Msc Project Proposal The Effects Essay

There have been so many alterations in land usage and land screen of all time since worlds foremost began to pull off their environment in an effort to better the sum, quality and security of natural resources critical to its good being such as nutrient, fresh water, fiber and medicative merchandises. However, the alterations observed over the last five decennaries have been particularly of import and intense ( Metzger et al. , 2006 ) . Through the increased usage of invention, human population have, easy at first, and at progressively rapid gait subsequently on, increased its ability to derive resources from the environment, and spread out its district ( Lambin and Geist, 2006 ) . Land is a limited resource in spacial and temporal extents ; while some land can merely be used for a limited scope of intents, other lands can be used for many potentially viing utilizations. Since the beginning of human civilization, world has lived in a close relationship with nature ( Kasturirangan, 1999 ) . While world ‘s independency on the natural environment is more than that exerted by any other being ; adult male ‘s ungratified pursuit for advancement, comfort and security has resulted in increased emphasis on the environment which led to set down usage and land screen changes over a period of clip ( Rajeev et al. , 1999 ) .

Land-use and land-cover alteration is a complex, dynamic procedure that links together natural and human systems. The transmutation of land usage and land screen is driven by a scope of different factors and mechanisms ; Climate, engineering and economic sciences are cardinal determiners of land-use and land screen alteration at different spacial and temporal graduated tables ( Koomen et al. , 2007 ) . It has direct impacts on dirt, H2O and ambiance ( Meyer and Tuner, 1994 ) and is therefore straight related to many environmental issues of planetary importance. The assortment of forces that drive alteration in the usage of land is extended and complex, including spacial planning policies designed at local, regional, national and supranational degrees ( Koomen et al. , 2007 ) . Land-use and land-cover alteration is besides one of the of import factors in clime alteration rhythm and the relationship between the two is mutualist ; alterations in land usage may impact the clime whilst climatic alteration will besides act upon future land-use ( Dale, 1995 ; Watson et al. , 2000 ) .

Over the last four decennaries, rural landscapes of Europe have been radically modified as a consequence of urban enlargement but chiefly because of alterations in agribusiness. Agricultural land is continually being lost to urban development and this is likely to stay the same for many old ages to come with the lodging deficit. These alterations have been marked by immensely increased intensification of production in some countries. At the same clip, peculiarly in the more fringy countries, ‘extensification ‘ has taken topographic point with land being taken out of production for good or temporarily set aside. In different parts of Europe, assorted conditions and factors have served as the drive forces for such developments, which have been observed at a scope of graduated tables of analysis ( Koomen et al. , 2007 ) . The nature of Britain ‘s landscape at any one point in infinite and clip reflects both current and past interactions between socio-economics, geographics and clime. Although an ancient landscape, it is extremely dynamic and human usage of this resource has changed over both spacial and temporal graduated tables ( Swetnam, 2007 ) . Projections for urbanization suggest that 1.3 % of England ‘s land will alter from rural to urban usage between 1991 and 2016 ; increasing the per centum of land in urban usage to 12.2 % ( JP Land Gross saless, 2003 ) .

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This research will concentrate on the combine usage of Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems to analyze the effects of environmental variables on the land usage of Kent from 1990 to 2000. The full Kent County will be covered, looking at the physical and societal construction, land usage and land screen constructions and environmental variables of temperature and precipitation. This research was specifically chosen to research the potency of the combine usage of Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems in understanding and explicating the effects of environmental variables of temperature and precipitation and societal alterations on land-use alteration and frailty versa in order to understand to happen out the correlativity if any bing between these variables and land-use and land-cover alteration in Kent. Kent was considered an ideal survey country due to its strategic location, its outstanding history of nutrient production that has shaped its civilization and its land-based economic system and the renovation into an industrial and residential community of the long closed historic dockyard.

In many distant feeling alteration sensing surveies, land-use and land-cover frequently are used interchangeably ( Heikkonen and Varfis 1998 ) . Land usage frequently corresponds to a land-cover type and, in these cases, the constructs are synonymous. For illustration, a grazing land is a land-use but besides describes the land-cover. Urban countries refer to both a type of land use ( residential, commercial, industrial, transit ) and a peculiar land-cover ( concrete, steel and brick ) ( Seto et al, 2002 ) . In instances like this where there is a direct relational correspondence between land-use and land-cover, the two constructs are basically indistinguishable ; nevertheless, this direct relationship does non ever exist ( Seto et al, 2002 ) . For these state of affairss, it is of import to separate land-use from land-cover ; the latter measures the physical properties, status and features of the Earth ‘s surface, while the former describes how the land-cover is utilised ( Seto et al, 2002 ) . Particularly for applications that link remote feeling with human activity, this distinction is of import because land-use emphasizes the functional function of land in economic activities ( Campbell 1983 ) while land-cover does non. Therefore confusing land-cover with land-use may bring forth colored consequences in these surveies. ( Seto et al, 2002 ) .


