Market Research on Luxury Watches Essay
Market Trend There was a slow-down in the growing in gross revenues of premium and luxury tickers in India in 2008-’09. It prompted the market leader Titan industries to come in the economic system market. Following the footfalls. luxury ticker trade names like Tag Heuer and Rolex introduced low-price theoretical accounts. But in recent old ages. nomadic phones may besides hold dampened growing in the incursion of tickers in India. as they provide a clip readout every bit good as dismay and other time-related maps.
Watch industry experts believe that their product’s original map is progressively losing importance. and that wrist watchs are now being bought as manner accoutrements. Owning more than one ticker is like having different pieces of jewelry. Competitive landscape The economic system watch demand is being met for the most portion by the unorganized sector and by direct imports. The premium section is progressively being peppered by manner trade names such as Esprit. Swatch. Fossil and Tommy Hilfiger. There has besides been strong value growing for these trade names. with turning demand from middle- and upper-income groups in urban India.
Titan. HMT and Maxima are the taking Indian participants and Timex. Casio and Swatch are now the strong transnational participants in the market. More multinationals are come ining the retail market. but no new domestic companies have done so. and the multinationals’ portion of value gross revenues has increased over the reappraisal period. Premium Brand & A ; Product Perception With the tickers market in India now going manner and manner driven. particularly at the premium terminal. companies now launch theoretical accounts and designs every six months. International trade names such as Fossil launch spring/summer and winter scopes.
Titan. on the other manus. times its launches to suit in with the Indian festive season – Deepavali and nuptialss. Companies like Casio and Swatch and luxury trade names like Rolex are researching a niche market for chronographs. but this is presently negligible. Companies besides need to react to merchandise inventions. The Citizen eco-friendly ticker has been good received in India and is reportedly selling good in its monetary value bracket. extinguishing the problem of replacing batteries and promoting the usage of multiple tickers.
Apparel trade names such as Esprit. Tommy Hilfiger. Benetton and Levi’s have all gained acquaintance among India’s urban young person. who may go more willing to seek these brands’ premium tickers. Affluent. urban Indians may experience more comfy about purchasing premium tickers. while go oning to see luxury tickers as illustrations of overindulgent or insensitive disbursement. ‘New’ Rich India: The ‘New’ rich India is now indulging into the experience of having Luxury Brands. India’s quickly turning high-end retail market is expected to increase from the about $ 3.
5 billion in 2008 to $ 30 billion by 2015. Luxury vesture. aromas. premium vino. high-end tickers have achieved good incursion among male Indian consumers. Among adult females. jewelry and cosmetics can already tout high degrees of consciousness. followed by classs such as pocketbooks and nomadic phones. These points. while non needfully being better ( in quality. public presentation. or visual aspect ) than their less expensive replacements. are purchased with the chief intent of exposing wealth or income or position symbol of their proprietors. There is a distinguishable displacement from ‘Old luxury’ to ‘New luxury’ .
Old luxury is defined by the properties. qualities and characteristics of the merchandise. whilst ‘New luxury’ is defined by the consumer’s point of focal point on the experience that their purchase stimulates and non in ownership or ownership of the merchandise itself. ” The clients Redefined luxury as they believe it to be a mark of ego deserving – “They are worth it ; ” it authenticates the buyer’s success and position ; it is a signal to others that the proprietor is a member of an sole group ; They require unflawed public presentation in this application. the cost of merchandise malfunction is excessively high to purchase anything but the best.
Motivation of Study: The affair of have oning and basking all right timekeepers is a passion that these yearss must be justified. We like nice expensive tickers even though inexpensive tickers exist to make the same thing. Hence like any other luxury good. today modern shoppers buy luxury goods to honor themselves. to fulfill psychological demands or to do themselves experience good to demo off their personality or to hike their self-pride.
