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1in; line-height: 120%; }Nepal is a smallland locked country found in South-East Asia comprised of abreathtakingamount ofcontradiction between the abundance of extreme social and politicalsituation. It isconsidered to bepart of the third world countries but it is also home to manyfascinating andwonderfultraditions, culture and lifestyle. Sadly, Nepal has fallen prey todifferent forms ofHuman Trafficking.

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Nepal is a countrythat can be considered a source, transit and a destination country.Having alot of push factors,it one of the places where children, women and men are part oftraffickinginside Nepal, India,Middle East, Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa and in the United States forforcedlabor inconstruction, factories, mines, domestic work, begging, and the adultentertainmentindustry (USDepartment of State TIP report, 2016). A report published by NationalHumanRights Commission in2014 found out that 29,000 people from Nepal were either traffickedorattempted to betrafficked.

Among them, 16,000 were attempted to be trafficked and13,000fell prey totrafficking (Trafficking in Persons Especially on Women and Childrenin Nepal:NHRC, 2014).Especially women and children are victims of human trafficking inNepal.Alone in the capitalof Nepal- Kathmandu; an average of 845 women and 1453 children weremissing in the year2012/2013 (CCWB, 2013). These missing reports of women and childrenare yet to besolved, and these points towards serious cases of trafficking.

Domestic traffickingof children iscommon for domestic works, brick kilns whereas through the openborderbetween India andNepal, children are trafficked for circus works, agriculture,construction.The main form ofexploitation existing in Nepal is sex exploitation in entertainmentsectorssuch as dance bars,hotels and pubs. Kathmandu favored 600 of such restaurants where 40%ofthe working womenwere below 18 years of age with place of origin outside Kathmandu(Karki,2013).

Among 200respondents, 58% of them had a monthly salary of 30 US Dollars.Ninetypercent of theworkers had faced cases of sexual abuse and sexual indulgences insidetherestaurants. Anothermajor trafficking phenomenon is organ trafficking. Nepal has aseriousproblem of kidneytrafficking along with other organs. Up to 7,000 kidneys are obtainedeveryyear and only 300people have been reported of organ trafficking (CNN Freedom Project,2015). The victimsof kidney trafficking are mostly people from the poorest of regionslikeDhading, Makawanpur,Nuwakot, Kavre, where ignorance and illiteracy brainwash and makethem vulnerable tosuch deceit. Many of them are brought to Kavre- a district popularfor itsblack market inKidneys, or taken to India where fake papers and false paymentawaits.

Thenumber of females selling their kidneys is three timesmore than males (Kavre leads in kidneysmuggling: Report,THT 2016). The victims are even unaware about the missing body part,and later developserious health problems such as urinary problem, back pain or evendeath.After the ‘chunkof meat’ is removed, they are sent home with 200- 300 US Dollars,while theywere promised a sumof 3000 US Dollars (Trafficking in Persons Especially on Women andChildren in Nepal:NHRC, 2014).According to asurvey done in 2014, almost 520,000 people are working abroad aslabors incountries such asMalaysia (37.7%), Qatar (21.9%), Saudi Arabia (20.

7%) and UAE (12.6%)among which 95% aremales (Labor Migration for Employment: A Status Report for Nepal,2014). A Nepalimigrant worker may go abroad via different agencies or institutionsorindependently.

Almost all the migrants living abroad were deceived by therecruitmentagencies in eitherone the terms: salary, working hour, type of job, rest day orfacilities. Peoplefall in the hands ofexploitation when they arrive on the host country and have noknowledgeof the system, theyhave their passports taken and are bound to the Kafala System. Theworkcontract, visa andpassport arrive hours before the flight, and they have no say onchanging thecontract (FalsePromises-Exploitation and forced labor of Nepalese migrant workers,2011).Their accommodationis filthy, harassing with un-sanitized bathrooms and kitchens.

