New Kingdom Egypt Essay
Tutankhamun’s Tomb This report is an analysis on Tutankhamun’s tomb and what the contents reveal about Egyptian religious beliefs and practices in New Kingdom Egypt. The following sub-headings will describe and explain the contribution that each have made within the historical context. Treasures and Artefacts The exploration of Tutanhkamun’s tomb, which was the first and only royal tomb that had been found fully intact in the Valley of the Kings, reveals information about the Egyptian burial practices and beliefs (Sheldon, N. 2010).
There are many pieces of evidence to help us to understand the Egyptians life and afterlife, such as: • the Shabtis • the Canopic shrine • inlaid throne • headrest • the gold mask • the kings firelighter • the kings mannequin • archery equipment • baskets • beds • model boats • boomerangs and throwsticks • boxes and chests, • Furniture including, chairs and stools. Many items of furniture were intended for other family members and hastily donated to the young king, • chariot equipment, • Clothing • cosmetics, • figures of gods • food • games, • Jewellery and amulets musical instruments • a portable pavilion • weapons, Each of these treasures and artefacts have a great significance behind them for example the Shabtis were all placed in a box near the kings resting place and supposably were called upon in the afterlife to do manual labor, these magical little statuettes would come to life when the king uttered the special Shabtis words. [pic] Key people Tutankhamun had a quick burial because of his sudden death. Following the mummification of his human remains, his body was placed in a gold coffin and transported across the Nile to the Valley of the Kings.
The people that were at his funeral procession were Tutankhamun’s wife, Horemheb, close relatives, priests and the highest officials of the land. [pic] The tomb in which Tutankhamun was buried was probably intended for another person, but because of the young pharaoh’s untimely death, it became his final resting place. Following the ritual “opening of the mouth” performed by his successor, Ay who was looking to bury tutankhamun as quickly as possible in the way of a successor so he could become the new pharaoh of Egypt. Society and Events
In the new kingdom Egypt, the Pharaohs, great Egyptian leaders, were seen as gods who ruled within this society, they were divine representatives on earth who, through rituals, ensured the continuation of life. After death, they became immortal, joining the gods in the afterworld. The Egyptians believed that the body and soul were important to human existence, in life and in death. Their funerary practices, such as mummification and burial in tombs, were designed to assist the deceased find their way in the afterworld. [pic]
When a Pharaoh died the Egyptians believed that there were 12 hours of night, passing through each gate containing an obstacle paired up with the sun god Ra. Eventually the pharaoh would reach the end of the 12 hours/gates and would have to fight the evil serpent. After this process was completed the pharaoh would then achieve everlasting life. This process would have to be repeated every day until the next pharaoh had died and taken his place. The Egyptians believe that this is what the sun god Ra and their dead king have to go through (12 hours of night) and if he completes his journey the sun would rise the next day.
Tutankhamun’s Tomb [pic] Paintings on the tomb walls The tomb of King Tut contained remarkable treasures but it also contained some wonderful tomb paintings and scenes. Each wall of the tomb has a distinctive theme. The East Wall depicts the Funeral Procession, the West Wall contains text from the Amduat, the South Wall depicts his arrival in the Underworld and the North Wall of the tomb shows the arrival of Tutankhamun in the Afterlife. Groups One of the duties of being a pharaoh was to lead Egypt into war against the Mitanni, Hittites and Nubians.
One of the paintings on the walls of Tutankhamun’s tomb shows a picture of him riding his chariot trampling over what was said to be the Nubians [pic] Death Rituals The Death Rituals practised by the Ancient Egyptians included embalming and mummification. The mummies of dead Egyptians were placed in anthropoid (man-shaped) coffins which were decorated with a image of the deceased. The coffins were then placed in protective stone sarcophagus. Opening of the mouth From the New Kingdom (about 1550-1069 BC).
In the ritual, specially designated persons used special ritual tools to touch the mouth and eyes of the image to enable a spirit to receive food and drink, to breathe, and to see. Sustenance and light are the two key aspects of life desired for the person for eternity. The following steps explain how the “opening of the mouth” was performed: 1. First the officiant cleansed the statue by pouring liquid out of pitchers, probably water and natron. 2. Next incense was thrown on fire to purify and bring scent. 3. Then the officiant placed a white nemes cloth on the head and arranged it. 4.
The statue or mummy was anointed with unguents and oils. 5. The statue was next dressed it in white, green and red clothes, makeup was applied. 6. Royal insignia or divine insignia were presented, then hung upon it 7. There was ‘Salutation with the nmst’ ewer. 8. Beatifications were chanted. 9. Offerings of bread, beer, fruit, flowers etc, was presented. 10. All the gods and goddesses were censed. 11. Re was adored. 12. Summoning of all the gods The mummification of Tutankhamun The following steps tell you how the famous king Tut was mummified: • Pull brain out of nose using a hook Make a cut on the left side of the body near the tummy • Remove all internal organs • let the internal organs dry • Place internal organs inside Canopic jars except for heart • Place the heart back inside the body • Rinse inside of body with wine and spices • Cover the corpse with natron (salt) for 70 days • after 40 days stuff the body with linen or sand to give it a more human shape • after the 70 days wrap the body from head to toe in bandages • Place in coffin No one knows the exact information on how the great king Tutankhamun died, this still continues to puzzle historians, Egyptologists and scientists to this day.
Many say that when Tutankhamun was in battle that the opposition landed a lucky blow and killed king Tut others say while riding his chariot he fell off and banged his head causing immediate death and some people just believe that he simply died from an illness. By Andrew De La Fuente
Bibliography Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation http://www. civilisations. ca/cmc/exhibitions/civil/egypt/egtut09e. shtml (accessed 13th May 2012) Deam, S and Charlson, A, The burial of Tutankhamun: A webquest, http://education. iupui. edu/webquests/Tut/kingtut. htm (accessed 13th May 2012) http://natasha-sheldon. suite101. om/tutankhamuns-tomb-a216061 (accessed 14th May 2012) Tutankhamun/Tutankhaten appears in P. C. Doherty’s trilogy of Ancient Egyptian novels, An Evil Spirit Out of the West (2003), The Season of the Hyaena (2005) and The Year of the Cobra (2005). http://ancientegypt. wikia. com/wiki/Tutankhamun http://www. king-tut. org. uk/tomb-of-king-tut/tutankhamun-tomb-paintings. htm (accessed 15th May 2012) http://www. king-tut. org. uk/egyptian-mummies/death-rituals. htm (accessed 15th May 2012) http://www. digitalegypt. ucl. ac. uk/religion/wpr. html (accessed 15th May 2012) http://www. philae. nu/akhet/OpenMouth. html (accessed 15th May 2012)