Omega 3 Encapsulation An Emerging Technology Biology Essay
Encapsulation has become an of import engineering in the recent old ages. Both Food and pharmaceutical industries are using this technique for a broad scope of applications. Encapsulation is done chiefly to protect the molecules from the environmental interactions ( 1 ) . It was reported that anti-oxidants, spirits and lipid-based compounds can be encapsulated in a assortment of wall stuff made up of starches, gums, gelatins, polymers etc ( 1 ) . Spray drying is the most common technique used for encapsulation in which hot air is used for drying of all right liquid droplets ( 2 ) . It was reported that more than 90 % of microencapsulated omega-3 oil are produced by spray drying ( 3 ) . Emulsification plays an of import function in optimising the encapsulation efficiency of nutrient spirits and oils ( 4 ) . Properties of wall and nucleus stuffs, emulsion features and assorted drying conditions are the factors which can impact the efficiency of encapsulation ( 5 ) . Fish oil contains omega-3 PUFA, which has got an high grade of unsaturation. Omega-3 PUFA ‘s have a common carbon-carbon dual bond in the n?3 place, which is extremely inclined to oxidization. ( 6 ) .
The oxidization leads to the development of rancid off-flavor and debasement of foods in bend impacting the centripetal qualities, nutritionary qualities and shelf-life of fish oil-enriched nutrients, it was reported that even oxidization induces the formation of toxic compounds which makes it hard for human ingestion ( 7, 8, 9 ) . This sick effects created a major technological barrier for developing fish oil-enriched processed nutrients ( 10, 11 ) Microencapsulation is a engineering that has been developed as a agency for integrating fish oil into the nutrients, which protects the fish oil from oxidization during processing and storage, besides to dissemble the fishy gustatory sensation and smell in the nutrient merchandises ( 10 ) . It was reported that utilizing microencapsulation the storage life of the lipid compounds could be increased to more than 2 old ages ( 12 ) . Therefore, the chief aim of this paper is to reexamine the significances and major progresss in the encapsulation of lipoids with recent progresss in the encapsulation of omega 3 fatty acids.
Omega 3 fatty acids
Omega-3 fatty acids are indispensable polyunsaturated fatty acids ( PUFA ) found in some nutrient points. Omega-3 PUFA ‘s can non be synthesized in the organic structure ; it must be obtained from nutrient beginnings ( 13 ) .
?-linolenic acid ( ALA ) , eicosapentaenoic acid ( EPA ) , and docosahexaenoic acid ( DHA ) are considered to be the nutritionally indispensable n?3 fatty acids. ALA is chiefly obtained from the works beginnings while EPA and DHA are obtained from marine beginnings. Percentage of omega-3 fatty acid in assorted Marine and works beginnings are shown in Table 1 and Table 2 severally.
Marine fish is considered to be a good beginning of omega 3 fatty acids specially eicosapentaenoic acid ( EPA ) and docosahexaenoic acid ( DHA ) . Fish oil is obtained in the human organic structure by eating oily fish, such as herring, mackerel, salmon, albacore tuna, and pilchards, or by devouring fish oil addendums. Among the assorted wellness benefits involvement in the protective effects of omega-3s in cardiovascular disease ( CVD ) began with surveies of the Greenland Eskimos who were found to hold a low hazard of CVD despite a diet that was high in fat and cholesterin ( 14 ) . Since 1970 ‘s the grounds from animal-experimental, experimental, and clinical research surveies has enhanced the credibleness of the protective consequence of fish ingestion on the hazard of CHD decease ( 15 ) .
It was reported by universe wellness organisation in 2007 that, cardiovascular diseases are the universe ‘s largest slayers, claiming 17.1 million lives a twelvemonth ( 16 ) . Cardiovascular diseases in US in 2009 are projected to be more than $ 304.6 billion, including wellness attention services, medicines, and lost productiveness ( 17 ) .
Sunflower or safflower oil
Wheat germ oil
Egg with enhanced Zs 3
Table: 1 Percentage of omega-3 fatty acid in assorted works beginnings ( 18 )
Tuna, visible radiation canned, drained,
Tuna, white, canned in
Salmon, pink, canned
Salmon, Chinook, raw
Salmon, Atlantic natural state, raw
Salmon, Atlantic farmed, raw
Table: 2 Percentage of omega-3 fatty acid in assorted Marine beginnings ( 18 )
Encapsulation is a engineering of packing solid, liquid or gaseous stuffs in little certain capsules ( 19 ) . It is a agency of insulating a substance from the reactions of the environing affair. After encapsulation the information of the segregate lessenings, authority additions and in some instances the segregate achieves new belongingss ( 20 ) . The major advantages of lipid encapsulation are ( 20, 21, 22 )
Oxidation of lipoids is decreased
To command the release of active ingredients
Protect ingredients from the environment
Less flavor loss during the merchandise storage
Increases the ingredient bioavailability and efficaciousness
Besides the unpleasant gustatory sensation of substances may be shielded by encapsulating the lipoid ( 20 ) . Encapsulated lipoids can work as bearers for lipid-soluble physiologically active substances, which protects the substances against enzyme hydrolysis, during its conveyance from oral cavity to the enteric piece of land ( 20 ) .