Contribution of the research: This survey aims to understand the above said consumer purchasing behavior which will assist the present selling Directors to better shift their stigmatization and advertisement scheme to capture the right mark market for luxury merchandises to hike the gross revenues in times where economic system are at a challenge. Literature Review: Research Aim: This survey intends to happen out if consumer purchasing behavior of immature buyers are influenced by factors such as premium monetary value of luxury tickers. perceived quality of luxury tickers. social position and trade name trueness associated with the
ingestion of luxury trade name. This survey besides intends to measure whether sensed qualities of the luxury branded ticker have influence on the purchasing determination of consumer. It is besides intended to find whether the high quality criterions of luxury tickers are the concluding consumers opt for the luxury tickers. Affiliations of societal position of geting certain luxury branded goods will besides be studied to understand whether consumer purchasing luxury branded goods merely for the affair of being affiliate with certain quarters of people holding the same luxury trade name of goods.
This survey besides will besides measure whether trade name trueness of luxury trade name will act upon the purchasing determination of consumer. This survey besides aims to bring out whether a individual who has been abroad is a ground for the consumer buying a luxury ticker Research Question: The intent of this survey is to measure what motivational factors encourage consumers into buying luxury trade name tickers. In measuring this statement. this survey aims to reply the undermentioned inquiries: • • • • • • Is it the monetary value or the type of users of the trade name that drives the purchasing behavior of the consumer for luxury branded goods?
Is it the strong emotion of know aparting themselves with the lower category consumers that drives higher category consumers to turn to luxury trade names? Is it the tag name of a mega trade name that drives the long term demand for that luxury trade name? Is gender a deterministic factor in make up one’s minding the purchase of a luxury trade name? If yes so what factors are of import gender wise? Is it the merchandise public-service corporation or the trade name perceptual experience that is cardinal for luxury ticker trade names? Will a person’s visit abroad act upon his determination to buy a luxury ticker?
Previous Research part: Findingss of overall old research indicate that individual’s penchants plays a cardinal function in buying luxury goods. Individual’s penchants may be based on desire and non-desires. which are based on experience in buying luxury points from their satisfaction. or nondesire such as prejudice towards trade name merchandises. Leibenstein ( 1950. p. 188 ) classified demand of goods and services ingestion in relevant to motivation into two chief facets: functional and non-functional. Functional demand is “demand for a trade good which is due to the qualities inherent in the trade good itself” .
On the contrary. demand of goods ingestion that comes from other factors. which is non the merchandise quality. is defined non-functional demand. The result from Leibenstein’s ( 1950 ) survey particularly stresses the function of interpersonal effects towards luxury trade names ingestion. and derived three chief effects ; Veblen. Snob. and Bandwagon INTERPERSONAL EFFECTS Perceived Conspicuous Value Perceived alone Value Perceived Social Value Ostentation Non-Conformity Conformity VEBLENIAN SNOB BANDWAGON Interpersonal effects ( Vigenron & A ; Johnson ) ( 1999 P.
7 ) Veblen Effect: The Veblen consequence can be explained through conspicuous ingestion in which people feel that it is necessary to buy luxury merchandises because they have a high monetary value ticket ( Leibenstein. 1950 ) . Conspicuous ingestion is use by people to demo wealth. power and position ( Veblen. 1899 ) . Monetary values of merchandise have a important facet in consumers’ sentiment of quality ( Vigneron & A ; Johnson. 1999 ) . Surveies by Erickson & A ; Johansson ( 1995 ) have shown that monetary value is used to judge quality of luxury merchandises between a scope of trade names.
Normally people would tie in high monetary values with better quality. Additionally. those who do tie in high monetary values with better quality would besides propose that high monetary values show a considerable sum of prestigiousness ( Lichtenstein et Al. . 1993 ) . Snob Consequence: The snob consequence takes into history personal and emotional desires ( personal effects ) . and the influence of other people’s behavior ( interpersonal effects ) towards the buying of luxury trade name merchandises ( see Figure 1 ) . The snob consequence can be farther explained through two fortunes.
First. the launch on new merchandises which creates exclusivity in which the prig would buy the merchandise instantly because a minor sum of consumers at that peculiar clip would hold acquired it. Snob consumers merely purchase “limited points that have a high value. whereas those readily available are less desirable. Rare points demand regard and prestige” ( Solomon. 1994. p. 570 ) . Merchandises that are viewed as unique. popular. and expensive causes a higher demand for consumers ( Verhallen & A ; Robben. 1994 ) . particularly snob consumers.
