Poland ; electricity Essay

  1. Electricity
    1. Introduction

Over the old ages, there has been significant sum of advancement in footings of liberalising the Polish electricity market, nevertheless, it is an on-going procedure and there is still much to be done before a wholly working competitory market emerges.The twelvemonth 2013, saw a farther development of the electricity market in Poland which was evidenced by the addition in ingestions, coevals degrees, figure of completed commercial minutess and turnovers along with lessening in electricity monetary values. The construction of electricity coevals remained unchanged with bulk of coevals coming from conventional beginnings, nevertheless, a gradual rise in renewable energy coevals was observed. At the sweeping market, high degree of concentration was maintained both in footings of installed capacity and volume of electricity fed into the web. Whereas, on the retail market an addition in figure of electricity consumers based on the free market regulations was observed. In comparing to 2012, the figure of consumers who switched providers increased by more than half in 2013 with most of them belonging to the group of families.

  1. Supply and Demand

In 2013, the demand for electricity increased making 157,980 GWh ( 967 GWh higher than in 2012 ) with maximal peak demand recorded at 24,761 MW on 10 December 2013 and the minimal demand recorded at 18,271 MW on July 2013 (Figure 5) .

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[ [ 1 ] ] Whereas, the lowest national demand was recorded at 11,243 MW on 7 July 2013 ( 1,084 MW less than in 2012 ) .Figure 5Electricity demand formson the yearssFigure 6Electricity productions inwhen the upper limit and minimal national electricity1950-2013demand took topographic point in 2013

png” src=”https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/aaimagestore/essays/1464787.004.png”/>Table 8Major CHP workss and power bring forthing units in Poland [[ 5 ]]

Name Location Electricity coevals capacity Maximum heat capacity
BOT Elektrownia BeA‚chatow Rogowiec 5298
Elektrownia Kozienice Kozienice 2820
BOT Elektrownia Turow Bogatynia 2106
Elektrownia PoA‚aniec PoA‚aniec 1800
Elektrownia Rybnik Rybnik 1775
ZespoA‚ Elektrowni Dolna Odra NowenCzarnkowo k. Gryfina 1742
PKE SA Elektrownia Jaworzno III Jaworzno 1535 372 MWt
BOT Elektrownia Opole Brzezie k. Opola 1532
ZE PAK Elektrownia PA…tnow I Konin 1200
PKE SA Elektrownia A?aziska A?aziska Gorne 1155 196 MWt
PKE SA Elektrownia A?agisza BA™dzin 840 425 MWt
PKE SA Elektrownia Siersza Trzebinia 786 36.5 MWt
Elektrownia OstroA‚A™ka OstroA‚A™ka 647
ZE PAK Elektrownia Adamow Turek 600
Elektrownia Skawina Skawina 575 511 MWt
ZE PAK Elektrownia Konin Konin 488
ZE PAK Elektrownia PA…tnow II Konin 474
Elektrownia Stalowa Wola Stalowa Wola 350
PKE SA Elektrownia Halemba Ruda AslA…ska 200 58 MWt
PKE SA ElektrowniaBlachownia KA™dzierzyn KoA?le 165
  1. MWt
  1. Market reform and industry construction
    1. Sweeping market

In comparing to the old old ages, the figure of single energy groups every bit good as construction of these entities did non alter much with PGE Polska Grupa Energetyczna SA ( 39.

3 % – lessening from 40.5 % in 2012 ) and TAURON Polska Energia SA ( 13.6 % – lessening from 13.7 % in 2013 ) holding the bulk portions in the production subsector and in the supply subsector severally as illustrated in Figure.[[ 6 ]]Due to the being of vertically incorporate capital groups, the electricity coevals and trade markets remained extremely centralized as PGE, TOURON and EDF together held portions of 55.4 % ( 1.3 % less than in 2012 ) in the installed capacities and 62.6 % ( 1.

7 % less than in 2012 ) in electricity coevals. The HHI index in 2013 saw a farther bead by 4.1 % in comparing to 2012 ( 5.0 % bead in 2012 in comparing to 2011 ) .FigureShare of capital groups in volume of electricity fed into the grid in 2013

  • Retail market
  • The retail market was majorly constituted by the 5 large Distribution System Operators ( DSOs ) with their direct grid connexion to the transmittal grid along with 153 DSOs runing within the vertically incorporate groups who did non take part in the distribution activity and 80 trading companies. On the demand side, about 16,7 million consumers were recognized out of which 15 million ( over 90 % ) belonged to the G duty group ( largely household ) consisting 24 % portion in the entire volume of electricity supply and the remainder of the portions came from A ( industrial consumers, high electromotive force grid ) , B ( industrial consumers, medium electromotive force grid ) and C ( commercial consumers, low electromotive force grid ) duty groups consumers. In 2013, about 89000 consumers belonging to A, B and C groups switched provider, whereas, in G group this figure amounted to 131 000 ensuing in the addition of Third Party Access ( TPA ) clients by 52.6 % ( 39.

    4 % from A, B and C groups and 63.1 % for G group ) . [ [ 13 ] ]The alterations on the energy market guaranting liberalisation of electricity market and decrease in monetary values of green certification has lead to diminish in electricity monetary values for consumers who did non exchange providers with the biggest bead observed in group A ( by 9.7 % than in 2012 ) and the smallest bead observed in C group ( 0.

