Organizations culture and their behavioral impact Essay

The word organisation comes from a Grecian word organon, which is good known as ergon. It is considered as a societal agreement that works towards accomplishing combined ends, mensurating and commanding ain public presentations and every bit good dragging a boundary which separates it from its environment.Harmonizing to Buchanan and Huczynski ( 2004 ) – ” A work organisation is a societal agreement for the controlled public presentation of corporate ends ” .

Keeping an organisation demand some specific occupation to be done as- specialisation, co-ordination and distribution of labor? It is directed and controlled by certain governments to explicate a house ‘s mission, vision, schemes and besides for keeping the quality degree of an organisation.There are some common characteristics of all the concern organisation:A group of people working towards accomplishing the same end.Firms ain vision and mission statement.The organisation civilization directed by its value.

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Development of schemes to accomplish ends.Constitution of divisions, squads, sections and system to accomplish the ends.They manage input and by treating acquire the end product which is considered as a merchandise or service.The chief concern is client behind the constitution of goods and services. visited on 14 April 2010 clip 9pmOrganizational behavior is an academic subject concerned with describing, apprehension, predicting, and commanding human behavior in an organisational environment. Organizational behavior has evolved from early classical direction theories into a complex school of thought-and it continues to alter in response to the dynamic environment and proliferating corporate civilizations in which today ‘s concerns operate.Organization behavior is concerned with the survey of the behavior of people around the organisation.

It is the manner by which single and group ‘s behavior and form are studied, analysed and hence up house ‘s public presentation and effectivity. It describes how people learn, process information from their ain prospective and thoughts and their attitude and property towards work and the house. Equally good the survey consists of procedure of direction, the organisational context in which the procedure direction takes topographic point, houses procedure and the executing of work, interaction with the external environment of houses. [ Mullins L J. ( 2007 ) pp-5 ]There is certain cardinal behavior working towards organisational development.

First of all it helps out employees from any place to larn invariably about the company and helps out clients and besides to hold a direct communicating with fellow employees. Second it works towards extinguishing diverseness related issues which include race, gender, ethnicity, and part and so on. In footings of communicating procedure houses use both formal which follows concatenation of bid and informal communicating which is likely unfastened and natural. It improves house ‘s efficiency and effectivity by developing superior scheme and flow-less execution of it.

Influence towards version of fast and speedy acquisition system to manage chances and extinguish menaces and besides to work out on certain political issues such as authorities regulations and ordinance, statute law, economic issues such as growing of economic system which might consequence on houses market, societal issues such as demographic alterations in footings of age profile of the working population or altering behavior and attitude which influences peoples outlook and behavior towards work and in conclusion the technological section which includes execution of new engineering and fabrication … /MGT % 20320.

doc visited on 15 April 2010 clip 8 autopsyDifferent types of organisation construction works together for keeping the substructure of an organisation.Traditional construction are fundamentally based on functional divisions and sections and has three parts-Line structural organisation are hierarchal, follows the lines of authorization straight from supervisors and subsidiaries and besides shows the scalar concatenation of bid from few higher-ups to turning figure of subsidiariesLine and staff construction: it ‘s a more centralised organisation which combines the information comes from the top degree with staff sections for supports and specialisation. Directors of line and staff have authorization over their subsidiaries, but staff directors have no authorization over line directors and their subsidiaries. Decision doing procedure is normally slower cause of bed and guidelines.Functional construction: it classified people harmonizing to their public presentation in professional life. Examples of it is Vice president, Customer service section etc.Divisional construction: This sort of construction based on different division of an organisation. Such asMerchandise construction: it ‘s based on forming employees and work on the footing of the different types of merchandises.

Market construction: it ‘s a group employee on the footing of specific market the company sells in.Geographic construction: This type of organisation construction follows zonary regional construction.Matrix construction: It is a combination of map, and merchandise constructions. It combines both construction good performances to do an efficient organisational construction. This construction is the most complex organisational construction.For illustration if we consider different supermarket and retail shops or banking sectors they have got different attacks towards operation in concerns.

