Oestrus and follicular development in Boer synchronized with flugestone Essay
The effects of oestrus synchronism with cloprostenol, flugestone ethanoate or combinations of both, with or without exogenic electrocardiogram or FSH on follicular development, and oestrus response, were studied in 66 nulliparous Boer does that were about 1 twelvemonth old with organic structure status mark of 3 and mean organic structure weight of 25.1 kilogram. The does were indiscriminately assigned into 9 groups and each group was synchronized utilizing different combinations of PGF2? , flugestone ethanoate or their combinations with 5 milligrams of FSH or 300IU of electrocardiogram.
Ultrasound of ovarian follicular development was conducted utilizing a real-time B-mode ultrasound scanner, with a transrectal 7.5 MHz additive investigation.There were statistically important differences ( P & A ; lt ; 0.05 ) among the synchronism groups in oestrus response, clip of oncoming of heat, continuance of heat, entire figure of follicles, and maximal follicle size attained. However there was no important differences ( P & A ; gt ; 0.05 ) in the serum hydrocortisone degrees ( nmol/L ) between the synchronism groups. The per centum of does in heat was highest when exogenic electrocardiogram was used for synchronism ( 92.7 % ) , compared with FSH ( 57.
1 % ) and control ( 52.9 % ) . There were no important differences ( P & A ; gt ; 0.
05 ) in the average figure of follicles between electrocardiogram, and FSH synchronized groups, but the eCG synchronised groups had significantly larger ( P & A ; lt ; 0.05 ) mean diameter of the largest follicle compared with the FSH or command group. It was concluded that a individual injection of electrocardiogram ( 300IU ) to nulliparous Boer does resulted in higher heat response and ovulation, and maximal follicle diameter than FSH ( 5mg )Cardinal words: gonadotropins ; PGF2? ; flugestone ethanoate ; echography ; oestrus synchronism ; Boer does
The increasing global involvement in caprine animal production and attendant demand to shorten the coevals interval, through genteelness of immature pubertal does every bit shortly as they attain the needed organic structure weight, besides require the application of efficient methods of oestrus synchronism. Oestrous synchronism is an effectual direction tool to command reproduction in caprine animals, both for unreal insemination and multiple ovulation and embryo transportation plans ( Leboeuf et al.
, 1998 ; Wildeus, 2000 ; Bearden et al. , 2004 ; Whitley and Jackson, 2004 ; Chao et al. , 2008 )Procedures aimed at pull stringsing the oestrous rhythm in different ruminant strains involve either shortening the luteal stage utilizing luteolytic doses of PGF2? or through widening the follicular stage with exogenic Lipo-Lutin or progestagens ( Kusina et al. , 2000 ; Wildeus, 2000 ; Lopez-Sebastian et al. , 2007 ) .
PGF2?-based synchronism protocols are merely applicable during the genteelness season in cyclic caprine animals with principal luteum. The most widely practiced methods of oestrous synchronism are Lipo-Lutin or progestagens-based protocols ( Husein et al. , 2007 ; Lopez-Sebastian et al. , 2007 ; Menchaca, 2007 ; Letelier et al. , 2009 ) .
Progesterone impregnated intravaginal merchandises used in caprine animals include controlled internal drug-releasing device ( CIDR ) , flugestone ethanoate ( FGA ) and methyl acetoxyl Lipo-Lutin ( MAP ) ( Wildeus, 2000 ) .Oestrus synchronism methods utilizing either Lipo-Lutin or prostaglandin were suggested to be more effectual when gonadotrophin co-treatments were used ( Oliveira et al. , 2001 ; Pierson et al.
, 2001 ; Husein et al. , 2007 ) . Equine chorionic gonadotropin ( electrocardiogram ) antecedently called pregnant female horse serum gonadotropin ( PMSG ) and follicle exciting endocrine ( FSH ) were the most frequently used gonadotropins in oestrus synchronism protocols ( Bearden, et al. , 2004 ) . High degree of oestrus synchronism has been reported when electrocardiogram was incorporated into the synchronism protocol in sheep and caprine animals in and out of the genteelness season ( Regueiro et al. , 1999 ; Zarkawi et al.