    5 % than in 2012 ) .

    1. Transmission and distribution web

    The Polskie Sieci Elektroenergetyczne SA ( PSE SA ) a province owned entity was appointed as the electricity transmittal system operator ( TSO ) on 10 October 2013 until 31 December 2030. It is responsible for all the activities as mentioned in Article 9, paragraph 1 of the directing 2009/72/EC.

    The enfranchisement of independency by TSO as mentioned in the directing 2009/72/EC was transposed into the Polish legal jurisprudence, staying by which PSE SA was granted certification of independency on with mention to Article 9d, paragraph 1e of the Energy Law Act. The TSO is responsible for carry oning trade of electricity both at domestic and across border degree. PSE SA comprises of 245 power line with a entire length of about 13.4 1000 kilometer and a 101 high electromotive force substation ( EHV ) . In order to cover current and future demand for electricity, PSE SA in its development program for 2010-2025 includes the investing undertakings sing interconnectors as shown in Table 9.Table 9Investing Undertakings related to interconnectors [[ 14 ]]

    Undertakings Location
    Construction of 400/220/110 kilovolts OA‚tarzew substation
    Installation of TR 400/220 kilovolt, 500 MVA OA‚tarzew substation
    Installation of TR 400/220 kV 500 MVA OA‚tarzew substation
    Installation of TR 400/110 kV 330 MVA OA‚tarzew substation
    Construction of 400 kilovolts Narew-A?omA?a-OstroA‚A™ka line
    Extension of 220/110kV with 400kV patchboard OstroA‚A™ka substation
    Installation of TR 400/220 kV 500 MVA OstroA‚A™ka substation
    Installation of TR 400/220 kV 500 MVA OstroA‚A™ka substation
    Construction of double-track 400 kilovolt EA‚k-A?omA?a line
    Extension of 220/110kV with 400kV patchboard EA‚k substation
    Installation of TR 400/110 kV 330 MVA EA‚k substation
    Construction of 400 kilovolts Siedlce Ujrzanow-MiA‚osna line
    Construction of 400/110 kV – I stage Siedlce Ujrzanow substation
    Extension of 400 kilovolts switchboard in 400/110kV Narew substation
    Construction of 400 kilovolts PA‚ock-Olsztyn MA…tki line
    Extension of 400/110 kilovolts Olsztyn MA…tki substation
    Construction of 400 kilovolts substation A?omA?a
    Construction of double-track 400 kV OstroA‚A™ka-StanisA‚awow line with a partial usage of bing 220 kV OstroA‚A™ka-MiA‚osna line OstroA‚A™ka-StanisA‚awow line and OstroA‚A™ka-MiA‚osna line
    Construction of 400 kilovolts or 400/110 kilovolts StanisA‚awow substation
    Construction of single-track 400 kilovolt Kozienice-Siedlce Ujrzanow line
    Construction of EA‚k-Polish boundary line line EA‚k
    Installation of stage shifters Krajnik-Vierraden line
    Installation of stage shifters MikuA‚owa-Hagenwerder line
    Construction of Plewiska-Polish boundary line line – preparatory plants towards Eisenhuettenstadt
    Modernization and extension of 400/220 kilovolts Krajnik substation
    Extension of 400/220/110 kilovolts Kozienice substation
    Modernization and extension of 400/220/110 kilovolts MikuA‚owa substation
    Extension of 400/110 kilovolts PA‚ock substation
    Re-commissioning of 750 kilovolts Rzeszow-Chmielnicka ( Ukraine ) interconnector

    In conformity with Article 9d, paragraph 1 and 2 of the Energy Law Act, the distribution system operator ( DSO ) is a to the full independent from any kind of activities other than those related to transmittal and distribution of electricity. By the terminal of 2013, there were 5 DSOs runing within the vertically incorporate energy groups subjected to legal unbundling and another 153 DSOs which were devoid of legal unbundling. The DSO is responsible for keeping the distribution grid ( normally non more than 110kV ) .

    Figure presents the largest DSOs and their several country of operation.FigureDistribution Systems Operators – countries of operation [[ 15 ]]

  • Monitoring balance of supply and demand
  • Guaranting security of electricity supply is non an easy undertaking comprising of both short-run and long-run activities. The President of ERO ensures proper operation of the web by accessing the activities undertaken by the electricity system operator. The relation between available capacities of domestic power workss to the peak capacity demand in National Electricity System ( NES ) in 2013 was assessed as shown inFigure.Figure:Available capacity of domestic power workss and maximal domestic capacity demand in the eventide extremum, presented as mean values on working yearss of a month in 2013 [[ 16 ]]Furthermore, a lessening in modesty capacity of domestic power workss accompanied with an addition in power losingss was observed in comparing to 2012 ( Figure ) . The highest power losingss compared to domestic capacity was observed at 7.2 % and 6.

    8 % in April and March severally ( Figure ) .FigureComparison of selected facets of operation of public-service corporation power workss in 2012 and 2013 [[ 19 ]]FigurePower losingss in relation to available capacity in forenoon and flushing extremums in 2013 [[ 20 ]]Electricity its operators do not create global

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