Postharvest Methods To Prolong Storage Life Biology Essay
Honeycrisp, one of the most popular cultivars of apple Malus A- domestica Borkh. , was developed in Minnesota and released in 1991 ( Bedford, 2001 ) . The fruit has become an of import assortment in the fresh fruit markets of the northern parts of the United States and Canada. Approximate 950,000 ‘Honeycrisp ‘ trees had been planted in the U.S. with the largest figure in Michigan and New York as of January 2001. The cultivar was besides being grown in Europe, New Zealand, Australia and South Africa ( Tong et al. , 2003 ) . Its alone texture, outstanding spirit, unusual crispness, and long storage-life ( nine months ) had commanded nice monetary values for agriculturists and assist regenerate the apple industry ( DeEll, 2005 ; Delong et al. , 2006 ) .
The enthusiasm of industries for ‘Honeycrisp ‘ , nevertheless, has been tempered by concern about the high incidences of quality-related storage upsets in fruit, like acrimonious cavity, soft scald, boggy dislocation, H2O nucleus, tegument punctures, decay and internal Browning, which vary in badness with the turning season and part ( Evans, 2001 ; Greene and Weis, 2001 ; Schwallier 2001 ; Prange et. al. , 2002 ) . The first three upsets are the cardinal factors to impact the fruit ‘s market, therefore the study will concentrate on the methods to cut down the incidence of acrimonious cavity, soft scald and boggy dislocation. ‘Honeycrisp ‘ was highly susceptible to bitter cavity ( Figure 1. ) and normally can do more than 50 % of the fruit unmerchantable ( Dell, 2005 ) . It could go on on the tree or develop during storage, particularly with early crop, delayed chilling, or warmer storage temperatures ( Rosenberger et al. , 2004 ) . However, acrimonious cavity could be managed by cultural patterns such as Ca spray applications in the field because it ‘s majorly caused by calcium-deficiency ( Rosenberger et al. , 2004 ) . While the random incidence of soft scald and boggy dislocation in the fruit are the greatest concern for apple agriculturists, which have resulted in great negative effects for the selling of this cultivar.
Both soft scald and boggy dislocation were the low temperature hurts and should be worse at temperatures below 35 to 38 0F ( Watkins et al. , 2005 ) . Soft scald ( Figure 2. ) was characterized by the development of aggressively defined brown lesions on the apple Peel, which could widen into the flesh, and the lesions were frequently invaded by the secondary infections ( Watkins and Rosenberger, 2002 ; Moran et al. , 2010 ) . It was the most often observed storage upset in Nova Scotia, sometimes making 100 % incidence after crop ( Prange et al. , 2002 ; Delong et al. , 2006 ) . Susceptible cultivars include ‘Fuji ‘ , ‘Jonathan ‘ , ‘McIntosh ‘ , ‘Delicious ‘ , ‘Golden Delicious ‘ , and ‘Honeycrisp ‘ . Another common upset is boggy dislocation ( Figure 2. ) , which is an internal upset. The apple flesh develops moist, brown, and squashy tissue ( Watkins and Rosenberger, 2002 ; Watkins et al. , 2004 ) . Soggy breakdown developed majorly by unequal airing of containers and storage suites, a drawn-out storage period, temperatures lower than 32 0F, fluctuations in fertiliser interventions, and climatic conditions ( Plagge and Maney, 1937 ) . When some apples become immune to soggy dislocation, they should be more susceptible to soft scald. Sometimes both upsets could happen at the same time on the same fruit ( Plagge, 1929 ; Watkins et al. , 2003 ) .
Current Technologies to Control Soft Scald and Soggy Breakdown
In common storage ( 40-600F ) or when fruit was stored at temperatures higher than 320F, soft scald and boggy dislocation did non develop. Since the industry had started to hive away apples at low temperatures of 30-320F, these two upsets began to be observed ( Harley and Fisher, 1930 ) . Up to now, they are the most common upsets in apple industries. Therefore the low temperature plays a critical function in bring oning soft scald and boggy dislocation. Sing the efficiency and economic issues for hive awaying apples, low temperature storage will still be used normally by manufacturers. Under this status, particular postharvest interventions have been studied to forestall the storage upsets, which could cut down the losingss for apple agriculturists.