, 1999 ; Al-Merestani et al. , 2003 ; Amarantidis et al. , 2004 ; Husein et al. , 2007 ) . FSH was likewise reported to be effectual in synchronism of heat ( Gonzalez-Bulnes et al. , 2000 ) .
Ozawa et Al. ( 2005 ) suggested that heat emphasis during follicular enlisting suppresses subsequent growing to ovulation, accompanied by reduced LH receptor degree and oestradiol synthesis activity in the follicles. Harmonizing to Silanikove ( 2000a ; B ) , the complexnesss of the factors associated with thermic heat exchange in ruminants suggest that physical measurings of environmental temperature though utile may be less than satisfactory index of thermic emphasis, because the impact of environment may be modified by animate being behavior which could differ between coinage, strain or single degrees ( Silanikove, 2000a ; Sejian and Srivastava, 2010 ) .
Plasma hydrocortisone degrees may therefore supply more dependable indicants of emphasis degrees associated with production conditions, and heat emphasis.This survey was hence conducted to picture the follicular development, heat response, clip of oncoming and continuance of oestrus behaviour following oestrous synchronism utilizing PGF2? , FGA or their combinations with exogenic electrocardiogram or FSH in non-seasonally polyestrous, peri-pubertal Boer caprine animals intensively raised under tropical farm conditions.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A sum of 66 nulliparous Boer does that were about 1 twelvemonth old with organic structure status mark of 3 and average ± SD organic structure weight of 25.11±4.01 ( 20-35 kilogram ) were selected for this survey. The caprine animals were kept in raised sheds with slatted floors at a commercial caprine animal farm located at Lat: 3 & A ; deg ; 15N and Long: 101 & A ; deg ; 32 ‘ 60E in Selangor, Malaysia. The minimal and maximal temperatures and comparative humidness during the period of survey were 20-35oC and 67-83 % severally. The does were fed assorted rations based on 3 % of their organic structure weight daily, consisting thenar foliages, commercial pellets, soya bean waste and thenar foliage silage.
Water and salt licks were provided ad libitum.The caprine animals were indiscriminately assigned into 9 groups and heat was synchronized utilizing different combinations of PGF2? ( Estrumate™ , Schering-Plough ) , flugestone ethanoate ( FGA ) impregnated vaginal sponges ( Ovakron™ Johannesburg ) . Two PGF2? injections were given 11 yearss apart in the PGF2? merely protocols ( Control group ) while the FGA sponges were inserted and left in topographic point for 14 yearss.
Five milligram of FSH ( Ovagen™ ICP, Auckland, New Zealand ) and 300IU of electrocardiogram ( Sergon™ Bioveta-Ivanovice ) were administered harmonizing to makers ‘ instructions in the several intervention groups. The nine intervention groups are shown in Table 1.
Observations to observe behavioral heat was conducted twice daily at 0800 hour and 1500 hour with the assistance of 2 vasectomised vaulting horses utilizing methods described by Amarantidis et Al.
( 2004 ) . Goats were considered to be in heat when they accepted mounting by the vaulting horse, and/or when voice, tail wagging and oedematous vulva were observed. Time to onset of induced heat was considered to be the period from the surcease of intervention to detect oestrus behaviors, while the continuance was considered to be the period from beginning of heat to disappearing of open heat marks.
Ultrasonographic monitoring of ovarian follicular development following surcease of intervention was conducted utilizing a real-time B-mode ultrasound scanner ( Aloka, 500 SSD, Japan ) , attached to a transrectal 7.