The undermentioned postulated hypothesis will be tested in the class of this survey

H0 = There is no important relationship between temperature and Land-Use and Land-Cover alteration in Kent.

H1 = There is a important relationship between temperature and Land-Use and Land-Cover alteration in Kent.

H0 = There is no important relationship between precipitation and Land-Use and Land-Cover alteration in Kent.

H1 = There is a important relationship between precipitation and Land-Use and Land-Cover alteration in Kent.

Rationale and Justification:

The apprehension of the kineticss of the alterations in land usage and land screen has been an of import and considerable scientific challenge to human. The demands for improved cognition of environmental procedures and the impacts of policy on their kineticss must increase, as population force per unit areas on nutrient supplies and natural resources saddle horse and the publically held perceptual experience of continuing environmental diverseness and agreeableness strengthens ( Lourenco et al. , 1999 ) . The extents of land in usage for each intent are altering continually hence understanding the nature and extent of these alterations is a large challenge for those responsible for developing, implementing or supervising be aftering policies ( UK Land Directory, 2009 ) . Harmonizing to Dhinwa et Al. ( 1992 ) , information sing bing land screen and land usage, its distribution in infinite every bit good as the alterations taking topographic point are indispensable requirement for planning, therefore land usage planning and direction schemes is cardinal for the growing and development of any part ( Anon, 1992 ) . Though worlds have continued to modify the usage of land for nutrient production and for other necessities of life for many thousand old ages, the current rates, the extents and the strengths of land-use alteration every bit good as alteration in land screen are by far greater than any clip in history, doing unprecedented alterations in ecosystems and environmental procedures locally, regionally and globally. These alterations include in range the greatest environmental concerns of human populations today, including alteration in clime, A loss of biodiversity, H2O pollution, dirt pollution and air pollution. Monitoring and interceding the negative effects of Land-use and land-cover alteration while the production of indispensable resources is sustained has hence become a major precedence of research workers and policymakers around the universe ( Ellis, 2007 ) .

In footings of planetary alteration we can acknowledge three cardinal ways in which it is of import to analyze alterations in land usage and land screen ( Turner II et Al. 1994 ) . The first lies in the interaction of land screen with the ambiance, which leads to ordinance of the hydrologic rhythm and energy budget, and as such is needed both for conditions and clime anticipation ( DeFries et al. , 2002 ) . For illustration, most clime theoretical accounts are now coupled with Land Surface Parameterizations which use digital land usage and land screen informations to bring forth databases of reflective power, surface raggedness, evapotranspiration and respiration. Second, land usage and land screen plays a major function in the C rhythm moving as both beginnings and sinks of C. In peculiar, rates of deforestation, afforestation, and regrowth play a important function in the release and sequestering of C and accordingly affect atmospheric C dioxide ( CO2 ) concentration and the strength of the nursery consequence ( Janetos and Justice, 2000 ; Houghton, 1999 ) . Finally, land usage and land screen besides reflects the handiness of nutrient, fuel, lumber, fiber, and shelter resources for human populations, and serves as a critical index of other ecosystem services such as biodiversity. Information on land usage and land screen is cardinal to many national/global applications including watershed direction and agricultural productiveness. Thus the demand to supervise land-use and land-cover alteration is derived from multiple crossing drivers, including the physical clime, ecosystem wellness, and social demands.

BiodiversityA is frequently reduced dramatically by land-use and land-cover alterations ( Ellis, 2007 ) . When land is transformed from one usage type to another ; a primary wood to a farm for illustration, the losingss of the forest species within the deforested countries are immediate and complete ( Ellis, 2007 ) . Harmonizing to Erle ( 2007 ) , even when unaccompanied by clearly revealed land screen alteration, effects that are similar to that are observed whenever lands that are comparatively undisturbed are transformed to more intensive utilizations, such as farm animal graze, selective tree crop and even fire bar. The habitat suitableness of woods and other ecosystems environing those under intensive usage are besides impacted by the fragmenting of bing home ground into smaller pieces, which exposes forest borders to external influences and lessenings core habitat country. Smaller home ground countries by and large support fewer species, and for species necessitating undisturbed nucleus home ground, atomization can do local and even general extinction ( Ellis, 2007 ) . Research besides shows that species invasions by non-native workss, animate beings and diseases may happen more readily in countries exposed by land-use and land-cover alteration, particularly in propinquity to human colonies ( Ellis, 2007 ) .

