Pre Accumulation Of Tg From Unsaturated Fatty Acid Biology Essay

The inauspicious effects of fatty acerb accretion in non-adipose tissues lead to cell disfunction or cell decease as known lipotoxicity, which is normally related to chronic liver disease – called non-alcoholic fatso liver disease ( NAFLD ) . The function of triglyceride ( TG ) is controversial as toxic or protective to the cells. In this survey, I examined function of the accumulated-TG in fatty acerb intervention of HepG2 cell line. To look into this, HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells were treated in the presence of media supplemented with palmitate ( PA ) or oleate ( OL ) edge to albumin harmonizing to individual and consecutive intervention. The relationship between TG accretion and fatty acid bring oning assorted toxic effects was measured by photometric and microscopic methods such as LDH, MTT, TG content, or reactive O species ( ROS ) assays, confocal microscopy and etc. In the individual intervention method, stored-TG increased approximative 4-fold in treated-oleate in comparing with treated-palmitate correlated with protection from lipotoxic by cut downing cytotoxicity, no alteration of ROS coevals and non bring oning cell decease. In contrast, in the consecutive intervention method, function of TG accretion was shown as a dynamic by exchange of its free fatty acid with exogenic free palmitate acid flux taking to change of toxicity.

High proportion of concentrated fatty acid ( palmitate/oleate ) in TG sedimentation increased palmitate-induced toxicity of the treated palmitate. Based on these consequences I conclude that nature of TG is a dynamic, and the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid of the TG might be a critical factor to consequence on fatty acerb caused-lipotoxic.

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Lipotoxicity refers to the toxic effects of inordinate lipid droplets accumulated in the cytol of the cells ( van Herpen et al.

, 2008 ; Schaffer et al. , 2003 ) . Two types of the perchance unrelated cellular hurts associated with these extra including programmed cell death, and impaired insulin signaling ( Li et al. , 2010 ) . Therefore, it is known as the trademark of NAFLD – a disease associated with serious cardiometabolic abnormalcies, including type 2 diabetes mellitus ( T2DM ) , the metabolic syndrome, and coronary bosom disease ( Fabbrini et al. , 2010 ; Malhi et al.

, 2008 ) . Besides, this disease consists of a broad spectrum of conditions associated with over-accumulation of lipoids in the liver runing from simple steatosis to an intermediate lesion ( nonalcoholic steatohepatitis or NASH ) , and finally to cirrhosis ( Choi et al. , 2008 ) . Hepatic lipid accretion can be caused by four different metabolic disturbances: adipose TG lipolysis, hepatic de novo lipogenesis ; decreased hepatic fatty acerb oxidization ; and inadequate TG secernment in VLDL ( Nagle et al. , 2009 ) .

The mechanism of lipotoxicity every bit good as NAFLD is still ill-defined. Although based on either the bulk signifier of stored-triglycerides, or accretion of several other lipid metabolites including different free fatso acids ( FFA ) , diacylglycerol, free cholesterin ( FC ) , cholesterin ester ( CE ) , ceramide, and phospholipids, many possible mechanisms of intracellular hurt were proposed ( Alkhouri et al. , 2009 ; Malhi et al. , 2008 ) . For case, those mechanisms are comprised of increased fatty acid oxidization and oxidative emphasis, change of cellular membrane fatty acid, and phospholipid composing change of cellular cholesterin content, perturbations in ceramide signaling, and direct free fatso acerb toxicity.

Triglyceride ( TG ) is a impersonal lipid consisting one glycerin anchor and three long concatenation fatty acids ( Choi et al. , 2008 ) . TG synthesis has been described including two major tracts – the glycerin phosphate and the monoacylglycerol tract ( Chen et al. , 2000 ) . In the first tract, two fatty acyl CoA reacts with glycerol-3-phosphate to organize phosphatidate that is later catalyzed to organize diacylglycerol through dephosphorylation. In the 2nd tract, dietetic monoacylglycerol is acylated in enterocytes of the little bowel to bring forth diacylglycerol. In the concluding measure in TG synthesis, 1,2-diacylglycerol and fatty acyl CoA are joined to organize TG by accelerator of DGAT ( acyl CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase ) .

At least two different acyl-CoA-dependent DGATs, viz. DGAT1 and DGAT2, are found in mammalian cells ( Athenstaedt et al. , 2006 ) . TG lypolysis is carried out by lipases, which catalyzes TG to let go of free fatty acids and intercede glycerin. Many lipases were discovered in assorted tissues such as adipose triglyceride lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, triacylglycerol hydrolase ( TG hydrolyse ) , and arylacetanide deacetylase. Particularly, TG hydrolase activity extremely expresses in liver every bit good others tissues ( Dolinsky et al. , 2004 ) . Both TG synthesis and lipolysis besides were considered as of import lipotoxic beginnings ( Reid et al.

, 2008 ; Trauner et al. , 2010 ) .Incorporation of exogenic different fatty acids into TG has a important consequence on its composing ( nature of TG ) . Gavino GR et Al. ( 1991 ) reported TG accretion in rat peri-renal and epididymal pre-adipocytes were treated with unsaturated fatty acid ( oleic ( C18:1 ) and a-linolenic ( C18:3w3 ) ) in the presence of 0.