5 MHz additive investigation ( UST-660-7.5 theoretical account ) . The ultrasound scanning was performed one time day-to-day for the first 3 yearss after surcease of intervention, so one time every two yearss.Standing restraint was used for ultrasonographic process ( Ginther and Kot, 1994 ; Riesenberg et al. , 2001 ; Gonzalez-Bulnes et al. , 2003 ; Simoes et al. , 2005 ) . The additive investigation lubricated with carboxymethocellulose gel was introduced into the rectum and the transducer directed dorsally.
Fecal matters were non evacuated ( Simoes et al. , 2005 ) . The transducer was so rotated 180o to be directed downwards while keeping contact with the rectal wall. The vesica was located and followed cranially to visualise the uterine horns. The transducer was so easy rotated 45-90o clockwise and counter clockwise to turn up and detect the right and so the left ovaries and their associated constructions ( Ginther and Kot, 1994 ; Simoes et al. , 2005 ) .Ovaries were visualized in existent clip and the figure, size and place of follicles ?3mm in diameter were measured and sketched on ovarian charts ( Ginther and Kot, 1994 ) .
Ovulation was considered as the prostration of a big ovulatory follicle ( ?5mm in diameter ) , which had been monitored by echography and the subsequent visual aspect of a principal luteum on the same location ( Ginther and Kot, 1994 ; Simoes et al. , 2005 ; Simoes et al. , 2006 ; Menchaca, 2007 ; De Santiago-Miramontes et al. , 2008 ; De Santiago-Miramontes et al. , 2009 ; Vazquez et al. , 2010 ) .
A lower limit of 5 scanning Sessionss were performed for each Department of Energy.
Blood samples were collected via the jugular venipuncture into apparent vacutainer tubings and allowed to coagulate at room temperature for 30 proceedingss. The serum was separated by centrifugation at 1006.2 tens g for 15 min, and stored at -20oC until assayed. Hormonal analysis of serum hydrocortisone was by antecedently validated wireless immunochemical assay utilizing 125 I RIA kit ( DSL-2000, Diagnostic Systems Laboratories, Inc. Webster, Texas ) for the quantitative measuring of hydrocortisone in serum. The assay sensitiveness was 0.11µg/dl.
The scope of criterions was 0 to 60 µg/dl. The intra and inter assay coefficients of fluctuation ( CV ‘s ) were 4.15 and 20.69 severally
Follicular population informations for the left and right ovaries were combined and were summarized for each caprine animal. Differences between agencies were tested utilizing Duncan ‘s multiple scope trials.
Datas with unequal discrepancies were analyzed utilizing Kruskall Wallis non parametric trial. Chi-square analysis was used to prove heat response. Spearman correlativity analysis was conducted to find the relationships between the heat response, oncoming, continuance, entire follicle figure, maximal diameter of ovulatory follicles and hydrocortisone degrees. Datas were analyzed utilizing a statistical package plan ( SPSS Inc. Version 17 ) . Analysiss were considered to be statistically important at P & A ; lt ; 0.05.
Figs. 1 to 5 show the distribution of ascertained responses to oestrus synchronism methods utilizing PGF2? , FGA or their combinations with exogenic electrocardiogram or FSH. On the other manus, Figs. 6 to 9 show the effects of exogenic electrocardiogram or FSH on the variables studied irrespective of whether PGF2? , FGA or their combinations were used for oestrus synchronism.The per centum heat response was highest ( 100 % ) in caprine animals synchronized utilizing PGF2?+eCG, FGA+PGF2?+eCG, FGA+eCG with the least per centum heat response ( 20 % ) in the PGF2?+FSH synchronized group ( Fig. 1 ) . Onset of heat was more advanced from surcease of intervention ( 76 hours ) in PGF2?+eCG synchronized group compared with FGA-based protocol and control ( Fig. 2 ) .
The oestrus continuance was lowest in the PGF2?+FSH group ( 4.80 hours ) as shown in Fig. 3.The average entire Numberss of ascertained follicles are shown in Figs. 4. The FGA+PGF2?+FSH PGF2?+FGA+FSH groups had the highest average figure of follicles ( 12.
