Phonology passage) Translation Participant Rusting tin ??sl???

Phonology is a branch science of linguistics, the study oflanguage in general. “Phonological rules are part ofcommunication through language, whether spoken or written, and knowing whatthey are and why they exist can help us better understand our world” (Smith1995). There are two common types ofphonological rules, these are universal (Assimilation) and non-universal(Dis-assimilation) rules.  “Assimilationis a rule that makes two or more neighboring segments more similar by makingthe segments share some feature” (Jun, 1995).

While, dissimilation is a rulethat change feature values to make two phonemes in a string more dissimilar. “Deletion in English Language isthe dropping of sound that takes place especially because morphemes are putclose to each other and also because of their occurances in unstressedsyllables or in rapid speech” (Ramelan,1977, p. 174).. Finally, “dissimilation is whena sound changes one of its features to become less similar to an adjacent sound,usually to make the two sounds more distinguishable”. Consequently, studyingthe way that a particular phonological rule operates in a spoken language,linguists are able to determine the physiological and neurological mechanismsthat translate mental language into spoken language.Conclusion                                          Secondexample- replacing a glide (w) with a liquid glide (l)                          Gliding-  First example – replacing a consonant (t)with a liquid glide (l)Rationale:  One sound is substituted for another sound ina systematic way.  English Words (based on passage) Translation Participant Rusting tin ??sl??? t?n Rusling tin bowls b?lz balls Table3 below displays the results of dissimilation in English Language.

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 Based on the recording:  cultural     cellular(cell)                penal         perpendicular  (7)Annual       annular                           sexual        secularThese are examples:  Finally,”dissimilation is when a sound changes one of itsfeatures to become less similar to an adjacent sound, usually to make the twosounds more distinguishable” (Chang 2004). This type of rule is often seenamong people speaking a language that is not their native language where thesound contrasts may be difficult so the rule is applied for ease of productionand perception (Chang, 2004, p.6).    In other words, a phonological process thatchanges feature values of segments to make them less similar. Rationale:  as above examples, a schwa isinserted to break up a two- consonant cluster. The effect of this insertion is toease the pressure on the vital rapidity of movement  English Words Translation Participant perhaps p???h?ps   develop d??v?l?p   Table2 below displays the results of insertion in English Language.

Based on the recording: (See passage and transcription in Apendix)Prove that Epenthesis is present in EnglishLanguage     He adds that “there are two types ofinsertion:  prothesis and epenthesis, theformer refers to the insertion of a segment at the beginning while the latter refersto the insertion inside a word.  Snoopy +/e/ ?/esnupi/  ( prothesis) glass + plural /s/?/glæs?z/  (epenthesis)? ?  ? +stop / +nasal __ +fricative?  ? ? / s __ z”.   There is a special kind of epenthesis whichinvolves inserting a schwa between a liquid and another consonant.

This occursin nonstandard English between ? and /r/ or /l/ in words such as thefollowing: arthritis a???raInIs athlete a??lit Nathan (2008) assertsthat “not only can segments be deleted, sometimes they can be inserted instead.There seem to be two basic reasons for insertion: preventing clusters ofconsonants that violate syllable structure constraints in the language, and easingtransitions between segments that have multiple incompatibilities” (pg. 82).   Aparticularly strange, but well-known kind of insertion is the famous’intrusive/linking r’ of British and some dialects of American English. Inthese dialects a historical /r/ has been deleted in word-final coda position,but when the word is followed by vowel initial words under complex andnot-completely understood circumstances, the /r/ reappears, an example of’intrusive r’ is: idea aIdi? idea is aIdi?rIz. All of the examples we haveseen so far involve insertion of vowels to break up sequences of consonantsthat violate syllable structure constraints. In other cases the /r/ reappearseven when there was never an /r/ there in the first place (this is known as’intrusive r’). Typical examples of ‘linking r’ are rear ri?  rear end rir?nd      Noticed that the speaker left of the endingletters off the words /lined, pot, sand, paved/, this was not deliberate.

