Parthenon styles. The temple of Apollo in
Parthenon in Athens is a monument in Greek mainland,a classical temple located at the top of Acropolis. Constructed in 5th CenturyBCE, it was devoted to Athena Parthenos1(Greek Goddess) to emphasise the power of Athens. Out of the classical Greekarchitectural orders (Doric, Ionic and Corinthian), Parthenon uses Doric order,being considered the largest Doric temple in Greece2.At the façade of the classical temple there are 8 by 17 Doric columns. Comparedto earlier Doric temples Parthenon had subtle optical refinements, consequentlyit also solved the corner problem. These consisted of slightly concave foundations/columnswhich appear straight.
Parthenon is home to the statue of Athena which has 23small Doric columns surrounding the statue and 6 standard Doric columns whichpillar the porch3. Furthermore,the Classical temples in Greek mainland, including Parthenon, are designed tobe looked at from the outside and perceived as ‘perfect’; reflecting on thefact that these temples are only to be seen from the exterior and not to beinhabited. On the other hand, a typical temple in Asia Minoris built on different ground therefore the temples incorporate Ionic order. Comparedto the Parthenon in Athens and classic temples these are taller, thinner,fluted and rest of a flat surface whereas Doris orders consist of a thick column,no base, and much larger. Despite this, the room which contains Athena’s treasurein Parthenon accommodates 4 Ionic columns which reinforce the roof 4hence some Classical temples in Greek mainland incorporate both Doric and Ionicstyles. The temple of Apollo in Didyma is a temple in AsiaMinor, very different to Acropolis of Athens (Doric form). In ancient Greece thistemple is known to have been the fourth largest5,holding within it both political and deeply religious beliefs causing numerousrulers (e.g.
Alexander the Great) to come to the temple for guidance. In totalApollo had a total of 3 known temples (whereas Parthenon has 2) although somewere destroyed; for example, the second temple. Compared to Parthenon inAthens, this temple is much larger in width although the length of both templesare roughly the same. In fact, the additional temple (Hevenishe Didyamion) inthe temple of Apollo in Didyma was thought to be ”twice the size of Athens Parthenon”6.
Despite this, this third temple was built to resemble a Classical Greek templefrom the outside, similar to Parthenon, hence reflecting the same beliefs in havinga ‘perfect’ exterior. However, unlike the classical Greek temple, theinterior of Didyma had the adyton (inner chamber) was on the ground floor dueto being built around a ‘sacred spring’, whereas the adyton of the ClassicalGreek temple sat right above the temple platform. The inner chamber of Didymaalso was left open for religious portrayals like sacred trees.