Nova students from low social economic background
Nova AlfiLailiRahmahEnglish Education and Literature, Post-Graduate Program,Surabaya State University Abstract:Parents play a vital role in the children’s literacydevelopment because in a home environment, they become the first teacher fortheir children.
However, children who come from low social economic backgroundare usually judged to be less literate. It is because low social economicchildren have low quality of living environments and lack of accessingresources to facilitate their literacy activity. In this study, the researcherwill explore the literacy practices on children from low socioeconomic backgroundsby describing the activity through ORIM Framework.
Hopefully, this study givessome suggestion about the role of parents in facilitating children’s earlyliteracy especially for low social economic background in order to manage theirchildren’s literacy practice.Keywords: SES,HLE, Literacy practices, ORIM Frameworks.1. INTRODUCTIONLiteracyis considered as a popular activity which allows someone to achieve and developtheir knowledge. Study of literacy has shown that people produce, use and interact withtexts in different ways and different social contexts. For children, familiesare powerful influence on children’s early literacy because children will bemore literate when involvein the literacy practices from many different places. Early literacy happened in childrenages 0-6 years old. In this stage, their brains cells grow up very fast.
Thatis why, stimulation are needed to help children develop their literacy skill.To stimulate children’searly literacy can be done through home literacy environment which is providedby the parents. Home literacyis a literacy activity which is done in home environment. It provides anopportunity to develop children early literacy. (Kirby, 2008)stated there are three advantages when parents provide home literacyenvironment to their children. First, parents may develop children’s ability toread by providing some books in their social environment. Second, home environmentcontributes to children pre-literacy practices, for instance phonologicalawareness. Third, home environment provides pre-school literacy skill asalphabet and numeracy.
Furthermore, socio-economicbackground is one of the key factors influencing student learning outcomes. (Department Education, 2006) found that students from low social economicbackground do not literate enough in term of literacy and numeracy. They maycome from the family who don’t interest enough in education.
It means that studentswho come from low socioeconomic backgrounds are usually said to be isolated inliteracy activity because of their low-quality living environments and lack ofaccess to resources such as books. This study canbe used to discuss on how parents can help to develop their children’s earlyliteracy especially from low social economic background.Many studies have been conducted to explore about therelation between literacy practice and low social economic status. The firststudy is from (Barrow, 2006),he investigates that socioeconomic status show effects on educational outcomesthat include test scores, and continue to affect the child throughout theiradulthood. The second study is from (Vechten, 2013) who found that”HLEs produced in low SES families tend to be lack of resources to promoteliteracy growth such as parental time, texts and education. But if teacher canmore effectively design and implement relevant interventions. It will be effectiveif they are intense and frequent”. From those two studies, the result showsthat children from low social economic background are not highly involved inchildren’s early literacy.
However, the researcher found that thereis a child comes from low social economic background, her name is Dyah, shecomes from low social economic background because her father is a snacks/drinksseller and her mother is a housewife. Her parents’ educational level is Seniorhigh school and parents’ income around Rp. 250.000. If the researcher relatewith the theory of (Baker, 1986) in which parentalinvolvement in education is less frequent in Low SES family, Dyah has a higherliteracy skill which can be seen from the result of their achievement in a pre-school,her behavior and in their social environment. Therefore, theresearcher expects to fill a gap, howcan children from low economic status have a higher literacy education.
Are herparents’ roles activelypromote and manage their children’s literacy practice? The researcher addressed the research question “whatthe low social economic children’s literacy practices are”. The researcher willdescribe in depth through ORIM Frameworks. 2. LITERATUREREVIEW2.1 Literacy as Social PracticeLiteracy isknown as social practices, it can be seen from the events which are linked bywritten or oral text. (Papen, 2005)defines the term literacy as social and cultural practice because it includesvalue, ideas and identity that shape the event in which literacy take a part.Moreover, (Pahl, 2005)stated that literacyhas been recognized as a social practice, it deals with something that peopledo in everyday life, in their homes, at work and at school. In addition, whenwe talk about practices, then, this is not just the superficial choice of aword but the possibilities which offers for new theoretical understandingsabout literacy (D.
Barton, 2000). In other words, literacyas social practice is not only about reading and writing a text. But it couldbe audio, dance, film, pictures or anything that has a meaning. By doingliteracy practice, children are expected to improve their cognitive and socialcapacity.
2.2 Home LiteracyHome literacy is a literacy activity which is donein home environment. It provides an opportunity to develop children earlyliteracy. In home literacy, parents play a vital role in facilitating literacyactivity.