Snyder and Fromkin ( 1977 ) back up the statement by Verhallen and Robben ( 1994 ) proposing that people have the desire to be alone. India: The Affluent Multitudes: Luxury volumes have been spurred by a important growing in the rich in recent yesteryear. The new rich come in varied forms. sizes and manner quotients. Exporters. transnational bankers. college childs gaining plum wages at call centres or BPO operations. comfortable corporate married womans. and successful enterprisers.
What they have in common is that they have really high buying power Bandwagon Consequence: The bandwagon consequence represents consumers who purchase luxury merchandises because they wish to suit in with a peculiar group. For illustration. people would devour merchandises that are stylish and fashionable to tie in themselves to similar people ( Berry. 1994 ) . Dubois & A ; Duquesne ( 1993 ) explains that the prig and bandwagon consequence are non likewise. Although the similarity between the bandwagon and the snob consequence is that people wish to heighten their self-concepts. the distinction is that they purchase luxury points for different grounds.
Bandwagon consumers purchase points to be fit in with others. whereas prig consumers purchase points to be alone and stand out. Persons who fit in with groups that purchase luxury trade name merchandises and/ or wish to distinguish themselves from people who do non buy luxury trade names are influenced by the bandwagon consequence ( Vigneron & A ; Johnson. 1999 ) Luxury is wages: First time/New Buyers: They use luxury goods as a position symbol to state “I’ve made it! ” . They are motivated by their desire to be successful and show this to others.
Luxury trade names that have widespread acknowledgment are popular ; nevertheless they don’t wish to look munificent or hedonic in their visual aspect. They want to buy “smart” luxury that exhibit importance while non go forthing them unfastened to unfavorable judgment. Personal Effectss: Consuming luxury merchandises can besides be from personal desires and gustatory sensation. PERSONAL EFFECTS Perceived Emotional Value Perceived Quality Value Self-Actualization Reassurance HEDONIST PERFECTIONIST Personal effects ( Vigenron & A ; Johnson ) ( 1999 p. 8 ) Hedonic Effect The hedonistic consequence occurs when consumers purchase luxury merchandises and value the point.
Peoples who purchase points for self-realization ( e. g. inner direct consumers. Riesman. et Al. . 1950. or function relaxed consumers. Kahle. 1995 ) . and those who are non affected by interpersonal influences ( e. g. conforming to group norms. Bearden. et Al. . 1989 ) represent the hedonistic consequence. Dichter ( 1960 ) explains that motive of noncognitive and unconscious is able to carry consumer penchant of merchandises. Merchandises that are consumed are known to hold an emotional value that is added to their character ( Vigneron & A ; Johnson. 1999 ) . When consumers purchase luxury merchandises they expect that the point will offer benefits such as clannishness.
Dubois & A ; Laurent. ( 1994 ) stated that if merchandises create an emotional value for consumers. it represents that the merchandise is good and holds an of import feature. Perfectionist Effect The perfectionist consequence exists when consumers purchase luxury points and expects superior merchandises and public presentation every bit good as quality ( Vigneron & A ; Johnson. 1999 ) . Peoples who represent the perfectionist consequence are those who are associated to personal values and justice a merchandise harmonizing to their value of a luxury set merchandise. An illustration of the perfectionist consequence is when consumers are buying a luxury ticker they expect it to be accurate.
Harmonizing to Groth and McDaniel. ( 1993. p. 10 ) stated that “high monetary values may even do certain merchandises or service more desirable” . because people view merchandises with high monetary values with great quality ( Rao & A ; Monroe. 1989 ) . Additionally. consumers may measure the degree of how luxury a merchandise is by its quality ( Vigneron and Johnson. 1999 ) . Methodology Research Method: Quantitative informations consists of closed terminal information that includes numerical figures. The survey has collected quantitative informations by using closed-end inquiries towards a questionnaire.