8 mM insulin. Cellular TG accumulated-the fatty acids were with comparative enrichments over control from 1.4-fold for C18:1 to greater than 40-fold for C18:3w3. The incorporation into cellular TG correlated with addition of the concentration of intervention fatty acid.

Similarly, in 3T3-L1 cells were incubated with [ 1-13/14C ] ethanoate, myristate ( C14:0 ) , palmitate ( C16:0 ) , stearate ( C18:0 ) , or oleate ( C18:1 ) . Incubating cells with the long concatenation fatty acids resulted in its accretion to the degree of approximately 50 % of the cellular TG fatty acids as compared to the TG stored-fatty acids in 5.0 mM treated-acetate. Saturated fatty acids at the glyceride sn-1,3 place and unsaturated fatty acids at the sn-2 place was preferentially esterified by cellular enzymes, severally ( Soma et al. , 1992 ) .

Furthermore, when 1.0 millimeter oleate and 1.0 millimeter linoleate was co-provided at the same clip, TG-incorporated [ 1-13C ] oleate decreased in comparing with alone oleate intervention every bit good the ratio of [ 1-13C ] oleate esterified at the sn-1,3 place increased because of competition between linoleate and oleate for esterification ( Guo et al. , 1999 ) .Fatty acerb composing of TG can be identified by many methods. The simplest method was used that quantifies total “ dual bond ” fatty acids in serum lipoids based on “ sulfo-phospho-vanillin ” reaction ( Knight et al. , 1972 ) . This method was recommended that it is simple, rapid and moderately precise.

Besides, other methods were used normally to analyse fatty acids including gas chromatography ( GC ) , liquid chromatography ( LC ) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy ( GC-MS ) ( Arab et al. , 2002 ) . These methods require fatty acid criterions holding appropriate construction to fatty acids in samples. GC-MS is a powerful tool to right place specific fatty acids or to explicate the chemical construction of fatty acid metabolites.Different TG atoms are known as phenomenon of intracellular upsets. In human survey, NAFLD patterned advance was determined association with legion alterations in hepatic lipoids of liver, while addition of concentrated fatso in TG was driven by palmitate ( Puri et al. , 2007 ) . In vivo, Larter et Al.

( 2008 ) demonstrated hepatic acid composing was altered by dietetic lipid beginning in fleshiness mice, increasing ratio of monounsaturated: saturated free fatso acid reduced atomic degrees of the lipogenic written text factor steroid alcohol regulative component adhering protein-1 ( Larter et al. , 2008 ) . Recently, in vitro research, Ricchi et Al ( 2009 ) suggested with a given sum of intracellular TG, the grade of programmed cell death merely depended on fatty acid construction, but non TG content.Yet, the function of TG accretion in this disease is still controversy about whether toxic or protection. In clinical survey, TG sedimentation is characterized as a toxic species based on two-hit hyphothesis ( Day et al. , 1998 ) . Harmonizing to the hypothesis, in the early phase, an surplus of TG is synthesized in hepatocytes, so the mechanism promoted TG remotion ( oxidization or secernment ) does non equilibrate with advancing lipid import.

Hence, steatosis is by and large considered to be a rick factor for more serious signifier of liver harm. Furthermore, TG sedimentation besides associates with insulin opposition. The diminishing sensitiveness to insulin in adipocyte analogues with increasing stored-TG within adipose terminals ( Samuel et al. , 2004 ) . Development of insulin opposition increased hazard of developing NAFLD from a 4- crease to an 11-fold ( Nagle et al. , 2009 ) . In vivo experiment demonstrated that suppressing TG synthesis by barricading DGAT2 in MCD diet-fed mice improves hepatic stetosis by cut downing hepatic look of tumour mortification factor alpha, increasing serum adiponectin, and striking betterment in systemic insulin sensitiveness ( Yamaguchi et al.

, 2007 ) . On contrary, in vitro survey, TG accretion rescued cell decease from lipotoxic in varied cell types ( Cnop et al. , 2001 ; Gomez-Lechon et al.

, 2007 ; Listenberger et al. , 2003 ) . TG synthesis straight decreases extra fatty acerb incorporation into some mediate molecules such as diacylglycerol ( DAG ) and shingolipids ( Holland et al. , 2008 ; Petschnigg et al. , 2009 ) .

Additionally, stored-TG influenced on the way of free fatty acid flux every bit good promoted fatty acids towards beta-oxidation at chondriosome in order that block fatty acerb induced-toxic ( Henique et al. , 2010 ) .However, those differentiations between in vivo and in vitro have been accepted for long clip without account. Therefore, a consideration for in vitro theoretical account is necessary. Most methods for handling free fatty acid in accumulated-TG research were used as following individual or co-treatment in in vitro ( Cnop et al. , 2001 ; Gomez-Lechon et al. , 2007 ) .

Within those methods, lipotoxic from free fatty acids or stored-TG is non able to separate, since intracellular trafficking of free fatty acids after consumption has multi-target, and complex ( McArthur et al. , 1999 ) . For illustration, treated-oleate was non-toxic due to holding a big sum of TG accretion ( Gomez-Lechon et al. , 2007 ; Listenberger et al. , 2003 ) . However, oleate can modulate specific cistron look – the fatty acid adhering protein adipocyte P2 ( aP2 ) plays a function in fatty acerb conveyance or protection against the detergent-like effects of fatty acids ( Distel et al, 1992 ; Matarese et al. , 1989 ) .

