Iycee Charles de Gaulle Summary PRO less advantageous for the power production

PRO less advantageous for the power production

PRO is a method of producing renewable energy from
the mixture of two streams with different salinity. Typically, a simple PRO
system takes in surface water and seawater on either side of the membrane in
which permeate from a dilute feed stream enters a concentrated draw stream in a
pressurized state via osmosis. Through the pressure of draw permeate mixture,
osmotic energy is converted into hydraulic energy and the pressurized water
which permeates through a PRO membrane is used to drive a hydro-turbine for
useful power extraction 140,141.

Currently, there is an increasing trend of coupling
PRO process with RO process to reduce the cost of desalination while enhancing
the power generation in PRO 140,142–144. This target can be achieved through
either diluting the seawater with PRO permeates or utilize the concentrated
brine of RO as a draw solution of PRO 145. Furthermore, the PRO dilutes the
concentration of the brine and eventually reduces environmental impact of brine
discharge to sea. As such, the integrated system has the potential to reduce
the cost of seawater desalination as well as the cost of post-treatment for
brine disposal 146. Although the hybrid system requires more membrane area,
overall the system can still be beneficial to reduce the total desalinated water
cost as the energy cost is much more than the membrane cost 147. However, it
should be noted that the advantages of PRO–RO hybrid system for practical
application can only be realized if an optimized low cost fouling control
strategy such as anti-scaling pretreatment is employed and high fouling
resistant PRO membrane is developed 148. RO–PRO hybrid configurations can be
varied in terms of the sequence of each system and the influent concentration
144. In brief, when the RO process is located prior to the PRO, the direct
use of low-saline water as a feed solution of PRO is less advantageous for the
power production of PRO since the concentrated brine of the RO significantly
reduces the driving force for the power generation of PRO. However, the
effective brine management can be achieved when the concentrated brine of the
RO is used for a draw solution of the PRO plant where PRO process is configured
to dilute the brine concentration. Furthermore, the concentrated brine of RO
can improve the ability of a draw solution to draw water from the feed channel,
which is beneficial for the PRO power generation. On the other hand, when the
RO process goes after PRO process, the PRO process can act as a pre-treatment
of the RO process.

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