Obj3-Environmental: effect one’s life and control over
Obj3-Environmental: Provide for men who are atrisk of lung cancer due to smoking with nicotine patches, nicotine gum andlozenges quitting equipment’s at 89% of the areas and public places this can gofrom 2018- 2019 December.
Healthpromotion activities Activity 1- The PersonalCounselling, activity will be a face to face counselling intervention forsmoking cessation for patients with lung cancer. This activity will be based inconfidential and dependable environment, facilitated initially by a trainedcounsellor. The activity will be delivered out by the trained counsellor whowill listen with empathy, and help smokers deal with negative thoughts andfeelings they have about quitting smoking.
Referring to Smailes and Street,(2011) it identifies that the self-efficacy of Bandura theory(1994) suggest that self-efficacy is the belief in one’s ability toinfluence the activity which is guided by the principle which emphases theeffect one’s life and control over the way these events are experienced.Moreover, using the cognitive behavioural therapy which may be an effective fora smoker with or without mental health problems to persuade them to quit andreassure them about the good outcomes of quitting. The research studydone by Georgetown University by Taylor, (2017) is a different type ofcounselling which was a telephone based smoking cessation counselling given tosmokers shortly after undergoing lung cancer screening which was effective athelping people stop smoking, the result showed millions of smokers wereentitled for lung cancer screening. The telephone counselling was an importantopportunity which employed a large public health impact on cessation forsmokers who were at high risk of lung cancer, it also identified that is was agreat way to get smokers involved who did not thought of the cessationbefore. Activity 2- The communitydevelopment activity is smoking cessation activity which will involveopportunistic advice discussion negotiation and encouragement, it will be basedin the community setting in educational setting or neighborhoods, the activitywill be carried out by the individuals from the community with any healthprofessional.
The activity will be delivered throughout the support of theexisting projects which is smoking cessations. Furthermore, the activity willinclude factual knowledge, decision making, problems solving, improvecommunication skills, psychological skills and collective as it is empowering.The benefit of the activity will give individuals autonomy, the choice to makedecisions. According, to Naidoo and Wills (2009) employ the Stages ofChange Model (1992) is to raise awareness and interventions to the correctstage of change for the target group, for instance the activity will be mainlyaimed at those who at pre-contemplation and contemplation stages, smokers whoare willing to reduce the number of cigarettes or switching to low-tar andlow-nicotine cigarettes were previously measured satisfactory schedules.The research done by Triggle, (2017) report the governmentStoptober campaign which advertised vaping showed around 53% of people use thevaping, the research continued to show the effectiveness of numbers of attemptsof smokers who were proven successful, the attempt was judged to be one wherethe smoker had tried to stop smoking in the past year and was still abstainingat the time of the survey. Additionally, the limitations that have been broughtin such as steady packaging and bans on displays in shops the smokers attemptshowed that roughly 1 in 5 attempts to quit were successful in early 2017.
Activity 3-The Health Persuasion activity is smoking cessation among the primarycare providers, it will be based in workplaces, educational settings, hospitalsor across any multi-disciplinary place, carried out initially by healthprofessionals such as nurses, doctors or any medical profession, the activitywill be delivered in various of ways, such as teaching and raising awareness ofthe causes of lung cancer. Earle,(2007) explains that the theory of reasoned action /planned behaviour(1980) suggests that the attitude an individual who smoke thinks aboutthe overall assessments about whether to quit and whether it is good or bad.Moreover, a smoker might believe that society disapproves of smoking andtherefore approves quitting such as getting the knowledge from professionalsabout the good side of quitting. Furthermore, the (RA/PB 1980) theory continuesto state that the request is the purpose in which influences the individual’sbehaviours, then interventions can deliberately identify and target factors inthis case, The research by Charlotte L. (2006) identified thatsmokers who received nicotine replacement therapy were roughly around 1 in 3received verbal and non-verbal advice had referral to their GP, few of theinpatients received both advice and referral some nicotine replacement therapy,out of those 11 smokers reported that they wanted to quit, however, only 5 ofthem received health promotion for smoking cessation. Activity 4- the LegislativeActivity will be lobbying to the MP, the lobbying activity will could bedone through politicians and individuals from the country who could putthemselves forward for being elected to become an ambassador to take part inthe lobbying. Earle, (2007) classify that Health Belief Model(1974) which emphasises that tobacco use is determined by an individua’sperceptions regarding personal vulnerability illness caused by tobacco use,serious of tobacco as a problem treatment cost and the benefits of acting,barriers to quitting, cues to change tobacco use behaviour. The researchdone by the Cancer Research (2011) states that the beat cancer lobbyingcampaign was successful because of this lobbying the government announced that£25 million would be invested in diagnostic testing for lung cancer and othercancers, to help the health professionals to recognise cancer at an earlystage.
