Medical to support the rest of your
MedicalTechnologies Research Report Introduction: Everybody has anatural pacemaker in their heart. The beating of your heart comes fromelectrical impulses that cause your heart to contract. The signal is sent fromthe sinoatrial node, it then causes your right and left aorta to contract. The atrioventricularnode receives this signal and sends it through the lower chambers causing themto contract. The sinoatrial node regulates the rate at which signals are sentbut sometimes it can stop working properly (Pacemakers, 2016).
Everybody also hasa heart. Your heart is an organ composed of powerful muscles that uses a systemof arteries, veins, and capillaries to transport blood everywhere it needs togo in your body (How the Heart Works, n.d.). People with heartmalfunctions such as irregular heartbeats or just overall complications thatmake your heart unable to support the rest of your body must get new technologyand devices such as a pacemaker or artificial heart. If you have diseases likebradyarrythmias, heart failure, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Syncope, etc. youmight require a pacemaker. It can also be used either when a heartbeat istoo slow or too fast.
A pacemaker is a small device that can be placed eitherin the abdomen or chest (Pacemakers, n.d.). If you have diseaseslike heart failure, dilated cardiomyopathy, Valvular heart disease, congenitalheart disease, etc. you could qualify for an artificial heart (Conditions Leading to Heart Transplant, n.d.).An artificial hear is a device that replaces your left and right ventricles inyour heart because they are not working properly (Total Artificial Heart, n.
d.) (for example inheart failure, the heart can’t pump the amount of blood that the body requiresso it will either need a transplant or an artificial heart (Steinbaum, 2017) (Pacemaker, 2012). The pacemaker was invented in 1956after Dr. Wilson Greatbatch had plans to create a device that would recordheart rhythms. He instead added an additional electronic component, and endedup creating a device that would send electrical impulses throughout the heart.He found that this made hearts with an irregular heartbeat, beat normally again(The Heartbeat of Invention: How Pacemaker Creator Wilson Greatbatch Saved Countless Lives, 2016). In the 1950s, thefirst artificial heart was invented and patented, but it wasn’t until 1982 thatthe Jarvik-7 (a working artificial heart) was implanted successfully into ahuman.
The Jarvik-7 was developed by Robert Jarvik and Willem Kolff. 1982 wasthe year that the heart was implanted into a human. He only lived 112 daysfollowing the surgery but the second recipient survived 620 days (Bellis, 2017). Even thoughartificial hearts are advantageous to people with heart diseases it is usuallyused temporarily while waiting for a donor heart, although it’s not unheard ofto have a lifelong artificial heart. The most common artificial heart usedtoday are ‘The SynCardia Total Artificial Heart’ because it is the worlds onlyapproved total artificial heart. How it works: Pacemaker: A pacemakeris a device thatcontains many different components that allow it to work. It consists of abattery, a computerized generator, and wires with electrodes (sensors) at thetips. The battery and generator work together to create power and the wiresconnect the generator and battery to the heart.
The electrodes at the end ofthe pacemaker are aware of the patterns your heart makes and will send amessage to the computer in the generator to regulate your heartbeat. If theelectrodes detects an irregular heartbeat it will send a message through thewires and the computer and generator will direct electrical impulses to theheart. In addition, new pace makers have the ability to adjust your heart rateto changes in your activity. (Types of Pacemakers, n.d.) Disorders the pacemaker is used for: – Bradycardia: when a heartbeat isslower than normal.
– Heart block: when an electrical signalis disrupted or slowed as it moves through the heart. – Heart Disease: narrowed or blockedblood vessels that can lead to heart attack, chest pain, or stroke.- Post heart transplant: after somebodyhas had a heart transplant, it helps regulate the beat of your new heart.(Who Needs a Pacemaker?, 2017) Artificial Heart:Blood goes into the artificial heart either from the right or leftatrium. After that, it is pumped through the aorta or pulmonary arterydepending on the side of your heart that is supported by the artificial heart.The artificial heart can be powered by one of two things; either electricity orcompressed air.
The pumping chamber and control console (regulates pumpfunction) are connected by a thin cable. The control console is usually outsideof your body. It is a large box that moves on wheels when you move.
It can alsobe smaller and more accessible, worn on a vest or belt, powered by batteries. (Artificial Hearts, n.d.
) Disorders the artificial heart is used for:- Heart Failure: one or both of the ventricles in your heart aren’t workingproperly.- Congenital conditions: a severe heart defect that you are born with.- Ventricular arrhythmias: abnormal heartbeats.- Severe angina: chest pain that could require a transplant due to persistingcoronary artery disease. (Walsh, 2017) Usefulness of a pacemaker: – Since a pacemakerregulates your heartbeat so that it can be within a normal range, it willincrease oenergy levels and reduce yourshortness of breath.- Provides you with a normal heartbeat/rhythm- can prevent the sudden death of a patient by regulating irregular heartrhythms when they are sensed.Societal implications:- the battery-powered metal device in your chest will be very sensitive toexternal and internal electrical impulses.
– Surgical risked that could include; infection, anesthesia allergy, collapsedlung, and damage to blood vessels and/or nerves near the implant.(Benefits and Risks Getting a Pacemaker, n.d.)(Leonard, n.d.
)Usefulness of an artificial heart:- Can be successfully used as a bridge or a temporary heart while patientsawait human heart transplants.- can be more useful than a transplant in such ways as the artificial heartwill not be rejected by the recipient’s immune system because they are made ofplastic and metal and the body does not realize that it is a foreign object.- Transports blood and important materials around the body while your heart isnot working.Societal implications of an artificial heart:- Can cause medical implications so people think it should only be used as a bridge towards a human heart transplant.- Most permanent implants do not support your body for long periods of time.Currently there have only beenfive successful permanent artificial heart transplants.
– The results of permanent have not completely been in favor of the recipients.Three out of the five are no longer alive, and the other two are confined tohospitals after complications.- Artificial hearts can lead to infection and bleeding due to surgicalprocedures. – They can lead to blood clots as blood may not flow as smoothly throughartificial hearts.- Blood thinning medication to prevent blood clots could cause complications ifthe recipient is injured.(Boffey, 1985)(Sarina, 2013) Conclusion: In conclusion, medical technologies such as pacemakers and artificialhearts can benefit people with todays modern medicine and ways of dealing withcertain diseases and conditions. A pacemaker is a device that sends electricalsignals through your heart to allow it to beat properly.
It is used as a way toregulate your heartbeat if it’s too slow or too fast. It also keeps your heartconstantly monitored to prevent any sudden and/ or life-threatening changes. Anartificial heart is another option for patients with heart conditions that canhelp then greatly.
It replaces the ventricles in your heart and helps the bloodthe be pumped around your body. It is commonly used as a bridge to a humanheart transplant but can also be permanent. Although these technologies can bevery useful, they can and will have complications and disadvantages. Pacemakerscan be sensitive to electrical impulses both internally and externally, andcould have surgical implications. An artificial heart could not work long-term,have surgical implications, and can lead to potential blood clotting.
Overall,pacemakers and artificial hearts are very important to the always improvingworld of medicine even if these procedures come with potential risks.