Therefore, it is complicate to separate consequence of the protection from whether TG sedimentation or cistron look. In this survey, I applied a new intervention system-sequential intervention to prove the function of TG in in vitro. This theoretical account was described in a old survey about lipotoxicity mechanism ( Henique et al. , 2010 ) .In the present survey, foremost, I investigated whether TG accretion basically plays a protective function in individual intervention of free fatty acid in HepG2 cell line. Second, consecutive intervention was employed to detect whether fatty acerb exchange of TG with exogenic free fatso acid occurs. Finally, I examined whether different per centum of fatty acid in nature of TG alterations lipotoxic.

Materials and methods


HepG2 cell line was purchased from American Type Culture Collection ( ACTT ) ( VA, USA ) .

Some chemicals were obtained from Invitrogen Co. ( Oregon, USA ) including Dulbecco ‘s Modified Eagle Medium ( DMEM ) , 0.5 % Trypsin-EDTA 10x, Penicillin-Streptomycin ( PS ) , BODIPY @ 493/503, and Carboxyl-H2DCFDA. The listed-chemicals came from SIGMA-ALDRICH, Inc. , ( MO, USA ) as followers: Fatty acids ( Palmitic, Oleic acid ) , Dimethyl sulfoxide ( DMSO ) , Propidium iodide ( PI ) , Paraoxon-ethyl ( E600 ) , and Triton X-100. Bovine serum albumen, fraction V, fatty acerb free ( BSA ) and Cytotoxicity sensing kit were from Roche ( IN, USA ) . Fetal Bovine Serum ( FBS ) was gotten from Welgene Inc.

( Daegu, South Korea ) . MTT ( 3- ( 4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl ) -2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide check ) was purchased from Molecular Probes ( Oregon, USA ) . Triglyceride Quantification Kit was purchased from BioVision Inc. ( CA, USA ) . Phosphate buffered saline ( PBS ) was made up of chemicals at pH 7.4, including 8.

0 g NaCl, 0.2 g KCl, 1.44 g Na2HPO4, and 0.24 g KH2PO4 in 1 litre deionized H2O. All other chemicals met in standard class of analysis.

Culture of HepG2 cells

HepG2 cells were cultured in DMEM incorporating 10 % ( v/v ) FBS and 1 % ( v/v ) Penicillin-Streptomycin under 5 % CO2, 95 % humidness at 37A°C.

Fatty acid intervention

The stock solutions of fatty acids were prepared at 100 millimeter in DMSO and stored at -20 oC. They were diluted with DMEM media at proper concentrations, and the solutions were sonicated for 1 hour.

After that, the diluted solutions were assorted with BSA at 2:1 ratio of fatty acid to BSA in all experiments. Finally, they were invariably shaken for 1 hour on a shaker before adding into the cell.When 80 % confluency was reached, the cell was overloaded with free fatty acids in two intervention systems. In individual intervention, the cell was treated with a alone fatty acid in assorted concentrations ( 0 to 1.0 millimeters ) for 24 hour of incubation clip. While in consecutive intervention, HepG2 was foremost pre-incubated for 24 hour with 1.0 millimeters of oleic acid, so variable concentrations of palmitic acid was supplied for 24 hour.

Cytotoxicity assay

Cytotoxicity was based on measuring of lactate dehydrogenase activity utilizing a cytotoxicity sensing kit ( Roche, IN, USA ) .

To carry on the check, HepG2 was seeded at 3×104 cells/well in 96 well-plate, after desire exposure clip, the civilization supernatant was collected. The reaction mixture from the kit was so applied in the samples. The soaking up of the formazan dye formed was measured at 490 nanometers on ELISA reader ( VersaMax Microplate Reader, Molecular Divices. , CA, USA ) . The per centum cytotoxicity was determined by spliting the value of the mean optical density values of samples by the high controls after the mean optical density values in the background control were subtracted from these values.

Cell viability

Cell viability was measured based on measurement soaking up of a non-water-soluble purple formazan which was reduced from a xanthous water-soluble tetrazolium salt by oxido-reductases in the unrecorded cells.

This experiment was modified as following protocol in a old diary ( Min et al. , 2008 ) . Briefly, the cells were seeded at 3×104 cells/well in 96 well-plate. After 24 hour, they were treated with MTT stock ( 5 mg/ml ) to organize furmazan crystals in DMEM at 37 oC for 1.5 hour. Following, DMSO was added to fade out the crystals.

The absorbency was measured at 570 nanometers utilizing ELISA reader. The appraisal of cell viability was calculated by comparing between the spectra value of treated and untreated cells.

Quantification of triglyceride

Intracellular triglyceride content was determined harmonizing to an enzymic method ( BioVision Inc. , CA, USA ) . In this method, enzyme lipase catalyzes TG to organize glycerin which reacts with the investigation to bring forth colour measured on spectrophotometry at 570 nanometer. In briefly, the cells were harvested, and homogenized in 5 % Triton X-100 solution.

After easy heating several times at 80-100A°C, the supernatant was collected from taking indissoluble stuffs by centrifugating at 12000 revolutions per minute. Finally, the colour of sample was formed by blending reaction mixture with lysed-supernatant by lipase. The value of TG content was quantified based on TG criterion curve that was constructed with different concentrations of TG ( 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, and 0.