Furthermore, the legislative activity is the most effective activitythis is because its aimed at everyone and raised a broad awareness, the cancerresearch 2017 stated that campaigns purposes to get the governments supportbecause they are in charge, also by ensuring that cancer is at the top of thehealth agenda is crucial to ensuring that lifesaving policies are takenin. Resources that will be used in theactivities will be leaflets, posters, displays, letters, books, rooms, seats,space, equipment’s e.g. quitting tools, financial costs for the professionals,settings and technical e.g. computers and transports and transport costs.
Communication According, to Heron, J, (2001) the type of communicationskills that the participation and professional will deliver and receive is informativecommunication to give facts information or seek the professionals help forlegislative action activity for example being equally important and tocontribute to others process also to give and get handouts, visual aids.Whereas for the personal counselling will use prescriptive communicationtype to encourage the smoker to think about their health and offer help to dealwith the negative thoughts about quitting. Moreover, Cathartictype of communication is useful for the process of counselling to help thesmoker to get in touch with their emotions and maybe let them out. However, confrontingtype of communication type fits into the health persuasion activity for examplethe smokers don’t tend to ask for information when they feel low self-esteembecause of stigma, additionally the activity can provide the information forthe person with lung cancer. Additionally,the catalytic type of communication that the community developmentactivity will use by listening to others opinion and open questions to helppeople to express their feelings and knowledge, also supportive type ofcommunication can come under community development for example they demonstratethe support for the smoker so they can get what information they need tosupport them change behaviour by accepting people’s behaviour to change andsupporting change. Evaluation Naidoos and Wills, (2009) demonstrate the types of evaluationfor all the four activities, process type of evaluation will evaluate andmeasure the experience for the smokers, if they felt respected, the involvementin the activities which activity how many participated, also about thematerials and equipment used in the health persuasion and the communitydevelopment activity, the quality and if they were relevant and if they wereinclusive.
Additionally, the impact evaluation will evaluate the short termseffects for the personal counselling, the health persuasion, communitydevelopment and the legislative action activity whether the aims and objectivesof the intervention were met. Checking for the smoker’s knowledge, have theygained awareness are they willing to quit are they planning to reduce thenumber of cigarettes they smoke a day and if they are up taking services toaccess help and support. Also, if they are seeking counselling, if is therequitting equipment available at workplaces, education settings, hospitals,shopping centres are they easy to access. Moreover, the outcome evaluation willmeasure the longer-term effects for example lower rates of lung cancer inpeople exposed to anti-smoking advice, smoker stopping smoking earlier, lowerrates of lung cancer caused by smoking, if young people are not up takingsmoking at younger age or never. The evaluation will take place at theactivities settings such as hospitals, doctor surgeries, educational settings,workplaces in the public areas and shop centres. The evaluation could be donethrough questionnaires or surveys it could be either an online survey orquestionnaire or paper copy. According, to Naidoo and Wills,(2009) study indicates that participants in personal counselling, healthpersuasions and community development will involve a professional from aninside to impose the evaluation for the certain activities, the insider inputbecause they may be looking for efficiency results which can be taken ascost-effective.
However, different groups of people engaging in differenthealth promotion interventions will each have invested something but may wellbe looking for different results. Additionally, the legislative action activitywill be an outside someone from the public to calculate the effective of theactivity data this will be effective because the MPs will be able to sharetheir ideas and what they will be doing to help the smokers to get an earlierscreening.