This essay discusses the construct of motive and its deductions for the administrations. The writer defines the theory of motive and so reexamine some of the theories ( i.e. Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs, Expectancy Theory, McGregor s Theory X and Y, Hertzberg s Two-Factor Theory ) that are important to understand the human behavior in the administrations. Further the essay provides statements for the bing value of the construct of motive for the directors and discusses the options that are available for the directors to utilize the cognition and develop schemes for increasing motive at the workplace. At the terminal of the essay the writer references restrictions that still exist. Introduction: what is Motivation? The universe was interested in edifice and analyzing the theories of motive from the early 1950s, with the development of industrialization and an visual aspect of mass industry. At the start, theories were aimed to increase the degrees of production at the assembly lines and the employees were motivated by basic demands and did non possess any power. The procedures were humdrum and a set of touchable factors drove the workers to execute. As the occupation design changed, new theories were built to back up the construct of motive. The surveies of motive chiefly focused on what motivated people and how the employees were motivated. This led to the division of the theories in 2 formats: content and procedure theories. Before these theories will be discussed in this essay, the construct of motive should be defined: Motivation is a procedure in which a individual is triggered to work for the accomplishment of his ain purposes and ends. Person s finding to execute and his/her attempt are designed to fulfill his/her demands, e.g. acquire touchable wagess ( an extrinsic motive ) , or instead, he/she is interested in the occupation itself and the undertakings ( an intrinsic motive ) . Overview of theories of motive:
Student Number 0952771 3
The motive theories are important in sociology as they give a rational account on five forms of behavior of people in the administration, based on their demands, support, knowledges, occupation features and feelings /emotions. ( Kreitner & A ; Kinicki, 2001 ) To discourse the value of the motive theories in understanding the behavior of the employees at the workplace, some of them should be described farther. Contented theories The chief theories that are studied and can be used in the working environment are Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs ( 1943 ) , McGregor s Theory X and Y and Herzberg s Two Factor theory ( 1968 ) . Harmonizing to the Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs, persons are driven by five demands, which serve as a footing for their attempt in work. Get downing from the physiological demands, after the satisfaction takes topographic point, the persons move up the following degrees of the hierarchy, which are safety, belongingness & A ; love, esteem and self -actualisation demands. Therefore this theory suggested that people are motivated by basic to complicated demands. The theory is still used today, though it does non cover all the facets of the construct. ( Maslow, 1970 ) Theory X and Y suggests that there are two forms of behavior in the administration. Theory X says that the employees are non willing to work and make non demo any involvement in the occupation. They are forced and controlled by the direction who may offer wage or instead leave without it. Therefore this acts as a incentive for work. Theory Y suggests that the employees can command themselves and can be driven by their ain ends and are responsible for their work and attempts. ( McGregor, 1987 ) Herzberg s Two-Factor Theory suggests that assorted factors exist that can actuate employees, nevertheless, there are other factors, named hygiene which may dissatisfy the employees and in that instance must be altered. The motivation and hygiene factors have different significances in the administration, the absence of one of these factors can interrupt the balance of being motivated and satisfied at the same clip. The motivative factors include acknowledgment, undertakings and success, instead the hygiene factors are occupation conditions, wage and company policy. ( Robbins, 2001 ) Procedure theories
From the procedure theories, the focal point of this essay will be on Expectancy Theory and Goal-Setting Theory. Harmonizing to Robbins ( 2001 ) , Vroom s Expectancy Theory, people s motive is activated merely if the energy spent on the work leads to a good public presentation and accordingly,
Student Number 0952771 4
the public presentation leads to fillips and wagess. Therefore, this theory AIDSs to understand why some workers do non set much attempt in their work, as they are de-motivated from the beginning, cognizing that good public presentation is non likely to be achieved and/or rewarded. Consequently, the public presentation wagess link has issues when the persons do non see themselves capable of having wagess due to factors as incompetency or personal dealingss with the direction and colleagues. When finally the wagess are received, they can look unattractive to the persons therefore do defeat at the workplace. Goal Setting Theory developed by Locke ( 1968 ) suggests that the persons are greater motivated when the ends are set by directors or by the persons themselves when they are closely engaged in the procedures at the workplace, instead than when the persons do non see clearly what their attempts are directed at and what the direction expects from them. Therefore, the employees behaviour suggests that they like to be guided by the directors and they achieve greater consequences even if the work is complicated. Furthermore, the theory suggests that a feedback should be provided for the work done, which makes the workers willing to make the occupation, as they appreciate being commented on their public presentation. ( Robbins, 2001 ) Application of the theories to pattern The being of multiple motive theories makes it hard to happen the ideal one that can be applied to the administration. This is due to the restrictions and irrelevancy of some of them in the modern work environments. To deduce the value of each of the theories, a eventuality matrix is used by the directors as a guideline on which of the theories to use at the workplace to heighten public presentation and supply occupation fulfilment. For illustration, the Expectancy theory applied in the administration activates the employee for action, attempt and can increase an employee turnover. One of the most applicable theories is Hackman and Oldham s ( 1980 ) theory that is a content theory, as it affects both attempt and everyday work, fulfilment, employee turnover and the grounds for defeat, as the theory is based on the occupation features and encourages the directors to make interesting occupations at the workplace. ( Kreitner & A ; Kinicki, 2001 )