1 mmol/ml ) .

Measurement of reactive O species ( ROS ) coevals

The measuring of ROS production within cells was carried out by utilizing 2aˆ?,7aˆ?-Dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate ( Carboxyl-H2DCFDA ; Invitrogen Corporation, Oregon, USA ) which is combined into fluorescent merchandises in the presence of H2O2 and other ROS molecules and esterases ( Song et al. , 2007 ) . We followed a process in literature with a minor alteration ( Song et al.

, 2007 ) . Briefly, the cells were overloaded with assorted concentrations of fatty acids, after that, 100 mM concluding concentration of Carboxyl-H2DCFDA was added in the media without foetal bovine serum at 37 0C in darkness for 30 min. Then, the cells were washed twice with warmed PBS and lysed in RIPA buffer ( PIERCE, IL, USA ) .

The lysed-cells were centrifuged at 12000 revolutions per minute for 5 min. Finally, the supernatants were conveyed to a 96-well dorsum home base, and excited at 485 nanometers and emitted at 530 nanometer for the Carboxyl-H2DCFDA fluorescence on Fluorometer ( VICTOR2, Perkin Elmer. , MA, USA ) .

Intracellular triglyceride staining

BODIPY @ 493/503 ( Invitrogen Co. , Oregon, USA ) was used to capture TG fluorescence on Confocal microscopy. In this experiment, the cells were prepared as above. Before the dyes intervention, the cells were washed with PBS twice times. Bodipy @ 493/503 was so added at 1.

0 mM concluding concentration and 10 min of incubation at 37 oC after that the cells were rinsed with PBS once more. Zeiss LSM Image Brown package ( LSM 510 Meta, Carl Zeiss Inc. , Jena, Germany ) was handled to take TG image at excitement of 488 nanometers and emanation of BP 505-530 nanometer.

Confocal microscopy of reactive O species

ROS coevals in HepG2 cells was demonstrated utilizing intracellular oxidization of carboxyl-H2DCFDA ( Hyun et al. , 2010 ) . Briefly, the cells were washed twice with warmed PBS.

Then, the cells were treated with carboxyl-H2DCFDA at 10 mM concluding concentration in serum free DMEM media and incubated for 30 min at 37 oC under dark status. Following, the extra dye was rinsed with warmed PBS and eventually, the fluorescence images of the cells were taken utilizing confocal microscopy. The samples were excited at 488 nanometers and the emanation filter was LP 530 nanometer. 100 mM H peroxide intervention for 1 hour in the same status was adopted as the positive control.

Detection of triglyceride accretion and cell decease by confocal microscopy

TG droplets and cell decease were detected on confocal microscopy by utilizing co-staining BODIPY @ 493/503 ( Invitrogen, Oregon, USA ) and propidium iodide ( PI ) , severally. First, HepG2 seeded at 1×105 cells/well in the 24-well home base, and treated with concluding concentration of fatty acids to 1.

0 millimeter for 24 hour in the intervention systems. Second, the cells were stained with 1.0 mg/ml concluding concentration of BODIPY @ 493/503 dissolved in PBS, after washed several times with PBS. This procedure was kept in darkness for 10 min at room temperature. Subsequently, the bodipy solution was removed, and the cells were so washed by PBS.

Finally, the cells were incubated in 40 mg/ml of PI for 10 min in darkness. Exposition of TG accretion and cell decease was observed at excitement of 488 and 543 nanometer, and emanation of BP 505-530 and LP 650 nanometer on the confocal microscopy, severally.

Inhibitor of TG hydrolase intervention

Paraoxon-ethyl ( E600 ) was used to suppress TG hydrolase harmonizing to a old survey ( Gilham et al.

, 2003 ) . The protocol was modified as descriptions below. Concisely, the cells were seeded on 96-well home base, and treated fatty acids as following the consecutive intervention. Before adding fatty acid in the last period, the cells were incubated with different concentrations of E600 in DMEM for 1 hour. Consequently, the fatty acerb solutions incorporating assorted doses of inhibitor were supplied to replace the old media. Ultimately, the cells were kept for 24 hrs incubation.

Datas analysis

All consequences were expressed as mean values A± standard mistake ( n=4 or 5 ) . The difference between the groups was evaluated utilizing Student ‘s t-test.


Toxicity of assorted fatty acids

To analyze influence of dose dependance and clip class on fatty acerb caused-toxicity, I conducted two experiments in HepG2 including cytotoxicity ( Figure 1-1 ) and ROS coevals ( Figure 1-2 ) .In figure 1-1, the cytotoxicity of the assorted free fatso acids ( palmitate and oleate ) at different concentrations ( 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.

5, 0.7 and 1.0 millimeter ) was besides investigated after 24 hour and 48 hour of intervention. The consequences show that the assorted doses of the FFA produced different cytotoxic and cell viability effects. As the figure presents, the toxicity of palmitate significantly increased above 0.

5 millimeter, and at 1.0 millimeter palmitate was shown to be extremely toxic as good 15 % addition in comparing with control samples. In add-on, the toxicity in the 2nd twenty-four hours intervention was twice every bit high as in the first twenty-four hours ( 48.

70A±2.17 % ) . In contrast, cytotoxic consequence of oleate was virtually no alteration at the concentration from 0 up to 1.0 millimeter.