Focus Group Discussion to understand properties both physical and emotional that influence the purchase of a luxury ticker. The group comprised of 7 persons. 3 female and 4 male participants who have been users of luxury tickers. Data Collection: Primary Data aggregation: Gathering information from consumers of luxury tickers through online questionnaire study Secondary Data Collection: Research penetrations and hypothesis design with the aid of antecedently published research work on luxury goods purchasing behavior. Sampling: Non-probability trying method is adopted.
Since the mark audience or respondents of involvement are consumers of premium or luxury tickers. the trying method adopted here is convenience trying and snow-ball sampling. Measurement & A ; Scaling: Measurement Techniques used? Perception map: ? Utility of characteristics in the ticker: Chronograph. Double dial. Indicator light etc. ? Stylish Designs that make the ticker a manner statement Respondents were asked to rate the 10 different trade names in order to obtain their perceptual experience of these trade names on the above defined dimensions Based on two predefined dimensions i. e? ? ?
Exploratory Factor Analysis: To understand the implicit in factors act uponing the purchase behavior of luxury ticker for work forces & A ; adult females and overall Arrested development: To understand which interpersonal & A ; personal consequence is critical when consumers make a luxury ticker purchase determination Discriminant Analysis: To understand the group behaviours based on the following discriminating variable? Gender? Trip abroad? Work Experience: Buying power? Amos: Confirmatory Factor analysis to determine the Exploratory Factor Analysis RESULT AND ANALYSIS 1.
Discriminant Analysis: Work-Ex & A ; Fresher Inference: Wilk’s lambda ( 0. 627 ) is more than 0. 4 which is non important ; Box M trial is besides undistinguished However based on analysis top 5 properties know aparting work ex & A ; fresher are Attributes Q5_7_attribute_analog Q5_2_attribute_alarm Q5_12_attribute_torch Q5_9__attribute_calculator Q4_8_attribute_celebrity_endorsement Variable weight of know aparting map – . 366. 361. 331. 271. 262 2. Discriminant Analysis: Gender Inference: Wilk’s lambda ( 0. 578 ) is more than 0. 4 which is non important ; based on analysis top 5 properties know aparting males & A ; females Attributes Variable weight of know aparting map.
Q4_3_attrifashion_statement Q5_3_attribute_dualclock Q5_13_attribute_barometer Q5_8_attribute_motionsensor Q9_2_buy_in_store. 329 – . 285 – . 269 – . 259 – . 255 3. Discriminant Analysis: Abroad Visit Inference: Wilk’s lambda ( 0. 573 ) is more than 0. 4 which is non important ; nevertheless based on analysis top 5 properties know aparting foreign visited and non visited people Attributes Q5_9__attribute_calculator Q5_6_attribute_color Q5_16_attribute_warranty Q5_11_attribute_straptype Q4_9_attribute_brand_image Variable weight of know aparting map. 228. 225.
221 – . 207 – . 205 3 ) Exploratory Factor Analysis- ( Male & A ; Female ) Research Question: – Is gender a deterministic factor in make up one’s minding the purchase of the luxury ticker. If yes what factors are of import gender wise? Hypothesis: – Womans while doing luxury goods purchase give more importance to emotional factors whereas Men go for Physical Utility features Factor analysis for male respndents ( 58 males ) Consequences: ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Fac1 ( Ostentation ) : o O O O O O O O? ? ? ? ? ? Sth to remmeber. manus gesture. to be alone Fac2 ( value added characteristic ) Calculator. digital. compass.