Like Sainsbury, Tesco, Asda, Morrison these types of supermarkets have different scheme such as apart from retail sector they have banking sectors and oil Stationss etc which distinguish them from other traditional … /type-of-organizational-structures.html – Cached – Similar visited on 15 april 2010 clip 10 autopsyOrganization civilization is defined as a- ” A form of shared basic premises that the group learned as it solved its jobs of external version and internal integrating, that has worked good plenty to be considered valid and hence, to be taught to new members as the right manner to comprehend, believe, and experience in relation to those jobs ” .

( Schein 373-374 ) . “ hypertext transfer protocol: // ” cultureHYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: //www. ” .shtml visited on 15 April 2010 clip 11 autopsyThere are certain features which help in bring forthing thoughts sing organisational civilization. Such as-Identifying house ‘s ends and scheme which is known as mission statement.Developing behavior forms within the house and with its stakeholder.

Distribution of authorization from top degree to the bottom degree.Develop organisation construction by placing utilizations of organisation charts.Identify the nature of leading whether it is bossy, bureaucratic or democratic.

Identifying the values, fight, flexibleness and the alteration attack of a house.Different authors have different sentiment about organisational civilization. Among them Charles Handy ( 1985 ) popularized the work of Roger Harrison ( 1972 ) of looking at civilization which some bookmans linked with organisational construction to organisational civilization. Handy ‘s four types therefore:The power civilization: It is influenced by the spreading of power though out organisation. It is besides known as nine or Zeus civilization. This civilization put accent on centralisation and cardinal power which derives from the constitution of concern and which enables the chair individual to take any determination to apportion and command resources.

This types of organisation like a dominant civilization and characterized as a web with a opinion spider where power is concentrate in a little country of the Centre. It is fundamentally reflected on a family-owned concern, which can be big or little. Examples of it can be seen in Handy ‘s illustration of monolithic establishments in the USA, run as a little household concern at the top and known as ‘robber barons ‘ . Power and decision-making is runs by the cardinal household members, take determination and others have to implement it.It is hard for others outside the ‘family web ‘ to act upon events. The greatest strength of power civilization is the ability to respond rapidly and their success is depends on the abilities of the individual or people in Centre.

It is more likely a tough and aggressive civilization. The power civilization has more religions in persons than commissions and can either alter really quickly and accommodate or ‘fail to see the demand for alteration ‘ and decease.2 ) Role civilization: It is a bureaucratic civilization, rules of which are logic and rationally. The strong portion of this civilization is its maps or fortes and it ‘s described as a series of pillars which are coordinated and controlled by a little group of senior executives. Internal environment of a function civilization is based on function, processs and occupation description and publicity of which is based on the satisfactory public presentation in executing the occupation. Communication is done through chiseled system and civilization.

To treat determination and deciding struggles certain regulations and mechanisms are present. It is the most stable and predictable environment which have a good bid over its merchandise or its enlargement and besides it is effectual where economic graduated tables, proficient expertness or merchandise specialisation are of import. The disadvantage of this civilization every bit good it is slow to acknowledge and respond to alter. Examples of it can be oil companies, civil service or retail banking.3 ) Undertaking civilization: These types of houses are involved in extended research and development activities.

They continuously work for alteration and arrange probationary undertaking squads to run into their hereafter needs. The most value gets information, expertness and skills instead than power. The civilization may be thought of a net or matrix. It focuses on achievement of occupation by conveying all the internal organisation together and by supplying right occupation and resources to right people to do the undertaking successful. This civilization influenced by expertness and up-to-date information where the civilization is most in melody with consequences. Positive sides of it can be its flexibleness, adaptability, single liberty and common regard based on its ability instead than age or position. Negative sides of it can be its inability to maximize economic of graduated table do non construct up the great deepness of expertness, to a great extent dependability on the people involved and its limitation of administering resources which might turn it to more power ‘ or ‘role ‘ oriented civilization.4 ) Person civilization: This civilization develops upon the footing of personal involvement to form on a corporate mode instead than single footing.

In this civilization single decides their ain work allotment with regulations and coordinating mechanism of minimum forfeit. Person civilization completes liberty, portion influence and power merely if it is applied. Those who comprise and represented throughout the operation of house is recognized as a exclusive individual of a house.