Similarly, merely palmitate was found to significantly diminish cell viability by above 35 % and nearby 65 % at 1.0 millimeter for the first and 2nd twenty-four hours, severally, although the little diminution besides was observed in oleate for both yearss. Briefly, no cytotoxic consequence was observed in HepG2 at the concentration of oleate from 0 up to 1.

0 millimeters, while a strong cytotoxic consequence was shown at 1.0 millimeter of the palmitate for two yearss. Based on these consequences, 1.

0 millimeter palmitate for 24 hrs incubation was selected for farther survey. Furthermore, my informations indicated cell viability was non sensitive to quantify cytotoxicity in lipotoxic.The scope of concentrations of fatty acerb generated-ROS was explored after 24 hour on Figure 1-2. As the consequences show, fluorescence exposure of ROS on confocal microscopy was much more in 1.0 mM treated-palmitate, but non in oleate in comparing with positive control ( Figure 1-2A ) . In the same manner, fluorescent strength shows, the dose dependance of fatty acid generated ROS was merely effectual in palmitate ( Figure 1-2B ) , while the concentration 0.5 millimeter up to 1.0 millimeter was found a important addition by over 1.

5-fold to around 3-fold, severally. This consequence was similar to the consequence of fatty acids on cytotocixic showed in Figure 1-1. These findings imply that palmitate generated-ROS wholly associates with cytotoxicity addition.Figure -1. Cytotoxicity of free fatty acids at different concentrations. The cells were seeded at 3 x 104 cells/well on a 96-well home base and incubated under 5 % CO2, 95 % humidness at 37A°C.

When 80 % confluency was reached, they were treated with different concentrations of free fatty acids ( 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.

3, 0.5, 0.7, and 1.0 millimeter ) dissolved in DMEM media incorporating a changeless ratio of fatty acid edge BSA at 2 to 1. After the incubation clip, cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT and LDH assay. A, B and C, D – cell viability and cytotoxicity in palmitate and oleate intervention for 24 hour and 48 hour, severally. Valuess are means A± SE.

P – Student ‘s t-test. *p & lt ; 0.05 vs. control ; # P & lt ; 0.01 vs.

control.Figure 1- . Reactive O coinage ( ROS ) coevals by free fatty acids. The cells were treated with 1.0 millimeters of free fatty acids for 24 hour. Before detecting on confocal microscopy, added 10 millimeter of Carboxyl-H2DCFDA dye was incubated for 30 min to capture ROS fluorescence.

ROS positive control samples were prepared in serum free media incorporating 100 millimeter of H peroxide for 1 hr incubation. ROS blossoming ( A ) was showed by Carboxyl-H2DCFDA excited at 448 nanometer, and selected filter emanation at LP 530 nanometer. The images showed fluorescence and stage contrast on confocal microscopic package. ( a ) H2O2 treated samples, ( B ) Control cells, ( degree Celsius ) 1.0 millimeter treated palmitate and ( vitamin D ) 1.0 millimeter treated oleate ; I and II – ROS fluorescence channel and merged fluorescence channel, severally ; Original magnification 20X.

The quantitative of ROS fluorescence of palmitate ( B ) and oleated ( C ) at assorted concentrations. Arbitrary unit ( a.u ) are means A± SE.

P – Student ‘s t-test. *p & lt ; 0.05 vs. control, **p & lt ; 0.01 vs. control, ***p & lt ; 0.

005 vs. control.

Protection of TG sedimentation from saturated fatty acid induced lipotoxic

In order to analyze relationship of accumulated-TG and cell decease, I measured intracellular TG content, and exposed stored-TG and cell decease on confocal microscopy after 24 hour fatty acerb intervention.

In Figure 2A shows, TG was accumulated much more in oleate, but less than in palmitate in comparing with control cells. Particularly, the saddle horse of TG content in oleate was about 4.5-fold in palmitate, and 17-fold in control every bit high as in the order of comparing.

Furthermore, by co-staining bodipy and PI to observe TG droplet and cell decease, fluorescence image showed relationship between TG and cell decease. As Figure 2B nowadayss, the fluorescence of PI staining ( ruddy colour ) was merely exposed in palmitate, and did non overlap with bodipy fluorescence ( green colour ) . In other words, palmiate induced-cell decease did non parallel with TG sedimentation. These findings indicate that TG accretion plays a protective function in lipotoxicity.Figure 2. Intracellular triglyceride and cell decease during 24 hrs incubation with free fatty acids. The cells were treated with 1.0 millimeters of free fatty acids for 24 hour.

A – Fluorescence exposure of TG on confocal microscopy ; the measuring of TG content was determined by utilizing enzyme method as the description in stuff and method subdivision. Valuess are means A± SE. P – Student ‘s t-test. ***p & lt ; 0.005 vs. control.

B – Fluorescence exposure of TG ( green colour ) and cell decease ( ruddy colour ) co-staining in 1.0 millimeter palmitate treated cell. After the incubation clip, 1.0 mg/ml of bodipy and 40 mg/ml of PI were in that order added to stain TG and cell decease. The cells were continued to incubate in the conditions protected from the visible radiation until fluorescence strength showed maximal on microscopy. Before the cells were observed on confocal microscopy, the assorted dyes solution was replaced with 1X PBS buffer.