Land-use and land-cover alteration plays a critical function in local, regional and planetary clime alteration. Globally, land-use and land-cover alteration is responsible for the release of so many nursery gases into the ambiance, giving rise to planetary heating. Harmonizing to the encyclopedia of Earth, alterations in land usage and land screen can increase the release ofA C dioxideA into the ambiance through the perturbation of tellurian dirts and the flora screen. The major driven force to this alteration is deforestation, most particularly when that is followed by agribusiness, doing the farther release of the C in soilA in response to perturbation by cultivated land ( Ellis, 2007 ) . Land-use and land-cover alteration are besides responsible for major alterations in tellurian emanations of other nursery gases, includingA methaneA andA azotic oxide particularly. Harmonizing to Houghton and Goodale, ( 2004 ) , most of the alterations in land usage and land screen affect the sum of C held in flora and dirt, thereby, either let go ofing C dioxide ( a nursery gas ) to the ambiance or taking it from it.

Changes in land usage and land screen that affects the normal contemplation of sunshine from land surfaces are other major facilitators of planetary clime alteration ( Erle, 2007 ) . The impact of albedo alterations on regional and local climes is besides an active country of research, particularly alterations in clime in response to alterations in screen by heavy flora and reinforced constructions. These alterations alter surfaceA heatA balance non merely by altering surface reflective power, but besides by changing evaporative heat transportation caused byA evapotranspirationA from flora ( highest in closed canopy wood ) , and by alterations in surface raggedness, which alter heat transportation between the comparatively dead bed of air at Earth ‘s surface ( the boundary bed ) and the troposphere ( Erle, 2007 ) . An illustration of this is the warmer temperatures observed within urban countries versus rural countries, known as the urban heat island consequence ( Ellis, 2007 ) .

Other impacts of alterations in land screen and the usage of land on the environment besides include the devastation of stratosphericA ozoneA byA oxide released from agricultural land and altered regional and local hydrology ; dam building, wetland drainage, irrigation undertakings, increased imperviable surfaces in urban countries ( Ellis, 2007 ) . Possibly the most of import issue for most of Earth ‘s human population is the long-run menace to future production of nutrient and other necessities by the transmutation of productive land to non-productive utilizations, such as the transition of agricultural land to residential usage and the debasement of rangeland by overgrazing ( Erle, 2007 ) . Undesirable land-use and land-cover alteration have resulted in widespread land debasement ; harmonizing to Gao and Liu ( 2010 ) , observing the long tendency of land-use and land-cover alteration can be used to accurately find the causes of these land debasements.

The United Kingdom is dumbly populated and a extremely urbanized ensuing in extreme force per unit areas on land ( Lancashire County Council, 2007 ) . In both rural and urban contexts, up-to day of the month geo-reference informations on land usage is required to supply a the sustainable development of land resources and to inform the development of policies across all countries of human activity at national, regional and local degrees, including planning and regeneration, lodging, employment, conveyance, agribusiness, environment and diversion ( Lancashire County Council, 2007. Within authorities the demand for information on land usage is apparent through published policy paperss and through the big figure of studies sponsored by authorities and other organic structures to roll up such information since the mid 1970s ( UK NLUD, 2006 ) . Land usage has been a cardinal consideration of the town and state planning system in the UK for over 50 old ages. Official policy statements and counsel and best pattern paperss provide a model for local planning governments in finding issues of balance and precedence on land usage affairs under Town and Country Planning statute law. However, despite the importance of and long-established nature of the land usage planning procedure, it is widely acknowledged that the available information on land usage is uncomplete and does non add up to the national information base that is required ( UK NLUD, 2006 ) .

Kent County is an of import agricultural country, bring forthing wheat, barley, oats, beans, peas, Asparagus officinales, murphies, Brassica rapas, hops and fruits of many sorts ; carnal raising in the part has included Equus caballuss, cowss, sheep and hogs, plus domestic fowl and game (, 2010 ) . No portion of England surpasses the more fertile parts of this county in the curious profusion of its rural scenery ( Authoritative Encyclopaedia, 2010 ) . The flora of Kent County is particular and of import to England, non merely because of its diverseness, but besides on history of the chance afforded to the ecologist for the survey of the colonisation of a freshly formed home ground by innovator workss and the care of life in highly inauspicious environmental conditions ( Hubbard, 1970 ) . Kent Thameside is one of the major growing countries in the exciting waterside towns and metropoliss with first environment and a existent civic pride that provides an international example of urban Renaissance known as the Thames Gateway.