Whentheycomplained about thesituation, they were told to be quiet or there would be consequences.Themigrant workers gounpaid for several months at once, and their hopes of paying theirdebt tothe recruitmentagencies keeps them bounded. Workers were not even allowed to visittheirfamily after theApril 2015 Nepal earthquake (Qatar: Abuse of World Cup WorkersExposed,March 2016). Workerstend to commit suicide, and their body being received back home onlyafter two or threemonths.The government doesnot fully meet the minimum standards that should be taken toeliminatehuman trafficking.Nepal has signed the SAARC Convention on Preventing and CombatingTrafficking in Womenand Children for Prostitution, in 2002 (Kidney Trafficking in Nepal,2014). Thisconvention helped member nations to effectively deal with aspects ofhumantrafficking. TheHuman Trafficking and Transportation Control Act 2008 implementedrulesto prohibit almostall forms of human trafficking but still deviates in parts and isflawed.

Here,forced prostitutionis a crime but still does not consider the prostitution of childrenas a formof trafficking underabsence of force, fraud, or coercion (US Department of State TIPreport,2016). The 2015Constitution encompasses fundamental rights of workers as per thestandardof International Labor. After the April 2015 earthquake,awareness raising programs to combatthe vulnerability ofwomen and children was taken into consideration. The age bar forwomenin domestic works is30 to control household labor exploitation of women.

The Ministry ofWomen, Children andSocial Welfare has created a separate division that looks after thetrafficking issuesand women empowerment issues. National Committees, DistrictCommittees,District- Sub Committees and VDC Committees along with the support ofNepalPolice to check anyforms of trafficking. Women and Children Service Center has expandedits partnership withpolice offices in all 75 districts, and they work to combat crimeagainstwomen and children.(Trafficking in Persons Especially on Women and Children in Nepal:NHRC, 2014)Organizations suchas Maiti Nepal, Shakti Samuha, AATWIN (Alliance Against Traffickingin Women andChildren in Nepal), 3 Angels Nepal, Amnesty International Nepal,ChildHelpline Nepal, CWINare organizations that protect, rescue and rehabilitate survivors ofhuman trafficking.

Maiti Nepal along with the police inspect border crossings betweenNepaland India, andquestion suspects or takes in runaway girls. They first try to locatetheir familiesor provide training,medical assistance and counseling program to the survivors. Manyvictimsare rescued fromborders or India and fostered by Maiti Nepal(maitinepal.org/program).Human Traffickingand Transfer Act-2006 has a provision of ten years’ jail sentenceand Rs 2lakh- Rs 5 lakh finefor the guilty. The Human Body Organ Transplantation (Regulation andProhibition) Actbrought up in 1998 contains a series of rules and regulations underwhichorgan trafficking isproperly addressed and prevent purchase and sell of organs (KidneyTrafficking inNepal, 2014). The ILO Nepal in partnership with US Department ofLaborstarted a 5-yearplan from 2015 to 2019, to implement the 2014 ILO protocol againsthumantrafficking, toraise awareness against human trafficking and create partnership withotherorganizations andbusiness partners to eradicate all forms of human trafficking(ilo.

org/global/topics/forced-labour/projects).Rehabilitation homesare being built up, new partnerships are being signed, new protocolsandplans are beingimplemented, but trafficking is still a much serious issue to thanits presentstate. In my view,the legislature is still failing to properly prosecute traffickersand addressvictims. Majorgovernment corruption and loop-holes in legislature counts for theseflaws.Punishment shouldnot be given to survivors, instead they must have a free will to takelegalaction against theirtraffickers.

Strong law enforcements at prone areas should be there.Morerescue teams should be set up near the border areas and alongwith the partnership of trainedpolice and NGOmembers, suspects should be thoroughly checked and questioned.Dignifiedrehabilitationcentres should be set up. The government should hold strict rules foremployingwomen inrestaurants, bars and the employers should be able to facilitate theemployees better.Orphanage homesshould be under strict rules and their programs and child countsshould bewell monitored. Theinvolvement of children in factories, brick kilns, transportationsector,small hotels shouldbe monitored. Micro finance loans and study loans should be madeavailable to peoplefrom trafficking prone regions, and special awareness should beconductedin these regions.

Separate policies for different areas of trafficking, Strictsurveillance tomonitor fakedocuments, and transparency while applying to a job abroad should beprovided.Results should becollected from victim centered investigations and co-operation withotheragencies woulddecrease the load and increase efficiency with better plans. Longtermstrategies toeradicate human trafficking rather than re-victimizing the survivorsshould beformulated in thehost country as well as the country of origin.

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