Bodipy was excited at 488 nanometers and a BP 505-530 nm emanation filter was used, whereas PI fluorescence was exposed at LP 650 nm emanation and 543 nm excitement. The images showed fluorescence and stage contrast on confocal microscopic package. I – Bodipy fluorescence channel, II – PI fluorescence channel and III – stage contrast ; Original magnification 20X.

Palmitate-induced toxicity under pre-accumulated TG

Role of TG still is controversy about toxic, inert, or dynamic in lipotoxicity ( Day et al. , 1998 ; Neuschwander-Tetri, 2010 ; Reid et al.

, 2008 ) . To detect whether TG droplet plays the maps as above reference, I applied new system intervention – named consecutive intervention, in which free TG accretion was established indoors cells by 1.0 mM oleate of supplementation for 24 hour. After that, the oleate solution was replaced with 1.0 millimeters of palmitate, and the cells were remained in the new solution for following one twenty-four hours of incubation. The account for this system was described in diagram below ( Figure 3A ) . In these experiments, I measured the LDH release into the medium after the exposing clip of assorted doses of palmitate ( 0, 0.

1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1.0 millimeter ) . TG content and its relation with cell decease were examined at 1.0 millimeter fatty acerb consecutive intervention every bit good.

As consequence shows in Figure 3B, interestingly, the dose dependance of palmitate caused-cytotoxicity dramatically increased from 0.7 millimeters to 1.0 millimeters by around 5 % to above 12 % , severally. This determination was dissimilar to the old consequences about the protective TG. Otherwise, the highest toxic at 1.0 millimeter of palmiate was about decrease by 5 % than its value in alone treated-palmitate ( Figure 1-1 ) .

Based on this consequence, I suggest that pre-accumulated TG might hold deduction in cut downing palmitate-caused toxicity. Furthermore, harmonizing to measure of TG content showed in Figure 3C, about 1.5-fold of the proportion of TG was created from consecutive intervention of 1.0 millimeter oleate and palmitate in comparing with oleate entirely.

This consequence implies that sum of free palmitate was converted to TG sedimentation, even the surplus of TG sum still had presented indoors cells. In add-on, as fluorescence exposure of TG-cell decease in Figure 3D shows, a big of cell figure was estimated to expose the convergence between TG ( green colour ) and cell decease ( ruddy colour ) . While, the dominant figure expressed on mild decease cells that the stained-DNA was non high condensed. Jointly, this grounds reveals that free TG had an active engagement in cut downing palmitate caused-cell decease, although did non wholly success in forestalling cell decease. To sum up, these findings suggest that free TG had an consequence on lipotoxic.Figure 3. Free fatty acerb induced-toxicity in consecutive intervention.

The cells were treated with 1.0 millimeters of oleic acid for 24 hour. After the incubation clip, the old medium was replaced with the assorted concentrations of palmitate dissolved in DMEM media incorporating the changeless ratio of fatty acid edge BSA for 24 hour. A – Diagram of consecutive intervention. B and C – Cytotoxicity in dependance dosage of palmitate and measuring of triglyceride content in 1.0 millimeters fatty acid treated cell, severally.

Valuess are means A± SE. P – Student ‘s t-test. # # # P & lt ; 0.005 vs. control ; *p & lt ; 0.

05 vs. 1.0 millimeters treated oleate ; ***p & lt ; 0.005 vs. 1.0 millimeters treated oleate.

D – Fluorescence exposure of triglyceride ( green colour ) and cell decease ( ruddy colour ) co-staining in 1.0 mM consecutive treated oleate and palmitate, severally. I – Bodipy fluorescence channel, II – PI fluorescence channel, and III – stage contrast ; Original magnification 20X.

Dynamicss of free TG accretion consequences in altering toxic of fatty acids

As the old consequences showed that free TG involved in lipotoxic lessening ( Figure 3B and 3D ) , but this was non wholly true since free palmitate was promoted toward TG synthesis. I hypothesized that free TG exchanges its unsaturated fatty acid with free palmitate taking to decrease lipotoxic due to increasing high concentration of intracellular unsaturated fatty acid.

To prove this hypothesis, I conducted to suppress TG hydrolase by utilizing different concentrations of its inhibitor ( E600 ) on fatty acerb consecutive intervention. As consequence in figure 4B shows, cytotoxicity increased by over 7 % to around 16 % correlated with the rise of treated-E600 dosage from 10 to 40 millimeters in comparing with no inhibitor intervention. Specifically, no toxicity was found at those concentrations in normal cells ( Figure 4A ) . This demonstrated that the inhibitor was effectual in suppressing TG hydrolase. Therefore, a big sum of free unsaturated fatty acid released from free TG was wholly blocked so that palmitate caused-toxicity intensively increased. These findings imply that free TG straight implicates in fatty acerb exchange with free palmitate.

Furthermore, in order to analyze whether fatty acerb composing of nature TG influences on lipotoxic ordinance, cytotoxicity of different ratios of 1.0 millimeters fatty acerb mixture formed-TG was investigated in nowadays or non E600 at 25 millimeter. As in figure 4C nowadayss, variable cytotoxic was observed on different proportions of fatty acerb synthezed-TG. A high per centum of concentrated fatty acid increased cytotoxicity without utilizing the inhibitor, approximative 1.5-fold and 2.0-fold cytotoxicity addition was observed in 1.0 millimeters fatty acerb mixture ( 0.