Family appreciates literacy activity when they provide literacymaterial at home, they can interact with their children every time and providehome literacy environment (Saracho, 1997). (Pahl, 2005) also gives someconsideration how parents could support their children at home, the reading ofbooks became the centre of the strategies parents could be given to support their children’s literacy. Other ideasinclude storysacks, which are bags with a book, and play items andartefacts connected to the story which children can do at home. Moreover, (Saracho, 1997) stated that whenparents provides some books or anything which can be used to promote theircompetence with print, children will be able to apply it in the real world. Inother words, as literacy sponsor in home environment, parents play an importantrole for facilitating children’s literacy practice.
There is no specificactivity to support children’ literacy practice, when parents spend theirquality time by having enjoyable time to interact and play with children helpthem to develop their practices. 2.3 ORIM FrameworkORIM frameworkis known as a table which provides strands of literacy. ORIM is theabbreviation from Opportunity, Recognition, Interaction and Model). (Hannon, 1995) is the first authorwho set out ORIM Frameworks. He set it out to help parents how children’s earlyliteracy is provided. As stated by (Hannon, 1995),the first one is opportunity.
Opportunity means the possibility of doingsomething. Parents are a first key for children’s early literacy, parents haveto provide opportunities like material, time, space for their childrendevelopment such as: giving children’ books, writing material, CD of nurseryrhymes.Secondis Recognition. It deals with a condition when children know someone or something because they haveexperienced before. In this term, parents are expected to know the lower andupper limits of child’s ZPD. It can be done by listening their children talkingso parents will know how far their children’ ability.
Third, Interaction means keep communication to one another.Children need their parent to sharing and supporting them in a real lifeliteracy practice. Hopefully, parents always keep in touch and care about earlyliteracy.Last, Model deals with the way parents show how literacypractices in home environment.
So, if children see their parents use literacyin their daily life, their children tend to imitate them. That’s why parentsare expected to be a good model for developing children’s early literacy. 2.4 Social Economic Status (SES)The term socioeconomic status refers to thedifferences between groups of people caused mainly by their financialsituation. It can be measured through their education level, occupation andincome. Children who are from low social economic status are considered ashaving insecurity feeling and isolated from their community. (Baker, 1986)argued that parents from higher social economic family are more involved inchildren’ literacy practices than parents of lower economic status. A highereducation level of parents is positively correlated with a great tendency tomanage their children in higher education too.
Furthermore, Factor whichinfluence children’s outcome is parent educational level. According to (Eagle, 1989) stated that theparental involvement in education is less frequent in Low SES family. A low SESfamily may not provide some activity to promote their early literacy practicessuch as reading a story for them and etc. in other words, low social economicfamily are considered as less likely to have the financial resources or timeavailability to provide children literacy practice in their social environment.3. METHODOLOGYIn this chapter, the researcher describes the method and methodologywhich is used in conducting the research.
3.1 Research design This research was conducted qualitative methods to explore what are theliteracy practices in low social economic children. Qualitative method usedbecause this method allows the researcher to describe in depth with naturalsetting. Just like the way of qualitative research, the object of the researchwill be analyzed qualitatively and explained based on the analysis. Qualitativeanalysis is the analysis of qualitative data such as data from interviewtranscript. According to (Mcmillan, 1993) “qualitativeresearch is defined as primarily an inductive process of organizing data intocategories and identifying patterns (relationship) among categories.” It meansthat qualitative research focuses on understanding the meaning through wordsand phenomenon observations rather than numbers. This research was qualitativemethod because the researcher needs to describe what literacy practices of lowsocial economic children are.
3.2 ParticipantsThe participantof this study is a family from low social economic background who has pre-schoolchildren (Dyah). Her father is a sales and her mother is a housewife. In aschool environment Dyah looks better than children who come from low SESbackground too. 3.3 Instruments1.
Observation sheetThe researcher uses observation sheet to observe andreflect the literacy practices which is done by low social economic children.The observation sheet is delivered in the form of table. The contents of thetable are ORIM Frameworks. ORIM framework can be used to investigate parent’srole at home in relation with children’s literacy.2. Interview The second instrument used in this research is interview,(Ary, 2002) stated thatinterview is one of the most widely used and basic methods for obtainingqualitative data from the participants about their opinions, beliefs andfeelings toward a particular condition. 3.
4 DataCollectionThe data in this study are collected throughparticipant observation where the researcher only takes the role as anobserver. The researcher collects the data from the observation and conduct inDyah’s home.First, the researcher uses observation sheet torecord all the activities happened in their daily life. Then, an interviewsection for their parents is conducted in order to know more what theirliteracy practices. 3.5 DataAnalysis This section describes the data analysis techniquesthat were performed on the collected data in order to answer the researchquestion. All data were coded by the researcher by using qualitative analysis.