Storage Temperature Storage temperature is a critical factor in the development of storage upsets. Normally, apple was stored at temperatures above 32 0F. Fruit stored at 32 0F or lower develops more soft scald than fruit stored at 36 0F. The proper storage temperature for ‘Honeycrisp ‘ to command boggy dislocation is 38 to 40 0F instead than at lower temperatures ( Schwallier, 2001 ; Nichols et al. , 2004 ; Watkins et al. , 2004 ) . Soft scald and boggy dislocation development could be reduced when temperatures higher than 330F ( Watkins et al. , 2003 ) .
Timing of Harvest The optimal crop period for ‘Honeycrisp ‘ varied with the turning season and turning topographic point ( Wargo and Watkins, 2003 ) . Fruits that harvested excessively early do non develop varietal spirit and are about tasteless. If harvested excessively late, ‘Honeycrisp ‘ could develop agitation merchandises, such as ethyl alcohol and ethanal, which caused unwanted spirits. Normally the precise crop Windowss for each grove will be identified utilizing a combination of crop index proving and ocular observations. Prange et Al. ( 2002 ) observed that soft scald occurs in ‘Honeycrisp ‘ fruit harvested early and late-harvested fruit holding a 4-week storage period & gt ; 380F before CA storage at 380F developed really few upsets. Subsequently harvest ‘Honeycrisp ‘ would be easier to develop soft scald and boggy dislocation in fruit ( Watkins et al. , 2003 ) , while in Maine, harvested early could be prone to develop soft scald and boggy dislocation ( Moran unpublished information ) . Ideal harvest clip for ‘Honeycrisp ‘ would be about the 2nd or 3rd hebdomad of September in the Champlain part ( Watkins et al. , 2003 ) .
Preconditioning Delaying the chilling of fruit prior to storage is a good measure in minimising upset incidence ( Delong et al. , 2004 ) . Research at Cornell University and The University of Minnesota showed that a warm intervention ( 500F for 1 hebdomad ) before cold storage resulted in the greatest decrease of soft scald ( Bedford, 2001 ) . Several recent studies indicated that a short, delayed chilling ( or warming ) period of 50 to 680F for 1 hebdomad prior to cold storage reduced the incidence of soft scald and boggy dislocation ( Watkins and Nock, 2003 ; Delong et al. , 2004 ; Watkins et al. , 2004 ) . ‘Honeycrisp ‘ apple treated with a delayed chilling government dwelling of 770F for 1-2d, or 860F for 1d, strongly suppresses or wholly eliminates the happening of both soft scald and boggy dislocation ( Delong et al. , 2009 ) .
Controlled Atmosphere Storage ( CA ) Controlled atmosphere were normally defined as the content of 2.5kPa O2 and 1.0-1.5 kPa CO2. For many apple cultivars, an ambiance of 2 to 3 % CO2 with 2 to 3 % O2 was thought to be suited at cool storage temperatures. Controlled atmosphere storage could wholly forestall Jonathan topographic point when merely 2 % CO2 was present and could cut down the incidence of nucleus flower and assorted signifiers of flesh dislocation ( Wills et al. , 1998 ) . CA storage was non recommended, because the great susceptibleness of ‘Honeycrisp ‘ to CA hurt had been detected by agriculturists in different turning parts ( Beaudry, 2009 ) .
Diphenylamine ( DPA ) Watkins et Al. ( 2004 ) have found that diphenylamine ( DPA ) could cut down soft scald development in some instances, but it was non effectual plenty to forestall the upset in ‘Honeycrisp ‘ when stored at 33 0F. DPA did non hold large consequence on bar of the soft scald and the impact on internal CO2 hurt is in procedure ( Beaudry, 2009 ) . ‘Honeycrisp ‘ is non susceptible to superficial scald, so DPA has non been used by the industry to forestall soft scald ( Moran, personal communicating ) .
The above methods used to forestall or cut down soft scald and boggy dislocation were non ever effectual and could take to other upsets and quality loss ( Watkins et al. , 2005 ) , such as the consequence of preconditioning on soft scald and boggy dislocation of ‘Honeycrisp ‘ was really inconsistent ( Moran et al. , 2010 ) . Thus some new methods are in demand to be investigated to better fulfill the client demand.