44 and 11.78 severally ) . The PGF2?+FSH synchronized groups had the lowest average follicle figure ( 5.80 ) .
The average maximal size attained by the largest follicle ranged from 5.65 millimeter in the PGF2?+FSH synchronized group to 8.38 millimeters in PGF2?+FGA+eCG group ( Fig. 5 ) .Further analysis of the consequences obtained based on the type of gonadotropin used show that the per centum of oestrus response were highest when exogenic electrocardiogram was used in the synchronism ( 92.7 % ) compared with FSH ( 57.1 % ) and control ( 52.
9 % ) severally ( Fig. 6 ) . Time to oestrus oncoming from surcease of intervention was besides more advanced in electrocardiogram synchronized compared with FSH synchronized groups ( Fig.
7 ) . The groups that were synchronized with electrocardiogram had significantly longer oestrus continuance ( P & A ; lt ; 0.05 ) compared with the FSH groups ( Fig.
8 ) .There were no important differences ( P & A ; gt ; 0.05 ) in the average entire figure of follicles among eCG, FSH and control groups ( Fig. 9 ) . However, eCG synchronized groups had significantly larger ( P & A ; lt ; 0.
05 ) mean maximal diameter of the largest follicle than the FSH or control groups ( Fig. 10 ) . The average serum hydrocortisone degrees were lowest in the control group ( 3.
96 nmol/L ) while electrocardiogram and FSH synchronized had 9.78 nmol/L and 11.43 nmol/L severally ( Fig. 11 )There were statistically important differences ( P & A ; lt ; 0.05 ) between the synchronised groups in per centum heat behavior, clip to onset of heat, continuance of heat, entire follicle figure, maximal follicle size attained by largest follicle ( Tables 1 and 2 ) . There were nevertheless no statistically important differences ( P & A ; gt ; 0.05 ) in the serum hydrocortisone degrees ( nmol/L ) between the groups studied ( Tables 1 and 2 ) .
Time to ovulation from oestrus oncoming approached significance ( P=0.080 ) as shown in Table 2.There were important positive correlativities between maximal size attained by the largest follicle, and the heat oncoming ( r=0.45, P=0.000 ) , continuance of heat ( r=0.41, P=0.000 ) , entire figure of follicles, but a important negative correlativity with oestrus response ( r=-0.43, P=0.
000 ) . The oncoming of heat showed significantly high negative correlativity with oestrus behavior ( r=-0.77, P=0.000 ) but was positively correlated with continuance of heat ( r=0.
59, P=0.000 ) . Duration of heat was significantly negatively correlated with oestrus response ( r=-0.78, P=0.
000 )Characteristic echographic visual aspect of superovulated ovaries was observed in two of the caprine animals synchronized with PGF2?+FGA+eCG ( Fig. 12 ) . The ovaries had multiple follicles greater than 6mm in size that gave the ovaries a squashy visual aspect. No such response were observed in FSH synchronized group or the remainder of the experimental animate beings though the FSH groups were observed to hold higher entire figure of follicles compared with the electrocardiogram synchronized groups.
The per centum of heat response observed in this survey ( 100 % and 73 % ) in the PGF2?+eCG and PGF2?+FSH synchronized groups severally agree with the consequences of old surveies which suggested that oestrus synchronism methods utilizing either Lipo-Lutin or prostaglandin were more effectual when gonadotrophin co-treatments were used ( Oliveira et al. , 2001 ; Pierson et al. , 2001 ; Gonzalez-Bulnes et al. , 2005 ; Husein et al. , 2007 ; Menchaca, 2007 ) . Other surveies had nevertheless reported really high heat response rates without usage of gonadotrophins. Amarantidis et Al.