Examples of it can be physicians, barristers and designers etc. [ Andrew Brown ( 1998 ) , “ Organization civilization ” , 2nd Edition, Pearson Education Limited, pp-66,67,68 ]Organization civilization and construction are extremely linked. Basically organisation civilization gives a bigger image which deals with mostly smaller subjects and issues of an organisation, whereas organisation construction trades with assorted patterns and methods of house ‘s substructure which helps the organisation to run efficaciously. Organization construction fundamentally an interior section of an organisation which chiefly set up the civilization sing direction map, supervisors duties and besides linked up all the interconnected groups of an organisation and helps them run swimmingly. The chief intent of an organisation construction is to find effectual communicating between different parts of the company and besides to increase coordination between different sections. Examples of it can be seen in supermarkets named Sainsbury, Tesco etc. J Sainsbury Plc controls Sainsbury supermarkets ; Shaw ‘s supermarket ; Sainsbury bank ; JS Development and Sainsbury ‘s Property Company.www.

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com/organizational-culture-organizational-structure.html ” -HYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: // ” structureHYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: //www. ” .html visited on 17 April 2010 clip 10pmPersonality derives from the Grecian word ‘Persona ‘ agencies ‘mask ‘ . It refers to capture or summarize an single kernel.Harmonizing to-Carl Gustav Jung ( 1934 ) defined Personality as – “ The supreme realisation of the unconditioned foible of a life being. It is an act of high bravery flung in the face of life, the absolute avowal of all that constitutes the person, the most successful version to the cosmopolitan status of being coupled with the greatest possible freedom for self-government.

” – Cached – Similar visited on 17 April 2010 clip 11.30pmThere are chiefly two types of personality attack. They are:The Nomothetic attack: It is fundamentally the survey of persons to place and mensurate the feature. This attack suggests it is more or less fixed and assorted elements of personality are same from single to single.

Individual posses a choice of these of these traits which tends to travel together in efficaciously spliting people into personal type.The Idiographic attack: it focuses on the unique of the person. Personality develops through interaction with the environment and besides how single see himself on it. It ‘s a image of a peculiar person at a peculiar clip.Apart from this there are type theories of personalities, trait theory of personality, psychodynamic theory of personalities etc.

There are a few factors that work as obstruction in developing personalities.Familial factor: Our physical properties determines how people will handle us and how we view ourselves.Social factors: Merely through socialisation procedure people learn how to act, how to experience by household, friends and other important people within a societal scene.

Cultural factors: Cultural position is a broad societal belief and values are absorbed by an person guided behavior in societal extent.Situational factors: The consequence of specific experiences or state of affairs on a personal feelings and behavior comes to a drama in personality growing.Although there are other factors comes to play these are considered the major in personality growing.

There are assorted factors that influence single behavior at work. They are-Personality and Percept: Percept is a procedure that involves in choice, organisation, structuring and reading of information to do illations and give significance to it. Personality is a stable and digesting facet of an person that individual that distinguishes from others.Attitudes, larning and emphasis: Attitudes is referred as a obstructionist to alter, the stronger it is, the more immune to alter. Learning on the other side is the acquisition of accomplishments which can be done through preparation and development. Lastly emphasis is a combination of positive and negative consequence on workplace, by and large impacts negative to employees is a grade of tenseness or anxiousness of a individualMotivation: Motivation is a procedure which gives ground, inducement, enthusiasm, or involvement that causes a specific action or certain behavior. Pay rise, place etc are considered as a incentive factor.

Examples can be seen on Sainsbury ‘s operation on staff direction where staff are considered as a representative of the company. Staffs have picks of working part-time, flexible contracts for retail employees, occupation portion, place working, enhanced pregnancy leave/pay, paternity leave, career interruption strategies for child care, and particular leave for personal development or caring duties.Different scientist gives different sentiment about rules and practises of organisations direction. Among them Henry Fayol listed 14 rules which is the most influential 1s that describes below.

Planning: Planning is the procedure that involves selection the organisations objective which by and large means making programs, policies, programmes etc and findings the ways of accomplishing it.Forming: It by and large means programming and work allotment within a formal construction of authorization and communicating.Commanding: It by and large involves in teaching and actuating employees to transport out direction of superior.