Most of the motive theories that are adapted in the administrations have to be altered to suit into the organisational context. They are used by directors for the appraisal of motive at the workplace and to happen agencies of bettering it by fulfilling the demands of the employees or instead trip them to work and execute. It is a procedure that changes with the clip and new inclinations. Therefore it is indispensable to change the occupation designs and present new benefits, e.g. flexible hours, possibility to work from place, regular accomplishments appraisals, informal
Student Number 0952771 5
communicating, and to forestall a rigorous top-down communicating between the director and the co-workers. Value for directors
The perusal of the theories of motive conveying a great value for directors as was discussed supra, as the construct is used on pattern to analyze people s behavior, despite of being of some booby traps. The theories work on pattern, when supported by modern-day theories, and they serve as a foundation for edifice schemes to increase motive at the workplace. The old theories are a base for new theories ; therefore their significance is non lost. E.g. the modern-day theory developed by Ritchie and Martin split the employees in high-need and low-need degree persons and measure their desire to be motivated by both touchable and intangible wagess, an involvement, accomplishment, acknowledgment, self-development, assortment & A ; alteration, creativeness, societal contacts, money, construction and others. This attack serves as a utile tool for the directors to measure public presentation in their organsiations presents. ( Buchanan & A ; Huczynski, 2003 ) And furthermore, better the motive by presenting the wagess and acknowledgment strategies. The employees may be rewarded either separately or as a portion of the group. Individual wagess are limited by the accomplishments that he individual possesses and can be increased merely if a individual s productiveness additions. Kerrin & A ; Oliver, 2002, suggest that honoring the group may hold concerns with the theories of motive but people engage in the procedures, collaborate with their co-workers, put their ends in a competitory environment, have a potency for their creativeness to be developed and all of this can function as incentives and convey satisfaction from the occupation performed. The wagess should be so based on a both single productiveness and the public presentation of the group. Alternatively, directors are capable of planing the occupation for the employees and therefore actuate them to work. Harmonizing to theory of Hackman and Oldham ( 1980 ) described by Kreitner & A ; Kinicki, 2001, the occupation must offer an application of different accomplishments, the undertakings must be prosecuting and of import in the procedure, a significant degree of liberty should be allowed and the feedback available. This will take to a greater willingness to accept duties and give a satisfaction from the occupation and consequence in a high motive. Directors have an chance to analyze their manner of control and behavior utilizing McGregor s Theory X and Theory Y attack and therefore take the manner the work is facilitated at the workplace, either by rigorous control or coaction and authorization.
Student Number 0952771 6
Gradual development of the motive constructs led the directors from the rigorous regulations of the assembly line to the authorization and allowance of an liberty and creativeness at the workplace, therefore heightening the public presentation of the administration as a whole. Limitations However, the undermentioned restrictions exist that can non be avoided in the surveies of the motive theories:
? The development of negative behavior in the administration ill will, obeisance and deficiency of invention when every individual person is seeking to accomplish his ain ends jointly to the ends of the administration. The competition leads to ill will, de-motivated people do non hold any possible to come on if they are non satisfied. Punishments as motive to work leads to obeisance and stagnancy in the administration
? It is a time-consuming procedure to understand what truly motivates each person at the workplace as the theories were ab initio developed for the assembly lines when motive factors did non vary. The theories have to be altered and further developed to be applied in the administrations
? Motivation theories seem unsuitable as sometimes it is obvious that nowadays people are driven by touchable wagess, i.e. they are in a chase of wealth which makes all the theories irrelevant
Decision To reason, the construct of motive has a important value in the sociology and working environment, as they were built, researched and developed since the industrialization and early surveies of persons conduct. Human behavior was analysed and recorded, the old theories were changed by new constructs with new variables and applications. Though many of both content and process theories have restrictions, they remain as a important country of survey and are applied to the organizational civilizations of many companies worldwide, which bring out the values and harmonizing to them develop their ain manners of direction.