Principles the question, for example, who should

Principlesof research ethics Respectfor persons (autonomy)– entails two requirements; firstly, individuals should be treated asautonomous agents, capable of deciding for themselves about important personal matters.Subjects should only be involved in research if they have given their voluntaryconsent and been fully informed about the nature, purpose and consequences of thestudy.

Secondly, individuals whose autonomy isdiminished as a result of external circumstances, or their physical or mentalcondition, require special protection. With regard to a research project, thisprotection needs to be adapted to individual circumstances, ensuring that thepersons concerned are not involved in research which could be harmful for them.  Beneficence – To ensure the welfare of the persons concerned. Meaningof  an obligation firstly to avoid harmand secondly to maximize possible benefits. But here a dilemma arises: to avoidrisks, one needs to know what is harmful. This knowledge, in turn, depends onevidence obtained from studies.

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The ethical principle of beneficence refers tothe Hippocratic “be of benefit, do not harm.  “. Beauchamp and Childress, suggest that”the principle of beneficence includes the professional mandate to doeffective and significant research so as to better serve and promote thewelfare of our constituents”( Beauchamp & Childres, 2001).

Justice- concerned with thedistribution of burdens, risks, chances and benefits to different persons andgroups, and with the question of what exactly is “owed” to an individual. Thefirst element raises the question, for example, who should receive the benefitsof research and who should bear its burdens. The second asks, to what extent peoplewhose condition may differ markedly should be recognized as equals and treatedaccordingly. Justice should  deals withthe concept of fairness that is the distribution of burdens, risks, chances andbenefits. Participants need to be treated with equal respect and concern wherethe benefits of the research will be shared, where feasible with all of thoseaffected by its results.

  Other than the three previously mentionedfundamental principles of research ethics, there are also five basic ethicalprincipal (Laerd, 2012) which are minimizing the risk of harm, obtaininginformed consent, protecting anonymity and confidentiality, avoiding deceptivepractices and providing the right to withdraw.Avoid deceptive practices. 0ccurs when the researcher provide false orincomplete information to the participants for the purpose of misleadingresearch subjects. Dissertation research must be avoid any kinds of deceptivepractice while in the covert research..

Coverts research reflects researchwhere the identity of the observer and/or the purpose of the research is notknown to participants. The participantshave right to withdraw from theresearch study and they also should have the right to withdraw themselves fromthe research study anytime. They should not be pressured or coerced in any wayto try and stop them from withdrawingRespectfor privacy – According to Levine (1976) “privacy isthe freedom an individual has to determine the time, extent, and generalcircumstances under which private information will be shared with or withheldfrom others “.

  Information suchas beliefs, attitudes, opinions and records, is shared with others, without thepatients’ consent.  A researcher cannotdecide on behalf of the participants on those delicate issues. All aims,instruments and methodology must be discussed with the prospective subject. Evenapply to report of age, income, marital status, and other details that thesubject may regard intimate. 


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