The stableness of emulsion is one of the critical factors for developing microcapsules with coveted belongingss and public presentation, particularly for oxidative stableness of encapsulated oil ( 23 )
An emulsion ideal for oil encapsulation should hold the undermentioned belongingss, such as little size and narrow distribution of oil droplets stable to agglomeration and coalescency, a high solid content for enabling them to organize a controlled release of bioactives in nutrients and nutraceuticals, and a low viscousness which is indispensable for an easy flow, pump and spray ( 24 ) .
In some surveies, for the encapsulation of fish oil a liquid-liquid scattering system was studied in solid zein atoms. This serves as an option to emulsions. It can be an easy method for bring forthing solid bomber micron atoms ( 25 ) .
Besides it was shown that collection of maltodextrin with an aqueous emulsion has a good potency for ideal encapsulation. This has got high oxidative stableness and has suited belongingss of flow ability and wetability ( 26 ) .
In another survey fish oil was encapsulated utilizing dual emulsification and subsequent enzymatic gelation method, utilizing microbic transglutaminase ( MTGase ) cross-linked proteins and stray soybean protein as the wall stuff. Encapsulated microcapsules exhibited a higher oxidative stableness and lower H2O solubility ( 27 ) .
Properties of Wall Materials
The wall stuffs used for encapsulation should hold the undermentioned belongingss ( 5, 28 )
High emulsifying activity and stableness
The lipoids should non acquire detached from the emulsion during desiccation
Wall must forestall O transportation ( to forestall oxidization )
A inclination to organize a all right, heavy web during drying.
Wall stuffs should non respond with nucleus stuffs to be encapsulated
Safe for usage in nutrients
Cost is another factor ; the wall stuffs should be easy available and inexpensive.
The stuffs and methods that have been used for microencapsulation of fish oils are listed in Table 3
Whey proteins have been reported to be an first-class encapsulating agent for volatiles and lipoids ( 29, 30, 31, 32 ) . Whey proteins are besides known to hold important antioxidant belongingss and supply oxidative stableness to oil emulsion stabilized by whey proteins ( 33, 34, 35 ) . Assorted surveies have shown that a wall system dwelling of protein in concurrence with saccharides is an first-class stuff for bettering the oxidative stableness and shelf-life.
Sodium caseinate, maltodextrin
Sodium or Ca caseinate, skim milk
Sand eel oil
Gum Arabic, maltodextrin, gelatine
Shark liver oil
Chitosan, lecithin, maize sirup solid, Whey protein isolate or soy protein
isolate, glucose sirup
Egg white protein
Sodium caseinate, lactose, maltodextrin
Sand eel oil
EPA ethyl ester
Shark liver oil
Table 3: The stuffs and methods that have been used for microencapsulation of fish oils ( adapted from 24 )
Encapsulation efficiency analysis ( 5 )
Encapsulation efficiency is defined as the sum of nucleus stuff encapsulated inside the pulverization atoms. It is given by the expression
Encapsulation efficiency = Lipids on surface/ Total lipoid content
Smaller this ratio better will be the encapsulation. Surface oil, else called as free or extractible oil can be quantified utilizing solvent extraction techniques.
Surface oil coverage analysis ( 5 )
Surface composing of the fish oil encapsulated pulverizations can be analyzed utilizing a X-ray photoelectron spectrometry ( XPS ) .
Analysis of wet content and H2O activity of pulverizations ( 5 )
Moisture content of the encapsulated pulverizations was happening out by utilizing oven drying method.
Micro structural belongingss ( 5 )
Micro structural belongingss of the encapsulated pulverizations can be analyzed by utilizing A JSM 6400F theoretical account scanning electron microscope.
The belongingss of wall stuffs, drying standard and emulsion features are the factors that will impact the quality of the encapsulated merchandise. Since the features of wall stuffs has a important function in increasing the efficiency of encapsulation, more research must be carried out to develop high potency wall stuffs for bettering the oxidative stableness every bit good as shelf-life of encapsulated merchandises. Spray drying is a common technique for drying of encapsulated pulverizations, recent surveies have been concentrated more onto addition the efficiency of spray drying every bit good as to develop new engineerings for drying of encapsulated pulverizations.