( 2004 ) reported 100 % oestrus response in FGA or FGA+PGF2? synchronized autochthonal Grecian caprine animals with and without PMSG ( electrocardiogram ) . Regueiro et Al. ( 1999 ) likewise obtained 100 % oestrus response in Saanen, Nubian caprine animals and their crosses synchronized with MAP, with or without 500IU electrocardiogram. Zarkawi et Al. ( 1999 ) besides induced 100 % oestrus response outside the genteelness season in Damascus caprine animals synchronized with MAP plus injection of electrocardiogram at the clip of sponge remotion. Montlomelo et Al. ( 2002 ) besides reported a somewhat lower ( 96.7 % ) heat response in FGA+PMSG synchronized caprine animals.
Dogan et Al. ( 2005 ) observed 85.7 and 94.4 % in FGA+PMSG+PGF2? and FGA+PMSG synchronized Anatolian black does severally.Oestrus response in FGA synchronized caprine animals entirely or in combination with PGF2? was reported to often near 100 % ( Freitas et al. , 1997 ; Ahmed et al. , 1998 ; Romano, 2004 ) .
The oestrus response observed in this survey in PGF2?+FGA+eCG, FGA+PGF2?+eCG and FGA+eCG synchronized caprine animals were significantly higher than response observed in PGF2?+FGA+FSH, FGA+PGF2?+FSH and FGA+FSH synchronized groups proposing that electrocardiogram is more effectual in bring oning heat response than FSH.Dogan et Al. ( 2005 ) reported average clip to oestrus oncoming as 18.0±1.
9 and 22.9±1.6 in FGA+PMSG+PGF2? and FGA+PMSG synchronized Anatolian black does severally. Other reported average clip to oestrus oncoming includes 25±1.56, ( Pierson et al. , 2001 ) , 52.3±14.
3, ( Ahmed et al. , 1998 ) and 49.7±15.7 ( Fonseca et al. , 2005 ) . Romano ( 2004 ) reported that heat oncoming occurred 32.
9±9.7 hours in intravaginal FGA pessary synchronized caprine animals given PGF2? at remotion of the pessary. Differences in the ascertained per centum of heat response, clip to oestrus oncoming and continuance between this survey and old studies could be due to engender, age, para, organic structure status or weight differences among the does studied ( Simoes et al. , 2008 ; De Santiago-Miramontes et al. , 2009 ) .The per centum of heat response, clip to onset and continuance of the induced heat following injection of PGF2? either at the clip of sponge interpolation or at the clip of sponge remotion were non found to be significantly different in this survey. Dogan et Al.
( 2005 ) likewise found no important differences in average clip to onset, and continuance of heat between FGA+PMSG+PGF2? , FGA+PMSG, MAP+PMSG+PGF2? , MAP+PMSG synchronized groups. Amarantidis et Al. ( 2004 ) nevertheless suggested that priming with FGA before the disposal of PGF2? influenced non merely the oncoming, but besides the continuance of the induced oestrus period. They farther suggested that the average heat period was short in the FGA/PGF2? intervention ( 33.9±5.
8h ) , compared with the dual PGF2? injection intervention ( 50.6±4.7h ) . In understanding with Amarantidis et Al.
( 2004 ) , the average clip to oestrus onset observed in this survey was longer in the PGF2? +eCG synchronized groups ( 76 hours ) compared to the FGA synchronized groups. On the other manus, the continuance of induced heat was the same among the groups.The PGF2?+FSH, PGF2?+FGA+FSH, FGA+PGF2?+FSH and FGA+FSH synchronized groups ( groups synchronized with FSH ) were observed to hold smaller per centum heat response, shorter clip to onset of heat and shorter continuance of the induced heat compared to eCG synchronised groups proposing that a individual injection of FSH is non every bit effectual as a individual injection of electrocardiogram in oestrus synchronism. This determination does non hold with Boscos et Al. ( 2002 ) who suggested that at the beginning of the genteelness season in sheep, a individual 5 or 10IU FSH intervention at the terminal of progestagen intervention appeared to be superior in bring oning first heat and during the mid genteelness season, reasoning that FSH was every bit every bit effectual as electrocardiogram.The entire Numberss of follicles observed in PGF2?+FSH, PGF2?+FGA+FSH, FGA+PGF2?+FSH and FGA+FSH synchronized groups were higher than the figure of follicles observed in the PGF2?+FGA+eCG, FGA+PGF2?+eCG and FGA+eCG synchronized groups. The higher follicle figure observed in the FSH groups suggests better stimulation of ovarian follicular development compared with electrocardiogram. This determination is supported by the suggested high quality of FSH over eCG given as multiple application for superovulation and embryo recovery in caprine animals ( Rosnina et al.