According to (Ary, 2002) there are threestages to analyze qualitative data. The first stage is organizing andfamiliarizing. In this stage, the researcher familiarizes the data throughreading and rereading the whole data. After that, the researcher organizes thedata through describing the data. Then, the second stage is coding and reducingwhere the researcher decodes the data by looking for units of meaning that seemto appear regularly and important, and reduces the data which are notnecessary. Finally in the last stage, interpreting and representing, theresearcher interprets and represents the data by explaining and reporting themdescriptively. First, the data from the observation of what are theliteracy practices will be explained.
Then, the result of interview is beingtranscript. All the data will be analyzed and after that, they will bedelivered in the form of paragraphs. These are how the researcher get the trueresult of the literacy practices on students’ low social economic status. 4 FINDINGSThe finding is explained in adescriptive way to answer the research question, “what are the childrenliteracy practices especially in low social economic status?” · Result of the observationORIMFramework ENVIRONTMENTAL PRINT BOOKS WRITING ORAL LANGUAGE OPPORTUNITY Parents invite Dyah to go to “Pakal” Park. – Parents Let Dyah to draw on the white board in their boarding home. – RECOGNITION – – Parents write number into a break line, Dyah try to write it.
– INTERACTION Dyah’s mother guide Dyah to watering flowers. – – FY ask Dyah after they are from “Pakal” Park MODEL – Parents take paper and glass. Fy gives an example to make a circle from a glass, Dyah try to imitate it. – Parents show Video of “ALI” cartoon, in which the video talks about diligent children. e.g: after reading book, it should be put in appropriate place.
From the result of theobservation, the researcher found some literacy practices which is done by FYand S as Dyah’s parents when spending one day with them. They admit that theydid not know the literacy practices but the way they treat Dyah belongs toliteracy practice. Opportunity:It deals with parents’involvement like providing material, time, space for their childrendevelopment. Parents provide Dyah’ literacy practices in term of environmentand writing. which can be seen when FY sell drinks and snacks in the park,there is a big plane miniature, S introduce the miniature and let Dyah touch. Then, their parents provide many ex-papers intheir boarding house. Dyah looksenthusiastic.
Recognition:It deals with acondition whenchildren know someone or something because they have experienced before. Inthis term, parents only provide a book by making a break to shape alphabets,number, shape etc. then Dyah has to write it by following the break line whichis provided before. Interaction:It is about parents’communication to children. The researcher observes that to make an interaction,her mother try to link with daily life activity. e.g: watering flower, sweeping,etc.
Then, FY try to interact with Dyah by asking their experience about a bigplane in park which belong to interaction. Dyah answer it happily. Model: It deals with the way parents show literacypractice in home environment. Parents show cartoon video in which it has amoral value.
For instance: when they show “Ali” which is described as diligentpeople. Parentsshow to Dyah how to put in a appropriate place by saying “ayorapikan, ali saja habis baca di taruh di tempatnya rapi”and Dyah imitate it.Another simple activitywhich belong to “model” is Parents take paper and glass. Fy gives an example tomake a circle from a glass, Dyah try to imitate it.· Result of the interview fromparents: Parents’ Name Age Education Level Profession FY (Father) 38 SMA Seller S (Mother) 35 SMA Housewife 1. Whatdo you know about literacy activity?”Saya ndak taumbak literasi itu apa, pokoknya saya mengajari anak saya biar besok lebih baikndak kayak saya” BothFY and S said that he never known about the term literacy.
But the researcherfound that their activity which is done for their child (Dyah) indicates asliteracy practices. FY did not aware ifthey have done a literacy practice; they just want their child (Dyah) betterthan them in term of education and economic status. Hopefully, Dyah has abright future. 2. Inyour opinion, does the ability of low socioeconomic children lower than highsocio economic background? “ya ngga mesti mbak, biasaya malah orang kayakaya itu sibuk sampe lupa ngurursi anaknya. Saya ga punya uang yang pentinganak saya bisa seperti teman-temannya yang pinter.
Pokoknya ga dilihat drmateri , saya ga punya uang mbk tapi saya membelikan buku bekas yg masih bisa dbaca” FYand S said no, they said that it depends on parents’ role to help on developingtheir community. Sometimes, parents from high social economic have less timeavailability to provide their children by controlling their education. In hisopinion, although their family belong to low social economic status and did nothave enough money to buy books for facilitating Dyah in literacy activity, theycan ask Dyah to go in a place based on nature. The important thing is help Dyahgetting something new. 3.