Fac3 ( Generic demands ) Shape. H2O opposition Fac4 ( Economic demands ) Discounts Fac 5 ( Tech understanding ) Compass. Motion sensor Fac 6 ( basic ) Analog. H2O opposition Fac 7 ( Wrist suitableness ) Strap type Fac 8 ( excess feautres ) : Date and twenty-four hours show. trade name image Exploratory factor analysis female Respondents ( 23 females ) : Fac1 ( Economical ) : o O O O O o Warranty. after gross revenues. parallel. emotional satisfaction Fac2 ( Style ) Social position. to be alone. manner statement Fac3 ( Particular demands ) Alarm. altimeter. digital. double clock Fac4 ( value added characteristic )
Calculator. compass. barometer. torch Fac 5 ( Tech understanding ) Hand gesture. price reduction Fac 6 ( Exclusivity ) Motion detector. dismay. trade name image Result Analysis: ? Work force: O Attach importance to Ostentaion. value added feaures and manner ( veblenian consequence and perfectionist consequence are ruling ) ? Womans: o Style. Economic attributes an generic demands ( Hedonist and snob effects dominate 4. Checking the Interpersonal and personal effects shown by males and female while purchase of luxury ticker in Store Research Question: O Is it the monetary value or the type of users of the trade name that drives the purchasing behavior of the consumer for luxury branded goods?
O Is it the strong emotion of know aparting themselves with the lower category consumers that drives higher category consumers to turn to luxury trade names? O Is it the merchandise public-service corporation or the trade name perceptual experience that is cardinal for luxury ticker trade names? Hypothesis: -Luxury ticker purchase is chiefly to demo off and as an index of position symbol: veneblian consequence. Users besides buy luxury tickers due to sensed emotional value or for hedonist grounds Veneblian Effect: – Snob Effect Bandwagon Effect Hedonistic consequence Type of consequence Veneblian prig Bandwagon Hedonistic Coefficient 0. 517 0. 499 0. 274 0. 305.
Inference: – As we can clearly detect from the above tabular array that the veneblian consequence is really outstanding in all instances of interpersonal or personal effects. That means Peoples tend to purchase Luxury tickers to demo off of their Public and Social Status. Snob and Bandwagon consequence follows Veneblian consequence. 5. Arrested development Analysis to look into whether long term demand for luxury tickers is driven by trade name image Research Question: Is it the trade name image that drives the long term demand for that luxury trade name? Hypothesis: Brand Image for lucury trade names is responsible for the long term demand of these tickers.
Inference: Arrested development is undistinguished with regard to the variables that drive trade name image. Even the R^square value is 0. 071. Hence we can deduce that trade name image is non a good factor to explicate the long term demand for luxury tickers. 6. AMOS The default theoretical account is created based on explorative factor analysis and taking research literature into history. Model Fit Summary Check: Cmin/DF 2-5 OK GFI & gt ; 0. 9 Not OK PGFI & gt ; 0. 5 All right NFI. TLI. CFI & gt ; 0. 9 Not All right RMSEA soap 0. 1 Not All right Model is relatively fit as such But Goodness of fit index is non keeping good. Validity & A ; Construct Reliability S No.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Attributes Q4_1_attribute_social_status Q4_3_attribute_fashion_statement Q4_2_attribute_to_be_unique Q4_6_attribute_emotional_satisfaction Q4_9_attribute_brand_image Q5_9__attribute_calculator Q5_10_attribute_compass Q5_12_attribute_torch Q5_13_attribute_barometer Q5_3_attribute_dualclock Q5_4_attribute_altimeter Q5_2_attribute_alarm Q5_5_attribute_digital Q5_7_attribute_analog Q5_8_attribute_motionsensor Q5_16_attribute_warranty Q4_10_attribute_secon_time_brandpurchase Q4_4_attribute_premiumwatch_collection Q4_8_attribute_celebrity_endorsements.
Concepts Error e1 e2 Delta 1. 028 1. 079 0. 608 0. 635 1. 282 1. 323 1. 687 1. 473 1. 793 1. 816 1. 032 2. 133 1. 407 1. 074 2. 078 0. 179 1. 402 1. 367 2. 019 Lambda 1 0. 67 0. 922 0. 884 0. 997 1 0. 912 0. 971 0. 774 1 1. 135 1. 005 1. 258 1 0. 876 0. 84 0. 403 1. 231 1 AVE CR Exclusivity e3 e4 e5 e6 e7 0. 81 0. 81 Tech_Savvy e8 e9 e14 0. 84 0. 68 Value_Added _Feature e15 e16 e17 e21 1. 22 0. 75 Reliability e22 e23 e26 0. 82 0. 69 Brand_Perce ption.