The Thames Gateway in Kent screens loosely the country E of the M25, bounded to the North by the Thames River and to the South by the A2 and the Downs with the chief concentrations of population around Medway and in the towns of Dartford, Gravesham and Sittingbourne (, 2010 ) . The Thames Gateway has many outstanding assets which includes its heritage, alone countryside, good town Centres, riverbank and people with a strong individuality and people with a strong individuality and pride in their communities ; it besides has enormous possible – an first-class location on strategic conveyance paths, near major UK and European markets, big countries of brownfield land and quickly developing substructure (, 2010 ) . Each of the countries in Thames Gateway Kent is developing a typical function ; Kent Thameside is set to go an international commercial Centre with a major new concern territory being developed to complement the revival of Dartford and Gravesham town Centres. Logisticss and science-based industries are emerging as cardinal drivers of growing unlocking the full potency of Sheerness Port and the Isle of Sheppey. With its superb riverbank developments, historical sites and new university campus, Medway is quickly developing as a new metropolis of acquisition, civilization, touristry and endeavor and Thamesport on the Isle of Grain has the possible to develop farther port and logistics employment (, 2010 ) .

The landscape of Kent Thameside has been despoiled and degraded for centuries by the presence of public-service corporations functioning London, and extractive and heavy industries ( Williams, 2009 ) . The ‘natural ‘ landscape of fens, lowland heath, ancient forest and chalk grassland is now well reduced and dominated by elephantine industrial constructions and substructure, every bit good as huge preies. Many of these industries are now in diminution and the brownfield sites left behind are expected to absorb the proposed growing in the country. Regeneration on this graduated table offers a alone chance to turn to, for the benefit of bing communities and the communities which will be established over the following one-fourth of a century, the harm to the landscape inflicted by industrial development ( Williams, 2009 ) . Presently, about 100,000 people commute out of the country daily to work, chiefly to London ; whilst this propinquity to London is one of North Kent ‘s chief assets, regeneration of Thames Gateway Kent is making strong employment-led growing and communities that are more autonomous ( Communities, 2009 ) . In add-on to the chance to reinstate parts of the natural environment, there is besides the chance to reconstruct and construe the country ‘s rich human heritage, which, with the find at Swanscombe of the 2nd oldest homo remains in the state, is now known to day of the month back at least 400,000 old ages ( Williams, 2009 ) .

Land usage alteration is a major issue of planetary environment alteration. The modeling and projecting of land usage alteration is indispensable to the appraisal of attendant environmental impacts. Harmonizing to Coskun et al. , ( 2008 ) , accurate and timely information about land usage and land screen and its alterations in urban countries are important for urban land direction decision-making, ecosystem monitoring and urban planning. Besides, monitoring and representation of urban conurbation and its effects on the land usage and land screen alteration forms and hydrological procedures of an urbanised water parting is an indispensable portion of H2O resource planning and direction ( Coskun et al. , 2008 ) . However, the conventional methods of observing land-use and land-cover alterations are dearly-won, low in truth and show a image of merely a little country. Most well-known alteration sensing techniques from statistics, signal processing and control theory are non well-suited for the monolithic high-dimensional spatio-temporal informations sets from Earth Science due to restrictions such as high computational complexness and the inability to take advantage of seasonality and spatio-temporal autocorrelation inherent in Earth Science informations ( Boriah et al. , 2008 ) . Remote Sensing, because of its capableness of synoptic screening and insistent coverage, provides utile information on land use/land screen kineticss ( Sharma et al. , 1989 ) . Relevant information on land-use and land-cover alteration can supply a comparatively cost-efficient manner of countervailing emanations of gases that affects the ecosystem negatively, either by increasing the remotions of nursery gases from the ambiance ( e.g. by seting trees or pull offing woods ) , or by cut downing emanations ( e.g. by controling deforestation ) . Thus land usage and land screen planning and direction schemes hold cardinal for development of any part ( Anon, 1992 ) .