Itmight have been unconscious and also the letters in front are stressed morethan those letters.Explanation:  There are two reasons why this happened; 1.The participant was relaxed and spoke causally or; 2.   theloss of a final element as /t/ and /d/ are low stress consonant.  English Words Transciption Participants Pronunciation (British speaker) lined la?n line pot p?a po sand san san paved p?e?v pave .Table 1 below displays the results of apocope (deletion) in English Language.Afterthe data were collected, the researcher listened to each recording carefully afew times and transcribed the problematic consonant clusters, based on hisphonetic training and teaching experienceTheresearcher first created a friendly rapport with the participants, thenexplained the recording will be used only for research purpose and participant’sidentity will remain anonymous. Next, the researcher asked the participant toview the passage and read it aloud while being audio-recorded.

The recording wasdone in a friendly atmosphere. Procedure Instrument: Telephone recorderParticipant:  A female who speaks the British version of theEnglish Language.Methodology                                                                              Prove that deletion exist in EnglishLanguage  “Deletion in English Language is the droppingof sound that takes place especially because morphemes are put close to eachother and also because of their occurances in unstressed syllables or in rapid speech”(Ramelan,1977, p. 174). According to Roach (1983) “undercertain circumstances sounds disappear, or in certain circumstances a phonememay be realized as zero, or have zero realisation; elision is typical of rapid,casual speech; the process of change in phoneme realisations produced bychanging the speed and casualness of speech, which is sometimes calledgradation. In other words, deletion is the elimination of a sound, this appliesmore frequently to unstressed syllables and in causal speech” (p. 108).  Also, “Apocope is a form of deletion which isthe cutting off or loss of one or more sounds from the end of a word, andespecially the loss of unstressed vowels” (Roach 1983).

There are two common types ofphonological rules, these are universal (Assimilation) and non-universal(Dis-assimilation) rules.  “Assimilationis a rule that makes two or more neighboring segments more similar by makingthe segments share some feature” (Jun, 1995). While, “dissimilation is a rulethat change feature values to make two phonemes in a string more dissimilar.

A classic example of dissimilationoccurs in Latin, and the results of this process show up in modern day English.Example of this in English is Noun and Adjective pairs” (Jun, 1995). Notably, thepurpose of this research is to explain deletion, syllabification, insertion anddissimilation, four forms of non – universal rules of English language whichspeakers apply when speaking without being aware of it. Phonetics andphonemics, are concerned with the rules of combining speech sounds of language.There are rules of combining speech sounds of language, and some rules whichare applicable to certain language might not be applicable to another language.Phonological rules are part of communication through language, whether spokenor written, and knowing what they are and why they exist can help us betterunderstand our world.  In order tounderstand the purpose of phonological rules, we need to understand what aphoneme is. According to the traditional phonological theories “a phoneme isthe minimal unit in the sound system of a language” ( Crystal,1997, p.

287) .Phonological rules are the rules whether written or spoken that control howsounds change during vocal communication. Also, these rules describe howphonemes are realized as their allophones in a given environment. Environmentin phonology typically refers to neighboring phonemes As it is mentioned before, the study of speech soundstructure of language is called phonology.

Phonology is a branch science oflinguistics, the study of language in general. Odden (2005) states that “phonologyis one of the core fields that composes the discipline of linguistics, which isdefined as the scientific study of language structure”. The speech sounds oflanguage that we study in phonology are symblolic sounds that represent thephysical sounds of language. Odden (2005) says that “the point which is mostimportant to appreciate at this moment is that the “sounds” which phonology isconcerned with are symbolic sounds – they are cognitive abstractions, whichrepresent but are not the same as physical sounds” (p. 2).

One of the aspects of language is speech sound. The study ofspeech sound in language is called phonology. Each language has its own speechsound structure which differ from one language to another language. By learningthe speech sound structure of language, not only can we recognize andunderstand how to pronounce a word of a language correctly, but can alsoproduce the word using correct pronunciation.

Furthermore, we will be able toexplain why we should pronounce it that way.  In his book ‘English Phonetics,’ Ramelan (1994)says “when a student wants to learn a foreign language, in this case, English,he will have to learn to speak it” (p. 2). He has to try to speak in the waythe native speakers speak the language. This can be achieve by closelyimitating and mimicking them untirelessly until his pronunciation issatisfactory and acceptable to them. Ramelan (1994) also said that “above all,the student has to be able to discriminate the contastive sound units thatdistinguish one utterance from another, both on the production level and on therecognition level” (p.



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