5 millimeter OL together with 0.5 millimeters PA ) and ( 0.25mM OL together with 0.75 millimeters PA ) as compared to the mixture ( 0.75 millimeter OL together with 0.25 PA ) , severally.

Likewise, cytotoxic addition was besides showed in samples treated with E600. The addition response to the mixture ( 0.5 millimeter OL together with 0.

5 millimeters PA ) was 4 % high as compared to the mixture ( 0.75 millimeter OL together with 0.25 PA ) , while ( 0.25 millimeter OL together with 0.75 PA ) increase an 8 of per centum. Unexpectedly, cytotoxicity in the per centum of unsaturated fatty acid at 100 in the mixture was an exclusion of the tendency.

Jointly, these informations suggest that assorted proportions of fatty acerb mixture synthesized-free TG highly impacts on lipotoxic ordinance.CalciferolACFigure 4. Consequence of free TG accretion on fatty acerb caused-cytotoxic. The cells were seeded, and treated fatty acids harmonizing to the consecutive intervention. A – Cytotoxicity of different concentrations of E600 in normal cells for 24 hour. B – Dose dependance of E600 influences on 1.0 millimeter palmitate induced toxicity. C and D – Toxicity of assorted ratios of fatty acerb mixture without and in present treated-E600 at 25 millimeter, severally.

Valuess are means A± SE. P – Student ‘s t-test. # , *p & lt ; 0.05 ; **p & lt ; 0.01 ; *** , +++p & lt ; 0.

005 ; *p vs. control ; + vs. 1.0 millimeter of oleate/palmitate in present or without E600 intervention ; # vs. 1.

0 millimeter of oleate/palmitate at 25 millimeter of E600 intervention.


The function of TG accretion in varied cell types was known as a protection in vitro theoretical account in old dominant literatures in lipotoxicity ( Gomez-Lechon et al. , 2007 ; Listenberger et al. , 2003 ) . Surprisingly, in this present research, my findings discovered that the different maps of TG were in the distinguishable system interventions. First, TG plays a protective function from lipotoxic in individual intervention. As the consequences showed, the high proportion of TG sedimentation was 4.

5-fold every bit much as in 1.0 millimeter oleate compared with 1.0 millimeters palmitate ( Figure 2A ) was non toxicity, whereas the less accumulated-TG in palmitate significantly increased cytotoxicity ( Figure 1-1C ) . Another grounds presented the visibleness of intracellular TG on confocal dissociated with cell decease ( Figure 2B ) .

Second, kineticss of free stored-TG was found in consecutive intervention. The consequences in Figure 3B demonstrated that free TG actively participated in cut downing palmitate caused-lipotoxic. Particularly, toxic consequence of dynamic free TG was closely impacted by its unsaturated fatty acid composing, as the observation in Figure 4D.

To sum up, TG accretion non merely has a protective function as many mentioned-papers, but besides is a dynamic affecting in fatty acerb exchange, that is virtually opposite to the sentiments proposing TG seem to be inert ( Liu et al. , 2010 ; Neuschwander-Tetri, 2010 ) .TG protection in lipotoxicity was foremost described in a research on beta-cell about a decennary ago ( Cnop et al. , 2001 ) .

Subsequently, many researches were openly conducted in assorted cells, and obtained the same decision ( Gomez-Lechon et al. , 2007 ; Listenberger et al. , 2003 ) . In my determination besides agree with old researches concluded that TG accretion prevents cell decease from lipotoxic in HepG2. Although, this is the first study to straight show the relationship between TG and cell decease by utilizing the fluorescence sensing method on confocal microscopy ( Figure 2B ) .

The advantage of this technique permits to expose the visibleness of intracellular TG and cell decease signals in the same cells, this is ne’er reported in anterior surveies. The strong grounds was obtained by utilizing the method to repeat that TG sedimentation is tantamount to the mechanism of protection from lipotoxic.Up till now, the protective mechanism of TG has been besides illustrated in some dissimilar ways.

First, TG synthesis was reported that decreases extra fatty acerb incorporation into some mediate molecules such as diacylglycerol and shingolipids, which may modulate indispensable signaling and structural map ( Holland et al. , 2008 ; Petschnigg et al. , 2009 ) . Another manner showed that pre-accumulated TG effected on the way of free fatty acid flux every bit good promoted fatty acids towards beta-oxidation at chondriosome in order that block fatty acerb induced-toxic ( Henique et al. , 2010 ) . However, the extra sum of TG is considered as related to intracellular upsets ( Choi et al. , 2009 ) .One of serious diseases is characterized by uncontrolled accumulated-TG named NAFLD, but whose mechanism has non been clearly understood ( Browning et al.

, 2004 ) . However, two-hit hypothesis are widely accepted to explicate mechanism of this disease ( McArthur et al. , 1999 ) . Harmonizing to the hypothesis stated, TG is synthesized from lipoids so much in hepatocytes in early phase of the disease.