Because of the importance of land usage and land screen alteration phenomenon, scientists have developed assorted techniques for observing the alterations, trusting to a great extent on progresss in distant detection and geographical information system, which have enhanced the efficiency of the techniques ( Berberoglu and Akin, 2009 ) . GIS are peculiarly attractive because they can supply the information needed for the survey of this phenomenon in a digital format, therefore extinguishing the demand for dearly-won and erring manual analysis ( Bishop et al. , 2000 ) . Although contrivers ‘ experience with distant detection and GIS has non been uniformly successful, GIS have been used often in be aftering for a host of applications. GIS capablenesss can help with this undertaking, providing an extra tool for supplying dependable information on land usage and land screen alterations for both planning and decision-making ( Thompson and Hardin, 2000 ) .

Aim of the Survey:

This undertaking aims to understand the effects of environmental variables such as temperature and precipitation on the land-use alteration of Kent. It will besides analyze societal alteration in Kent and its effects on the land screen of the part or frailty versa.

Aims of the Survey:

The purpose of the survey will be achieved through the undermentioned set aims

Identify the spacial form of land usage and land screen in the survey country

Analyse spacial alterations of major urban land screen in Kent County from 1990 to 2000.

Determine how the landscapes of the survey country changed in the survey period

Determine land-use passage rate among land-use types in Kent over 10 old ages ; from 1990 to 2000

Find the correlativity if any between land-use alteration and the environmental variables in the survey country

Find the correlativity if any between land-use alteration and certain population variables in the survey country

Study Area:

Kent, originally known asA Cantia, located in the south-eastern corner of England is one of the place counties which border LondonA but non including theA United Kingdom ‘s capital metropolis itself. It lies between the River Thames and the North Sea on the North and to the Strait of Dover and the English Channel on the South ; It bordersA East Sussex, A Surrey andA Greater LondonA and has a defined boundary withA EssexA in the center of theA River ThamesA estuary. TheA ceremonial county boundariesA of Kent include theA shire county of KentA and theA unitary boroughA ofA Medway. Kent has a nominal boundary line withA FranceA halfway through theA Channel Tunnel and is 34A kilometers ( 21A myocardial infarction ) across the Strait. England has relied on the county ‘s ports to supply war vessels through much of the past 800 old ages ; theA Cinque PortsA in the 12th-14th centuries andA Chatham DockyardA in the 16th-20th centuries were of peculiar importance to the state ‘s security. France can be seen clearly in all right conditions fromA Folkestone, and the iconicA White Cliffs of Dover.

Groves, hopA Fieldss and vegetable production hold given rise to Kent County ‘s repute as the “ Garden of England. ” There is a proud and long history of nutrient production in the county, determining its civilization and its land-based economic system. It has a denser concentration of high value harvests, particularly soft fruits and hops, than any other county in England. Kent County has a entire country of 374,000 hectares, with about 59 % ( 220,429 hour angle ) of the country farmed and a farther 11 % ( 39,487 hour angle ) wooded. A history of assorted agriculture and forest direction has created a landscape that is extremely valued by occupants and provides the background to the county ‘s turning touristry industry. The tradition of household farms and big estates embedded in small town communities has defined the nature of rural life for centuries. Yet, over the last decennary, drastic alterations have occurred in the countryside. The progressively planetary nature of land-based production, the turning buying power of retail merchants and the intensification and specialization of agricultural production have all impacted the rural landscape.

The major geographical characteristics of Kent County are determined by a series of ridges and vales running east-west across the county. These are the consequences ofA weatheringA of theA WealdenA dome, a dome across Kent andA SussexA created byA AlpineA motions 10-20 million old ages ago. This dome consists of an upper bed ofA chalkA above consecutive beds of upperA greensand, upperA clay, lower greensand, lower clay, andA ruddy sandstone. The ridges and vales formed when the exposed clay eroded faster than the open chalk, greensand, or ruddy sandstone. Sevenoaks, A Maidstone, A Ashford, andA FolkestoneA are built on greensand, whileA TonbridgeA andA Tunbridge WellsA are built on ruddy sandstone. A Dartford, Gravesend, the Medway towns, A Sittingbourne, A Faversham, A Canterbury, A Deal, andA DoverA are built on chalk. The eastern subdivision of the Wealden dome has been eroded off by the sea, and drops such as theA white drops of DoverA are present where a chalk ridge known as theA North DownsA meets the seashore. Crossing Dover andA WesterhamA is theA Kent Downs Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.

