A nucleic acid is a supermolecule composed of ironss of monomeric bases. In biochemistry these molecules carry familial information or signifier constructions within cells. The most common nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA ) and ribonucleic acid ( RNA ) .Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA ) , is the familial stuff in worlds and about all other beings. Most Deoxyribonucleic acid is located in the karyon, but a little sum of Deoxyribonucleic acid can besides be found in the chondriosome ( mtDNA ) .Deoxyribonucleic acid bases pair up with each other, A with T and C with G, to organize units called base brace. Each base is besides attached to a sugar molecule and a phosphate molecule. Together, a base, sugar, and phosphate are called a base.
Nucleotides are arranged in two long strands that form a spiral called a dual spiral.Ribonucleic acid ( RNA ) is a biologically of import type of molecule that consists of a long concatenation of nucleotide units. Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogen-bearing base, a ribose sugar, and a phosphate. RNA is single-stranded. RNA nucleotides contain ribose piece and has the instead base U. There are 3 types of RNA, chiefly Messenger RNA ( messenger RNA ) , Ribosomal RNA ( rRNA ) and reassign RNA ( transfer RNA ) .
( refer to Appendix A for more information ) .White blood cells or leucocytes, are cells of the immune system involved in supporting the organic structure against both infective disease and foreign stuffs. Two groups of leukocyte exist, granulocytes and agranulocytes.
Granulocytes, have cytoplasm which has a farinaceous visual aspect and they have multi-lobed karyon. Agranulocytes individual, big karyon. ( refer to Appendix B for more information. )Methyl Green Pyronin ( MGP ) was used for the experiment.
Methyl Green has a discriminatory affinity for Deoxyribonucleic acid, which stains it Green in coloring material. Pyronin has a discriminatory affinity for Ribonucleic acid, which stains it Rose red in coloring material. The higher the strength of Rose ruddy and green color, the higher the concentration of RNA and DNA severally.MGP stained the karyon, doing it more seeable. Presence of multi-lobed karyon indicates that it is a granulocyte and presence of individual, big karyon indicates that it is an agranulocyte.
The purposes of the experiment was to fix blood vilification, sorting the white blood cell into 2 groups, turn uping the Deoxyribonucleic acid and RNA in white blood cell and detecting the effects of RNase on white blood cell.The hypothesis was that there were 2 groups of white blood cell found, the slide which was treated with MGP would be stained both rose ruddy and green in coloring material and the slide which was treated with MGP and RNase would be stained green in coloring material merely.The consequences obtained from the experiment was non desirable. These could be due to several factors.
Dryness of the blood sample would impact the concentration of DNA and RNA observed under the microscope. During the air drying procedure, the samples were non wholly dried and was henced placed in solutions such as Carnoy fixative, Ethanol, Distilled H2O, Methyl Green Pyronin and RNase. The solution would hold a high opportunity of rinsing the blood sample off from the 2slides.Hair drier was used during this experiment to rush up the vaporization rate. However, this rushing up of reaction besides caused the inaccuracy of consequences obtained. Due to the high sum of heat produced by the hair drier, the cells would non be able to defy it. This would take to the snap of cells.
Alternatively of utilizing merely 95 % of ethyl alcohol for this experiment to desiccate the blood sample, increasing per centum of ethyl alcohol should be used. This would guarantee the blood sample to be much more dehydrated.Sum of Strength used when smearing the blood could impact the concentration of DNA and RNA observed under the microscope. If excessively much strength was used during the blood smearing procedure, the cell could be broken apart.
The cell contents would be fluxing out from the cell, doing the inaccurate sum of DNA and RNA observed.Theoritically, xylol could do the background of the microscopic slides transparent. For this experiment, xylol could be used after staining the slides with Methyl Green Pyronin. The coloring material of discoloration would be intensified greatly, doing it easier to be observed under the microscope.Comparing Hypothesis and Results, it is precisely the same. Thus the hypothesis was supported.
The experiment was successful.Based on the experiment, the slide treated with MGP merely was stained Green and Rose-red in coloring material, demoing the presence of both DNA and RNA severally. The slide treated with MGP and RNase was stained Green in coloring material, demoing the presence of DNA merely. RNA was seen around the cytol due to the Rose-red color seen while Deoxyribonucleic acid was seen around the nucleus country due to the green color seen. RNA were found in cytol because protein synthesis was synthesized at that place and different types of RNA such as messenger RNA, transfer RNA, rRNA were present. Apart from coloring material seen, there were 2 groups of white blood cell observed ( Figure 3 ) .
From Figure 4, it shows that there were more granulocytes ( 67 % -75 % ) than agranulocytes ( 23 % -33 % ) .To better the truth of the consequences, hair drier should non be used to rush up the reaction. Alternatively, the blood sample should be left on the bench to allow it vaporize of course. The desiccation procedure by utilizing ethyl alcohol should be in increasing per centum such as 50 % i? 70 % i? 75 % i? 90 % i? 95 % i? 100 % .
This would guarantee the blood sample to be to the full dehydrated. Amount of strength used during the smearing procedure should be controlled to forestall the cells from tearing. Xylene could be used to escalate the color observed under the microscope.In decision, the consequences observed for staining of DNA and RNA was non really desirable and the consequences observed for white blood cell was that agranulocytes and granulocytes was found in both RNA and DNA. Location of DNA and RNa was located utilizing MGP ; effects of RNase was known.
The consequences can be improved if the undermentioned factors such as waterlessness of blood sample, sum of strength used and utilizing of xylene were taken into consideration. Consequences were the same as hypothesis ; purposes were met ; the experiment was successful.