Co-ordinating: Co-ordinating agencies harmonizing the activities of persons and groups within the organisation, accommodating differences in attack and so on.Controling: It ‘s an indicant of supervising the activities of persons and groups to do certain the public presentation in conformity with the programs, criterion and aims.Apart from these he referred some more rules they are authority and duty, subject, centralisation, subordination, wage, scalar concatenation and so visited on 18 april 2010 clip 8 autopsyExamples of these rules come to play in Sainsbury ‘s direction procedure.

The company has an Equality and Diversity policy, with a Steering Group led by a Board Director to rede the group. Sainsbury ‘s played a lead function in the Business in the Community ‘s ‘Race for Opportunity ‘ study in 2001. There is a Fair Treatment policy for managing grudges and ailments and the company financess an independently-run confidential 24 hr helpline.There are different attacks made in different decennaries by different scientists are as follows:Scientific direction: Frederick Taylor is the first scientist who defines the duties of direction which is to choose, train and aid workers to execute their occupations and therefore workers duty is to accept and execute consequently. This attack made things easier for companies in administering undertaking and in preparation and developing employees. Harmonizing to him workers should work for the common benefit and by which productiveness can be increased.

Classical disposal: Scientist Henry Fayol identified 14 rules of direction and those are specialisation, scalar concatenation, integrity of bid, integrity of way, subordination of single involvement, centralisation, subject etc creates an huge consequence on altering the attacks towards employees by direction. Though it has a huge consequence on direction practises still modern scientist argues on commanding and directing and suggest coaching and facilitation alternatively.Human-resource attack: Harmonizing to Elton Mayo the human relation attack emphasised on the importance of human attitude, values and relationships for the efficient and effectual operation of work organisation. Classical attack whereas focuses extremely on the construction and formal organisation, human relation accent on importance of people in work state of affairs and the influence of societal and psychological factors in determining houses behaviour.

This attack is followed by Maslow, Herzberg and McGregor and many more.The systems attack: It describes two types of system. Closed system which is shut off from the environment and independent of it whereas an unfastened system is connected to and interacts with its environment. It takes influence from the environment and itself gives influences the environment by its activities. The systematic attack besides emphasises the being of sub-systems or bigger systems.The eventuality attack: It refers to the appropriate solution in any specific in any instance depends, upon the fortunes predominating at clip. This attack besides influenced subjects such as work-design, leading and organisation structuring.Examples can be seen on Sainsbury ‘s Employers ‘ Forum on Disability.

They besides support the Learning Consortium, assisting talented people with disablements to travel into senior direction places. Sainsbury ‘s believe their trade name is seen as stand foring quality and value for money, every bit good as high criterions of client service. Sainsbury ‘s wants to give show infinite to popular, high border trade names ; and the manufacturers of these trade names want to be associated with Sainsbury ‘s and will vie with each other for the ‘best ‘ infinite within shops.Motivation is a thing which drives us to make any occupation taking inaugural stairss. Basically it is the ground which enables people to make anything.Motivation is defined as the- ” Internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested in and committed to a occupation, function, or capable, and to exercise relentless attempt in achieving a end.

Motivation is the energiser of behavior and female parent of all action ” “ hypertext transfer protocol: // ” definitionHYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: //www.businessdictionary.

com/definition/motivation.html ” /HYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: // ” motivationHYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: // ” .

html visited on 18 April 2010 clip 10 autopsy.Motivation is of two types- intrinsic and extrinsic. Different scientist comes out with different theories bespeaking companies how two motivate employees in practical mode.Among them Abraham Maslow pointed out some motivational factor- “ the hierarchy of demands ” for human being. They are as follows:Physiological demands: The basic demands include nutrient, shelter, vesture etc.Safety demands: The demand of personal safety and security in workplace and place.Love needs: The demand for belonging in a group, support and portion feelings.