Is your child involved in any after-schoolactivities (academic and non-academic)? If so, what activities? If not,why is your child not involved? “gak pake les”anmbak.. saya ajari sendiri..
gada biaya nya.. kalau membaca ngitung saya masihmampu.
Trus kalo nari itu karna saya ajak jualan di tempat saya kan tiap mingguitu digunakan sanggar tari. Anak saya lihat kegiatannya. Kalau ada biaya palengya saya ikutkan mbak” Ina Sunday morning, FY always sells drink and snacks near with “Istikindah” DanceStudio. FY and S aware that Dyah really interest in dancing (non-academicactivity). But they don’t have much money to help Dyah develop her talent. As aresult, while they sell, they also ask Dyah to see dancing activity. 4.
Whatchallenges do you face in helping your child achieve?”kesulitannya yaitu, saya gak punya uang buat beli buku. Belajarnya ya dari majalah bekas samabaca dari bungkus makanan makanan kecil yang saya jual itu dibantu samakakaknya” Oneof the challenges that they face is about in budget. They don’t have some moneyto provide well academic support but they have time to spend by learning 5 DISCUSSIONThe finding wasrecorded that parents did a literacy practices in line with a ORIM Frameworkswhich has been provided by the researcher. Dyah’s parents provide her children’searly literacy in term of providing time and simple material. This finding wasin line with (Saracho, 1997) who stated that family appreciates literacy activity whenthey provide literacy material at home, they can interact with their childrenevery time and provide home literacy environment.Family literacy willalso works well for those who agree to appreciate and involve with them. It can be seen when FY and S did not knowabout what actually “literacy” is, their activity which is observed by theresearcher through ORIM Framework in their daily life indicate they have doneliteracy as social practice.
As stated (Pahl, 2005)literacy has been recognizedas a social practice is something that people do in everyday life, in theirhomes, at work and at school which has meaning. Even though they are from lowsocial economic status, they still think about their children literacydevelopment by providing simple activity to promote literacy in their home. Itcontradicts with (Baker, 1986) argue that parentsfrom higher socioeconomic backgrounds are to be involved in education thanparents of lower socioeconomic status. A higher education level of parents ispositively linked their children’s placement in higher education level andactively manage their children’s education. 6 CONCLUSIONHome literacy is really importantbecause it provides an opportunity to develop children earlyliteracy. In home literacy, parents play a vital role infacilitating literacy activityespecially for children in pre-school ages.
Pre-school ages happened inchildren ages 0-6 years old. In this stage, brain cells of children grow upvery fast as a result stimulation are needed to help children develop theirliteracy skill. For parents from low social economic background, if there is nomuch budget to provide material, they can do a simple activity like gardening,going to park, etc. In conclusion,as long as their parents aware about early literacy for their children byfacilitating them in literacy activity, it will give a positive impact to bothlow SES and high SES children. References Abidin, M.
J.-M. (2012). EFL Students’ Attitude toward English. Asian Social Science . Ary, D. J.
(2002). Introduction to Research in Education (6th Edition). Belmont: Wadsworth Group. Baker, &. ,. (1986).
Mothers’ strategies for children’s school achievement: Managing the transition to high school. Sociology of Education. 156-166. Barrow, C. E.
(2006). U.S. elementary Equalizing opportunity or replicating the status: the futture of children. 99-123. D.
Barton, H. M. (2000). Situated Literacies: Reading and Writingin Context. New York: Routledge.
Department Education, E. (2006). Understanding the Needs of Students from Low Socio-Economic Backgrounds. Development, Department of Education and Early Childhood . Eagle, E. (1989). Socioeconomic status, family structure and parental involvement: the correlates of achievement.
ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED307 332 . Hannon, P. (1995).
Literacy Home and School. London: research and practice in teaching literacy. Kirby, J. (2008). Family literacy environment and early literacy development.
Exceptionality Education Canada , 112-130. Mcmillan, J. S. (1993). Research in Education: a conceptual Introduction. New York: Harper Collins Publisher. Pahl, K.
&. (2005). Literacy and Education: Understanding the New Literacies Studies In the Classroom. . London: Paul Chapman Publishing. Papen, U. (2005).
Adult Literacy as Social Practice: More than skills. London, New York: Routledge. Saracho, O. (1997). Using the home environment to support emergent literacy.
Early Child Development and Care , 201-216. Vechten, D. V.
(2013). Impact of Home Literacy Environments on Students from Low Socioeconomic Status Backgrounds. Education Master , 248.