, 1992 ; Riesenberg et al. , 2001 ) . Harmonizing to Riesenberg et Al.
( 2001 ) , supersonic showing of caprine animals ‘ shows that both eCG ( 1250IU ) and FSH ( 17mg ) given as a individual application appears to supply a sufficient stimulation to accomplish a satisfactory superovulatory response. The dosage degrees used were nevertheless larger than those used in this survey ( 300IU and 5mg severally ) but superovulatory response was observed in 2 caprine animals both synchronized with PGF2?+FGA+eCG in this survey which might propose differential sensitiveness of the ovaries of caprine animals to eCG.The maximal follicular diameter observed in this survey ( 6.17±0.8mm ) in the control group were lower than the maximal diameter of ovulatory follicle in PGF2? synchronized ( 8.3±0.4mm ) and natural ( 7.
2±0.4mm ) rhythm in Anglo Nubian caprine animals observed by Vazquez et Al. ( 2010 ) . Simoes et Al. ( 2006 ) suggested that the maximal diameter of the preovulatory follicle in PGF2? synchronized Serrana caprine animals were ( 7.1±1.0mm ) , Gonzalez-Bulnes et Al. ( 2004 ) suggested 7.
8±0.4mm for PGF2? synchronized Murciana-Granadina does. Cueto et Al. ( 2006 ) suggested the maximal diameter of ovulatory follicles to be 6.1mm in short hair and 6.5mm in PGF2? ( dual injection, 11 yearss apart ) synchronized long hair Neuquen-Criollo caprine animals which closely agrees with the consequences of our survey.
The largest average diameters of follicles were observed in PGF2?+eCG ( 9.08±4.18 ) and PGF2?+FSH ( 7.17±1.06 ) groups severally compared with FGA synchronized groups. This could be attributed to the consequence of PGF2? synchronism on follicle size.
Gonzalez-Bulnes et Al. ( 2004 ) suggested that oestrous synchronism with PGF2? would ensue in dominant follicles of mid-luteal stage with higher upper limit diameter and longer permanency that could be related to moo Lipo-Lutin degrees found in the cloprostenol-treated caprine animals. Low LH pulse ensuing from these low Lipo-Lutin degrees were associated with addition in figure, size and permanency of the largest follicles ( Rubianes and Menchaca, 2003 ; Gonzalez-Bulnes et al.
, 2004 ) .Time of ovulation from oncoming of heat in PGF2?+PGF2?+eCG, PGF2? +FGA+eCG, FGA+PGF2?+eCG, FGA+FGA+eCG and control were 44.00±32.8, 36.00±9.
80, 21.6±13.14, 24.00±12.00, 11.59±12.37 and 24.
00±0.00 hours severally. Time to ovulation from oestrus onset in PGF2? synchronized nulliparous Serrana caprine animals were 30.1±1.1h ( Simoes et al. , 2008 ) . Riesenberg et Al. ( 2001 ) suggested that due to the short half life of FSH ( 3.
4h ) , a strong exogenic stimulation with FSH might merely originate the superovulatory reaction, while the concluding follicle development is supported by endogenously produced gonadotropin. This may explicate the deficiency of ovulations observed in the FSH groups in this survey though higher Numberss of follicles were observed in these caprine animals. Conversely, electrocardiogram which has a longer half life ( 6 yearss ) resulted in more ovulations.The important positive correlativities between maximal size attained by the largest follicle, and the heat oncoming, continuance of heat, entire figure of follicles, but a important negative correlativity with oestrus response observed in this survey suggests that larger maximal diameter of follicles does non ensue in increased per centum heat response.