Esteem needs: The demand for acknowledgment in workplace and society.Self- realization: The demand to experience fulfilled, successful bearer or accomplishment.Maslow ‘s theory pointed on people demands and willingness of fulfil their ends and besides suggested companies to take positive stairss which will drive employees to alter their attitude towards workplace and construct assurance, subject and satisfaction in head. aˆ? leadership/management visited on 18 April 2010, Time 11pmMotivations factors are besides highlighted by Frederick Herzberg in his “ two factors theory ” by voting 200 employees are as follows.Hygiene factors: It includes- a ) Company policy and disposal.B ) Celsius ) The quality of supervising.

vitamin D ) Interpersonal relationship.vitamin E ) Working Fahrenheit ) Job security.Motivation factors: It includes- a ) Status.B ) Promotion.

degree Celsius ) Recognition.vitamin D ) Duty.vitamin E ) Challenge at Fahrenheit ) Accomplishment.g ) Growth in the occupation.Herzberg encouraged directors to analyze the occupation, administer undertaking and duties, addition challenge and involvement in occupation and in conclusion increase the satisfaction degree of employees which will ensue in increasing theory_herzberg visited on 19 April 2010, clip 9pmExpectancy theory: In 1964 psychologist Victor Vroom suggested the strength of an single motive is the merchandise of two factors:The strength of his penchant for a certain result, which is named as valency.

It may be stand foring by positive or negative figure or zero- since results may be desired, avoided or considered with indifference.His outlook that result will in fact consequence from a certain behavior which is named subjective chance. The single outlook and depends on the perceptual experience on nexus between behavior and result. As a chance it may be represent by any figure between 0 and 1.

This theory extremely efforts to concentrate to mensurate the strength of single motive.These motivational theories comes to an immense drama in wages and incentives-Reward is a item of acknowledgment given to an single part or success.Incentive is the offer for part or success.

Pay rise is besides a factor that drives towards motive.There are besides two more factors that drive people to motive. This are-Job satisfaction: Interest and challenge in the occupation itself- rewarding work.Engagement in Decision Making: Duty and engagement on companies determination devising.As an illustration – Sainsbury ‘s operates performance-related wage and fillip strategies for center and senior directors. Save-As-You-Earn strategy for supermarket staff offers opportunity for company portions to be bought at a 20 % price reduction.Leadership: It is defined as – ” The art of actuating a group of people to move towards accomplishing a common end ” . Leader is the inspiration and manager of the action.

He or she is the individual in the group that possesses the combination of personality and accomplishments that makes others want to follow his or her way.Leadership are of four types are as follows-Autocratic leading: The director makes all the determinations, issues, direction which must be obeyed without inquiry.Benefits of this leading: The speedy determination doing that required velocity and it is required for a extremely programmed, designed work.Persuasive Leadership: The director makes the determination but explains them to subsidiaries, and efforts to actuate them to transport them out volitionally.Benefits: Selling determination to staff increase willingness among them and they can lend with better thoughts.

Participative Leadership: Manager explains the state of affairs and takes position of sub-ordinates but has the right to take concluding determination.Benefits: It generates encouragement in employees to take portion in determination devising and besides they can portion their positions and experience which might assist out work outing job.Democratic Leadership: Both leaders and followings takes the determinations on the footing of consensus, or via media and understanding.Benefits: It generates high committedness in determination devising and besides takes advantage of the cognition and expertness of persons in different countries, for high quality and flexible determination devising.www.leadership-expert. visited on 19 April 2010, Time 10pmGroup: A group is a aggregation of people. It is defined as a- “ Collection of persons who have regular contact and frequent interaction, common influence, common feeling of chumminess, and who work together to accomplish a common set of ends ” .

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html visited on 20 April 2010, clip 10 autopsyA group has got certain features are as follows-A group is whether formal or informal, recognized by being of its member and there are boundaries within the group.Loyalty and credence of it bind the groups together.Different groups have different manner to show their intent whether they are formal or more self-generated and besides take different individual for different sector to take them in carry throughing their ends.Informal group behavior: Informal groups exist about in every organisation. The purpose of it is to associate groups and single member satisfaction. Examples of it can be groups in workplace coteries and besides clump of people who frequently get together and portion information.

Formal group behavior: Formal organisation must hold a formal construction and histories for any map and held responsible, undertaking oriented and eventually become squads. Leaderships may be chosen within the group, but are typically given authorization by the organisation.For illustration Sainsbury ‘s profit-sharing strategy allows employees to hold portions or hard currency. Approximately 50 % of the company ‘s portions are owned by current or former staff and it is this strategy that is mostly responsible.