The coastline of Kent is continuously altering, due toA tectonic upliftA andA coastal eroding. Until about 960, theA Isle of ThanetA was an island, separated by the Wantsum channel, formed around a sedimentation of chalk ; over clip, the channels silted up withA alluvial sediment. SimilarlyA Romney MarshA andA DungenessA have been formed by accretion of alluvial sediment. Kent ‘s chief river, the River Medway, rises nearA East GrinsteadA inA SussexA and flows due easts toA Maidstone. Here it turns north and interruptions through the North Downs at Rochester, so joins the estuary of the River Thames as its concluding tributary nearA Sheerness. The Medway is some 70A stat mis ( 113A kilometers ) long. The river is tidal as far asA AllingtonA lock, but in earlier times, cargo-carrying vass reached as far upstream asA Tonbridge.A The Medway has captured the caput Waterss of other rivers such as theA River Darent. OtherA rivers of KentA include theA River StourA in the E. Kent is besides strategically located between London and Europe, and hence is the chief transit corridor to the European community, with the Port of Dover as its chief ferry terminal.A The English Channel Tunnel or “ Chunnel ” begins in southern Kent near the town of Folkestone and ends in France.

Britain is an island state and the environing sea gives England a varied clime. The temperate clime of Kent is greatly influenced by the county ‘s by and large low alleviation, its propinquity to continental Europe and the moderating influence of the sea. Wind velocities are by and large lower and summer temperatures higher than elsewhere in the United Kingdom. Further, there is besides less rainfall in this part than cardinal England. Rainfall is reflected in alterations in height with about 575 millimeters of rain in the lower countries and about 900mm one-year rainfall on the North Downs and higher parts of the county. This compares to a scope of 550 to 3200mm over England as a whole. Temperatures are reasonably just throughout the county, and the mostly frost-free coastal countries have a longer turning season than much of Britain ( KCC, 2002 ) . Harmonizing to the Agricultural Land Classification, A Kent has a high per centum of high-grade dirts suited for agricultural production. Topography, geology, dirt and clime define the part and have led to the categorization of six Countryside Character Areas running east to west. Much of Kent County is agricultural ; nevertheless, many little towns and small towns such as Canterbury and Folkestone dot the countryside, giving Kent County its character and charm.A The Kent county town is Maidstone. Fertile dirts and the benefits of a comparatively mild clime in Kent provided the environment for the agricultural industry to take root over two thousand old ages ago.


Beginning: Modified from, 2009

Data and Methodology:

Maps, Satellite Images and Aerial Photographs

Base map of the survey country

Land screen informations of the survey country ( 1990 )

Corine land screen informations of the survey country ( 2000 )

Climate informations of the survey country

Census informations of the survey country for 1991 and 2001

Boundary informations set of the survey country

Ancillary Data

Publications, studies and other paperss on surface geomorphology, alteration in landscape and surface distortion with peculiar mention to land-use and land-cover alteration, conditions and clime, agribusiness, deforestation and societal alterations.

Data Collection

The land screen informations for 1990 to be used for this research will be provided free for academic intent by the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology ( CEH ) while the corine land screen informations of the survey country for 2000 will be downloaded from the European Environmental Agency ( EEA ) ‘s archive. Climate informations covering the survey country and the base map of the survey country will be provided by UK Met Office and DG Map severally while Kent county boundary, wards boundary and station codification boundaries will be provided by UK Boarders. Demographic and societal informations of the people will besides be sorted from reputable bureaus online.


Multi-temporal and quantitative structural analysis will be used to observe alterations in land screen, temperature, precipitation and certain population variables in the survey country from 1990 to 2000. A correlativity analysis will be performed to set up the relationship bing between temperature and precipitation and besides to find the effects of the environmental variables of temperature and precipitation and the chosen population variables on the land-use and land-cover of Kent and verse visa. This will be achieved utilizing the ERDAS Imagine, ER Mapper and Arc GIS 9.3 package bundles. The postulated hypothesis will be tested utilizing statistical analysis on the clime informations to happen their correlativity with the alterations in land usage and land screen.

Expected Result:

At the terminal of the research, spacial form of land usage and land screen in the survey country, spacial alterations of major urban land utilizations in Kent between 1990 and 2000 will be identified and their spacial and temporal distribution mapped. The correlativity between temperature, precipitation and societal alteration and land-use alteration if any will be identified so besides the chief factor driving land-use alteration in the survey country. The effects of land-use and land-cover alteration on the environment by and large will besides be analysed.


Change Detection

Change Detection

Change Detection


Change Detection




Changed Land Cover

Change in Temperature

Change in Precipitation

Change in Social Variables

Land Cover

Climate Data

Census Data











Flow chart demoing the proposed methodological analysis modified after Rott and Nagler, 2005

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