This agrees with Van Eerdenburg, et Al. ( 2002 ) who suggested that there was no correlativity between follicular size and oestrus-detection mark in cowssSerum hydrocortisone degrees assayed in this survey were found to be within normal scope and non different between the groups studied. It was suggested that hyperthermy is hurtful to any signifier of productiveness ( Lu 1989 ; Silanikove 2000a ; B ; Sejian and Srivastava 2010 ) . Sejian and Srivastava ( 2010 ) besides reported that plasma hydrocortisone degrees in heat stressed caprine animals were significantly higher compared to controls ( 82.74±2.44 and 18.
76±4.33 nmol/L ) severally. Ozawa et Al. ( 2005 ) suggested that heat emphasis during follicular enlisting suppresses subsequent growing to ovulation, accompanied by reduced LH receptor degree and oestradiol synthesis activity in the follicles. Though the environmental conditions were hot and humid during the period of this survey, the caprine animals were kept in good ventilated and shaded pens with limitless supply of H2O which ameliorated their emphasis degrees. Harmonizing to Al-Tamimi ( 2007 ) handiness of caprine animals to shadow during summer is a simple and yet an efficient tool to minimise solar radiation-induced heat emphasis.
There were statistically important differences ( P & A ; lt ; 0.05 ) between does synchronized with cloprostenol or flugestone ethanoate or combinations of both, with or without injection of exogenic electrocardiogram or FSH in per centum heat response, clip to onset of heat, continuance of heat, entire follicle figure, and maximal follicle size attained. There were no important differences ( P & A ; gt ; 0.
05 ) in the serum hydrocortisone degrees ( nmol/L ) between the groups studied. The per centums of does in heat were highest in electrocardiogram compared with FSH and control groups ( 92.7 ; 57.
1 ; 52.9 % ) severally. There were no important differences ( P & A ; gt ; 0.05 ) in the average figure of follicles between electrocardiogram and FSH synchronized groups, but the eCG synchronised groups had significantly larger ( P & A ; lt ; 0.05 ) mean diameter of the largest follicle compared with the FSH or control groups.
There were important positive correlativity between maximal follicle size and the heat oncoming ( r=0.45, P=0.000 ) , continuance ( r=0.
41, P=0.000 ) , and entire figure of follicles, but important negative correlativity with oestrus response ( r=-0.43, P=0.000 ) .The average entire Numberss of follicles observed in FSH synchronized groups were higher than average figure of follicles observed in the electrocardiogram synchronized groups but the eCG synchronised groups had larger average diameter of the largest follicle and higher figure of ovulations compared to the FSH synchronized groups. It was concluded that there was important consequence of heat synchronism method on heat response and follicular development and a individual 300IU injection of electrocardiogram to nulliparous Boer does synchronized with PGF2? , flugestone ethanoate, or their combinations resulted in higher heat response, maximal follicle diameter and ovulations compared with a individual injection of FSH ( 5mg ) in intensively raised nulliparous Boer does under tropical conditions. These findings may propose farther surveies on an optimal complementary combination of these two gonadotropins for usage in farms as a individual cost effectual injection, and without inauspicious effects on future birthrate.
The writers wish to thank the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia for the alumnus research family and to Associate Professor Dr.
Abdul Rahim Mutalib for supplying the RIA kit for hydrocortisone. Particular thanks besides to Mr. K.C.
Yap, P. Ganesamurthi and Mr. M. Fahmi for their proficient aid. We besides wish to admit the direction and staff of ar-Raudhah Biotech Farm Sdn Bhd, Malaysia for supplying the animate beings and research stuffs for this survey.