Iycee Charles de Gaulle Summary Man the developed countries from undermining the

Man the developed countries from undermining the

Man was that way underscored as the centre or nucleus of
the development process because when man is liberated from shackles, he becomes
free and capable of causing physical development to take place. In practical
terms, it was the second National development plan for Nigeria and its primary
objective was to achieve  the
reconstruction of infrastructure among other things resulting from the
destructions of the civil  war. The third
national development plan 1975-1980 was designed to reduce and as the case may
be minimize all the elements of inequality or disparity  that existed among the region and for which
constant conflicts erupted among them, but was faulted on the ground that it
did not create a lee-way for them, it offered no income or its valid sources.

          All the national
development plans of the 1970s aimed at creating economic stability in Nigeria
in view of several inconsistencies that prevailed; over-dependence  on oil of the economy,  instability of oil price in the world market,
dependence on mass importation of goods, etc. The aim was to
make individual self-reliant by encouraging him/her and even the federal
government to shift attention to agriculture to bring about food production
through the green revolution  programme.
The planning at that time therefore encouraged irrigation and water resources
development, river basin authorities to supply water to farmlands and help
farmers in whatever way that is possible.

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THE
DEVELOPMENT DEPENDENCY THEORY

          The building of industries in the third world countries could
not deter or prevent the developed countries from undermining the less
developed ones. The dependency theory made it obvious that neither
industrialization nor importation, or the duo can bring about the highly
desired economic independence of the third word countries.

          Dependency theory is an insistence  that the policies (foreign) of the
first-world must be concerned basically with the promotion the capitalist  interest which would remain deeply rooted
universally through  the activities of
their allies (the eliyist 
bourgeoisie)  of the various
nations. This is also partly due to the fear that the establishment of
truly  indigenous, independent and stable
national economics would  threaten their
dependence on foreign goods and the partnership activities with their foreign
counterparts, and contact levels or the collapse of the system that held them
high.

          This has left Nigeria in a situation where the poor remain
classically  dependent on the capitalist
rich who themselves remain classically 
dependent on foreign entrepreneurs, at the same time, causing the
Nigeria economy to remain  unstable and
poor.

          The dependence theory is emphatic in its assertion that the
developed countries create conditions that cripple the economies of the third
world countries, and also force them to generate  incomes aimed at supporting their home
economies.

          To change this the dependence theory recommends that the
third world countries should engage in peculiar actions such as welfare
legislation, nationalization  of private industries
and massive public enlightenment/publicity programmes in order to protect local
industries in addition to a new policy of import substitution.

          The blame heaped on the first world capitalist system or
the question of its social weapon – culture – which is allegedly imposed on the
third world societies as another angle of domination  has been noted by scholars as a wrong
approach of the dependency theory because it tended to lose contact with the
vision of the cocoyco  meeting, that is,
balancing  the management or operation of
the international economic system to ensure that every state is able to control
its  affairs and provide adequately  for its citizens in especially in the  core areas of need; food, shelter, clothing,
health, education and other indices of growth, the realization of which
indicates development.

          What is clear is that transformation of the third world
countries on the ground that their first world counterparts advertently  loosen their hold on the international  capitalist system has not been and may not be
a reality. This is because, “development is not only economic for it has to go
with the guarantee of other human freedoms, right and dignity”, (Njoku, 2009).

 

THE
LONG WAY TO HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

          The 1979 call by the UN General Assembly from the
initiation of global and sustained negotiation on international and economic
cooperation for development gave rise to the adoption, on 5th December, 1980 of
the International development strategy for the third world, which among other
issues took a stand against a lopsided approach to the development of the
underdeveloped countries. It contended that certain hydra-headed problems
facing the third world countries as inflation, unemployment, disease, etc
deserve special attention if the world must achieve peace and stability.
Strategic policy measures covering food, international trade, international
money and final matters, industrialization, science and technology, energy
transport and environment, human settlement, disaster relief, social
development and many others (Njoku, 2009 and Aja2007).

 

NIGERIA’S
RESPONSE AND DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF THE 1980S AND 1990S

         Various reactions followed the
emergence of these development plans across the world especially the third
world countries. In 1980, president Shehu Shagari of Nigeria told the UN
General Assembly that it was necessary to give urgent attention to the new
emphasis on development. He said that the programme is to be pursued with
vigour because economic independence must follow political independence
closely  since a combination of the two
would quicken the rate of real development of a country. He condemned the idea
of paying subsidy to the wealthy countries thereby helping to make them richer
while at the same time, impoverishing our own countries. Of no less importance
is the low prices at which the raw materials from the third world
countries  are sold to the wealthy
nations, including labour (services) rendered cheaply  to the industrialized nations all this in
exchange to their very expensive goods.