Purpose of effectual squad:

There are tonss of factors that influence team-work and lead to success. They are-Team allows the public presentation that requires skill and clip of more than one individual, without affecting co-ordinating across structural boundaries.Team allows the exchange of cognition and thoughts and the creative activity of new ideas. These thoughts – addition communicating, bring forth new thoughts, measuring thoughts from more than one ‘s position point, audience which helps out in green goods better, or more acceptable determinations, Job-related preparation in a realistic work-group context and deciding struggles.The power of the squad over single behaviors can be both:Method of control: Self control.A powerful incentive.better apprehension of determinations,more support for and engagement in execution programs,Increased part to job resolution and determination devising.More ownership of determinations, procedures, and alterations.

In order for squads to carry through their intended function of bettering organisational effectivity, it is critical that squads develop into working units that are focused on their end, mission, or ground for bing.humanresources.about.

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/teambuilding/ … /teams_purpose.htm visited on 25 April 2010, Time 9pmIn Sainsbury ‘s under a staff price reduction strategy, employees receive a 10 % decrease on merchandises bought from the company.Long service awards are given to staff with 15, 25 or 40 old ages ‘ service.

Impact of engineering:

New engineerings can better or either manner harms squad operation. Team duties lies in updating and keeping their cognition to map in a effectual manner..Technologies have improved team maps via- e-mail, nomadic phones, blackberry, groupware and computing machinesE-mail allows asynchronous communicating which means squad members do non necessitate to be in the same topographic point at the same clip in order to pass on efficaciously.

E-mail besides has it ‘s negative facets in footings of pull offing e-mail and the abuse of electronic mail.Mobile phones allow squads to pass on even when squad members are out of the office, on the route or otherwise unavailable. Sometimes holding ever entree to team members can impede squad operation.Phone engineerings such as blackberry and 3G informations cards allow squad members to work and pass on remotely and this out in the field or with clients.Groupware enables squads to be after meetings, collaborate, depute all within a practical environment which can frequently be accessed remotely from anyplace in the universe.Personal computing machines allow squad members to transport out assorted undertakings and pass on more efficaciously.

Laptop computing machines allow you to make this anyplace. They are now lighter, more powerful and a longer battery life. Personal Digital Assistants ( PDA ) now have much of the same functionality as their bigger cousins, but are smaller, more portable and have a longer battery life. Many PDAs now have Wi-Fi as criterion and some are besides phones ( and some phones have many PDA characteristics )

html visited on 28 April, 2010 Time 9pmAs an example- Sainsbury ‘s Supermarkets employs over 145,000 people. Of these, 60 % are parttime and 40 % full-time. 62 % of employees are adult females.Their policy is based on a committedness to:Provide workplaces where all staff feels valued, respected and able to lend to the concern.

Use a work force that recognises the diverseness of current and possible client.From this above treatment we can see how organisation sustain in concern by bettering its behavior, its civilization, leading manners, motive factors and eventually bettering squad or group intents. If companies want to run successfully in this globalised universe they need to execute in every sector efficaciously and therefore can acknowledge itself as a top tanking companies.Mention:Mullins. L.J ( 2007 ) , Management and organisational behavior.

8th edition. Harlean carpenter: Prentice Hall Publication, pp-5.Brown. A. ( 1998 ) , Organization civilization.

2nd Edition. Harlean carpenter: Pearson Education Limited, pp-66,67,68.www.blurtit.

com/q195650.html visited on 14 April 2010 clip ..

. /type-of-organizational-structures.html – Cached – Similar visited on 15 april 2010 clip 10 autopsy.www. “ hypertext transfer protocol: // ” cultureHYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: //www. ” .shtml visited on 15 April 2010 clip 11 – Cached – Similar visited on 17 April 2010 clip 11. visited on 18 april 2010 clip 8 “ hypertext transfer protocol: //www. ” definitionHYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: //www.businessdictionary.

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html ” .html visited on 18 April 2010 clip 10 aˆ? leadership/management visited on 18 April 2010, Time theory_herzberg visited on 19 April 2010, clip visited on 19 April 2010, Time 10pmWHYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: // ” “ hypertext transfer protocol: // ” definitionHYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: // ” /HYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: // ” groupHYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: // ” .html visited on 20 April 2010, clip 10 … /teambuilding/ … /teams_purpose.htm visited on 25 April 2010, Time visited on 28 April, 2010 Time 9pm


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