Recently, several research workers had reported that 1-Methycyclopropene ( Smartfresh, 1-MCP ) could better forestall some storage upsets and keep the fruit quality compared to old methods. ‘Red Delicious ‘ treated with 1-MCP could acquire much higher degrees of soundness and sourness when compared with control ( Bates, 2001 ) . ‘Honeycrisp ‘ , ‘Granny Smith ‘ , ‘Golden Delicious ‘ , ‘Fuji ‘ , and ‘Braeburn ‘ treated with 1-MCP had reduced ethylene production and respiration rate, slower loss of soundness and titratable sourness, slower degreening and yellowing, suppression or decreased incidence of superficial and soft scald, nucleus flower, and oiliness, every bit good as delayed production of mature olfactory property ( Argenta et al. , 2001 ; Matthesis et al. , 2002 ) . Repeated hebdomadal applications of 1-MCP ( Mir et al. , 2001 ; Mir and Beaudry 2001 ; Jayanty et al. , 2004 ) helped prevent apple softening at 680F more than at 320F. 1-MCP non merely had a dramatic consequence on forestalling or detaining the softening, besides improved the fruit texture by increasing brittleness ( Watkins et al. , 2000 ; Mir et al. , 2001 ; Mattheis et al. , 2005 ; Moran and McManus 2005 ; ) . Apple storage at ambient temperature after treated with 1-MCP maintained better soundness than that cold storage, but the critical consequence depends on the cultivars ( Fan et al. , 1999b ; Mir et al. , 2001 ) . Green colour loss in the maturation procedure could be prevented by 1-MCP intervention ( Saftner et al. , 2003 ; Zanella, 2003 ) . 1-MCP could besides cut down senescent dislocation ( Watkins et al. , 2000 ; Delong et al. , 2004 ; Moran and McManus, 2005 ) , core flower or brown nucleus, and soft scald ( Fan et al. , 1999a ; Zanella, 2003 ; Delong et al. , 2004 ) . The development of oiliness in some apple cultivars, such as “ Granny Smith ” , was besides a procedure that develops in cold storage, and this was inhibited by 1-MCP ( Watkins and Nock, 2005 ) . 1-MCP gas applied at harvest holds maturing, improved storage life and prevented superficial scald and other physiological upsets in many apple cultivars including ‘Delicious ‘ , ‘Granny Smith ‘ , ‘Fuji ‘ and ‘Gala ‘ ( Fan et al. , 1999a ; Fan et al. , 1999b ) .
1-MCP as a new engineering, was reported to suppress the ethylene action by forestalling apple tissues from reacting to ethylene that through the combination with ethylene receptor. This chemical compound had been thought as a promising discovery in apple storage engineering that preserves the fresh-picked apple crunchiness, gustatory sensation and juice content. Furthermore, it could besides assist the apple industry meet retail and consumer demand for higher quality apples, every bit good as to present consistent quality to consumers year-round ( Argenta eral. , 2001 ; and Mattheisi et al. , 2002 ) .
‘Honeycrip ‘ treated with 1-MCP has great possible to better fruit quality and cut down storage upsets during storage. This is because it has successfully improved other apple cultivars ‘ quality, which every bit mentioned above. Another ground is that it has particular features which will beneficial fruit storage. Compared to other chemical methods, it is atoxic to human and has activity at really low concentration ( 100ppb to 1ppm ) . When it is ready for a full commercial usage, it will be packaged in a self-contained, one-step, individual usage bringing system. 1-MCP pulverization is really easy to be dissolved in H2O and let go of its active ingredients to storage room in a short clip ( Ian, 2003a ; Bruce Bates, 2001 ) . Ian ( 2003b ) indicated that SmartFresha„? could easy complements the current systems of apple storage ( CA and RA storage ) and had benefited the South African apple industry. For most cultivars, intervention with 1-MCP was most effectual when fruit were harvest at CA and 1-MCP was applied shortly after crop ( Argenta et al. , 2001 ; Matthesis et al. , 2001 ) . Using 1-MCP in storage ‘Honeycrisp ‘ apples could besides cut down ethene production, respiration, and oiliness ( DeEll and Murr, unpublished information ) .
Apple treated with 1-MCP can better many quality features during storage, but few studies on the application of 1-MCP on ‘Honeycrisp ‘ have been published. Therefore the possible consequence of 1-MCP on forestalling storage upsets and bettering fruit quality of ‘Honeycrisp ‘ is necessary to look into.
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Figure 1: Acrimonious cavity in ‘Honeycrisp ‘ ( Photo by Dr. R.E. Moran )
Figure 2: Soft scald ( left ) and Soggy dislocation ( right ) in ‘Honeycrisp ‘ ( Photo by Dr. R.E. Moran )