p.p1 white collar crimes which are crimes

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0px; font: 11.0px ‘Helvetica Neue’; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000} span.s1 {font-kerning: none} Firstly, victimization surveys as explained by Moore et al. (2009), are distributed to individuals from a certain society or individuals worldwide and ask to provide information of offenses committed against them. According to Davies et al. (2007), victimization surveys provide information about crimes that have not been reported to the police and victim’s experiences, however, these surveys are criticized as being recollections of memories from victims which may lead to bias answers (Koffman, 1996). The second method for collecting data is by self-report surveys as they are given out to a specific group from the population, usually young adults with questions about crimes they may have committed (Moore et al., 2009).

Self-report surveys provide information about offenders and offenses who may not be dealt by the police, however, the results of these self-report studies may lack reliability, because offenders may lie on these surveys for reason such as fear, or exaggeration. Such surveys are a good way of informing society about hidden crimes and victim’s perspectives on them, however, they may lack validity due to lying or mistaken (Abercrombie et al., 2000). The third method for collecting information about crimes is from police records and official agencies which are gathered together and published by the Home Office such as; the Criminal Statistics for England and Wales (Koffman, 1996). These records show true patterns and trends of crime over time, however, these records may lack reliability because they are based only on recorded crimes (Marsh, 1986). Factors such as fear of embarrassment, fear of not getting retribution or lack of awareness such as; fraud may lead to victims not reporting crimes committed upon them (Moore et al.

, 2009). Furthermore, Koffman (1996) argues that it should be taken into account the different police recording practices, as well as the changes that occur in law. Not all offenses are recorded by the police because the police may regard them as a family matter or factors the such as the social status of a person reporting the crime may not be high enough, therefore the police judges the situation and decides whether to report it or not (Moore et al., 2009). Lastly, crime statistics may not include all types of crimes such as; white collar crimes which are crimes committed by people in a business environment for financial gain (Croall, 2001). Such crimes may never be heard of or are slowly dealt with within the business (Davies et al.

, 2007) therefore, official police-recorded statistics have been criticized for being socially constructed, by not providing valid information of crime levels (Abercrombie et al., 2000). Thus, crime statistics over-represent some groups and under-represent others. 


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