides a impermanent natural colorant and it does n’t move as a conditioner.A A Side effects:A A – & gt ; It contains a toxic chemical called jugione which causes skin annoyance and even skin malignant neoplastic disease when applied to hair.A3 ) LEAD Acetate:Lead ethanoate, H peroxide, A propyleneA ethanediol, ammonium hydroxide when used imparts dark colourss.Side effects:- & gt ; This requires frequent deceasing for coloring material.

Due to patronize deceasing lead ethanoate reacts with protein and form lead sulfide which is potentially toxic ( lead toxic condition ) .- & gt ; Damages the hair.- & gt ; Disrupts bosom activity.- & gt ; Clots blood.- & gt ; Reduces intelligence.

– & gt ; Neurological jobs. Interrupt the map of encephalon neurotransmitter.- & gt ; Effects sensory and motor development.- & gt ; As it crosses the placenta in pregnant womenA it causesA fetal mortality.A The European Union banned lead ethanoate because decorative maker could non turn out it as a safer one.

It was even banned by Canada because there was intuition that it is carcinogenic and generative toxic4 ) COAL TAR:This came into history in 1900 ‘s~Coal pitch, H peroxide when used imparts merely black coloring material.Side effects:- & gt ; This has many allergic reactions and causes vesica malignant neoplastic disease.- & gt ; Skin roseola, annoyance, swelling or inflammation.- & gt ; Hair follicle annoyance, swelling or inflammation.- & gt ; Staining of tegument.

The FDA provinces that coal pitch contains about 10,000 different chemicals, of which merely about 50 % have been identified. The composing of coal pitch varies with its beginning and type of coal. Harmonizing to theA International Agency for Research on Cancer, readyings which has more than 5 per centum of rough coal pitch areA Group 1A carcinogen.

5 ) AZORUBIN:~Azorubine, H peroxide when used imparts red to strand coloring material to hair.Side effects: This has inauspicious effects such as skin puffiness.- & gt ; Skin roseolas.- & gt ; Breathing job if you ‘re exposed for a piece or for the first clip.

– & gt ; Causes bad reaction inA wheezing.Banned in US, Sweden, Norway.~Allura ruddy and H peroxide when used imparts dark ruddy coloring material. Allura red can be easy absorbed into the cuticle with less sum of H peroxide but allura ruddy has inauspicious effects such as diminishing the IQ degree.FD & A ; C red: 40.It was found that non safe due to conflicting trial consequences which are connected to malignant neoplastic disease.

It was banned in Germany, Switzerland, Norway, Belgium, Sweden, and Austria.7 ) P-Phenylenediamine:The Recent hair dye contains followingA ingredientsA p-phenylenediamine, ammonium hydroxide, H peroxide, eugenol.A Side effects of PPD:- & gt ; Cause Asthma:Long-run exposure to dye sensitizes the air passages and this cause asthma.A figure of surveies confirmed that hair stylist have asthma when compared to other population because they are more open to the dye.

– & gt ; Development of malignant neoplastic disease: ACancer is caused due to combination of several factors damaging the Deoxyribonucleic acid cells. Many surveies have been conducted to seek to find whether long-run hair dye usage causes malignant neoplastic disease, and it is controversial topic- & gt ; .Most surveies have focused on possible increased hazard of vesica malignant neoplastic disease. Some surveies have found that adult females who hadA continuouslyA used A had higher degrees of risk..

Recent surveies says that it causes non-Hodgkin’sA diseases, lymphoma, multiple myeloma and leukemia It is found that Hair stylist has more malignant neoplastic disease degrees than other.

– & gt ; .Allergic and Skin Reactions

PPD is a skin sensitiser, intending that it can excite the immune system to do a assortment of allergic reactions.

The tegument may go ruddy, blister, scabies and burn on exposure of PPD. Allergic reactions may besides do take a breathing troubles and can even be fatal.

– & gt ; Severe effects from imbibing PPD

Severe lung jobs and deceases have been reported after inadvertent consumption of PPD. Hair dyes should ever be kept out kids ‘s range to forestall accidents.Henna comes from pure dried works that contains ruddy orange dye molecule and act as little acidic mix where as Indigo is a works with dark bluish dye molecule which act as somewhat basic mix. If you apply henna on to gray hair it give coppery red coloring material where as the mixture of henna, indigo gives brunette coloring material. If you apply hennaA initiallyA and after rinsing you apply with anil it imparts black coloring material.

These colorss are lasting.Surveies raise some inquiries about the safety of hair dyes, but at this point there ‘s no footing for us to state that hair dyes pose a unequivocal hazard allergic reaction to the tegument, annoyance to oculus or may take to malignant neoplastic diseaseIn the concluding analysis, consumers will necessitate to see the deficiency of demonstrated safety when they choose to utilize hair dyes.In a old probe performed in hairdressing salons in Sweden, the contents of hair dye compounds in 22 hair dye mixtures were analysed and found to incorporate 0.004-0.250 % PPD but today standard hair dye preparations marketed in industrialised states today contain a upper limit of 2 % PPD assorted with hydrogen peroxide ( 3-12 )


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