As in the consequence, the mechanism promoted TG remotion ( oxidization or secernment ) does non equilibrate with advancing lipid import. Hence, steatosis is by and large considered to be a rick factor for more serious signifier of liver harm.Yet, a difference of sentiment argued that TG seems to be inert every bit same as two hit hypothesis is non still true ( Liu et al. , 2010 ; Neuschwander-Tetri, 2010 ) . Recently, on contrary, by detecting lipase and its function in very-low-density lipoprotein secernment in hepatocytes demonstrated the moral force of free TG – supplies an indispensable stuff ( free fatty acids ) to organize cholesterin nucleus in VLDL secernment ( Gilham et al. , 2003 ; Wei et al. , 2007 ) .

This partially illustrated the complex map of free TG implicating in physiology every bit good in intracellular upset as old mentioned-proposals ( Athenstaedt et al. , 2006 ) . In fact, some inquiries remain whether both fatty acids removed from free TG and composing of stored-TG can hold an impact on lipotoxic.

By using consecutive intervention ( Figure 3A ) , my survey confirmed the moral force of free TG in lipotoxicity in liver, and besides found that lipotoxic of dynamic TG is influenced by its unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio. In my experiments presented here show that palmitate induced toxicity significantly increased by barricading TG hydrolase in comparing with the samples non holding co-treated TG hydrolase inhibitor ( Figure 4B ) . This can be explained by free fatsos acid exchange between free TG and intracellular fatty acid flux.

Harmonizing to our experiment theoretical account, in the first period, a big sum of TG was accumulated indoors liver cell by overloading oleate at 1.0 millimeter, the cells still were healthy under this status ( Gomez-Lechon et al. , 2007 ; Ricchi et al. , 2009 ) .

The composing of TG was determined as the dominant proportion of unsaturated fatty acid due to overloading by oleate ( Guo et al. , 1999 ) . In normal status, TG hydrolase activity extremely expresses in liver that hydrolyze free TG to let go of high content of free unsaturated fatso ( Lehner et al.

, 1997 ) . In the 2nd period, 1.0 mM supplementation of free palmitate integrated with the released-free unsaturated fatso acid taking to cut down of palmitate content in fatty mixture. The high per centum of free unsaturated acid in the fatty mixture is known as less toxic ( Gomez-Lechon et al. , 2007 ) . In the similar manner, by suppressing the enzyme, toxic consequence of palmitate was wholly independent from released-free oleate so that palmitate induced highest toxic consequence on cells.In fact, there were several researches trying to analyze TG dynamic as following different ways. First, the mobilisation of adipocyte TG was decided by TG hydrolase, fading of this enzyme activity resulted in take downing fatty acerb outflow every bit good lessening of go arounding fatty acerb degree ( Wei et al.

, 2007 ) . Second, TG in lipid droplets was responsible for released-fatty acids by autophagy mechanism in hepatocytes and mouse liver ( Singh et al. , 2009 ) .

However, these studies did non advert about the interaction between free fatty acids taking from TG and exogenic fatty acerb addendum. Besides, a few of recent sentiments considered stored-TG in liver as a beginning of lipotoxic by promoting intracellular above toxic fatty acerb degree, but no informations have been published ( Trauner et al. , 2010 ) . Jointly, our determination is the full study to bespeak fatty acerb exchange of TG in lipotoxicity in liver cell.Furthermore, in this present survey explored that lipotoxic of exchange between free TG and intracellular fatty acid flux is perfectly impacted by constituents of fatty acid in TG ( nature TG ) . The grounds was that at high ratio of saturatedunsaturated fatty acerb formed-free TG induces high toxicity by nowadays of 1.

0 millimeters palmitate ( Figure 4C ) . As Gomez-Lechon et Al ( 2007 ) mentioned that free fatty acerb mixture incorporating a high proportion of concentrated fatty acid ( palmitate ) is associated with high toxic. Besides, difference profile of fatty acid in TG was examined to demo that palmitate incubation induced an addition C16:1, C18:1c11 and C14:0, the incubation of OL addition C16:0, C18:0 and C14:0, while the incubation with fatty acerb mixture ( high proportion of oleate and palmitate ) reduced the concentration of C16:1 ( Ricchi et al. , 2009 ) . Therefore, our determination is appropriate with those researches to reason much more toxic in high ratios of concentrated fatty acid.

By using consecutive intervention in in vitro in lipotoxicity, our theoretical account experiment shows some advantages in imitating the interaction between free TG and lipotoxic in liver cell. This theoretical account was described in a old survey about lipotoxicity mechanism ( Henique et al. , 2010 ) . However, the choice of TG hydrolase for hydrolysing TG is a disadvantage due to its deficient activity for intracellular triacylglycerol lipolysis in HepG2 cell line ( Gibbons et al.

, 1994 ) .In drumhead, due to a restriction of utilizing consecutive intervention to analyze TG function in lipotoxicity, no full grounds is reported TG moral force. My survey demoing that TG is dynamic by actively take parting in fatty acerb exchange with intracellular fatty acid flux so that fatty acerb induced-lipotoxic is wholly interaction between supplementation of exo-fatty acids and endo-fatty acid released from TG. Furthermore, fatty acid ratio of TG is a critical factor to act upon on lipotoxic. The grounds shows that high per centum of concentrated fatty acid in TG tends toward addition toxicity.

On the other manus, an understanding on my survey is that the protective function of TG in individual intervention at which legion accumulated-TG can forestall cell decease from toxic fatty acids. In present research indicate an of import portion in complex map of TG, though it is necessary to farther survey.


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