The Immune System: Anatomy Review
1.Name the two major anatomical parts of the immune system: • ________________________________________
2.Cells of the immune system originate in ___________. These cells are called ______________ when traveling in the blood and are classified according to the shape of their nucleus and colors of their granules when stained.
3–4.List the leukocytes in order of frequency from most to least common. In the second column put their distinct characteristics.
Name of Leukocyte
5.Specialized immune cells: Leukocytes are normally found in the blood, while non-leukocytes are found in tissue. Fill in the cells classified under the following headings and note if they are found in blood or tissue. • Phagocytes: __________________________
• Antigen-presenting cells: __________________________
• Effector cells of adaptive immunity: __________________________
• Other: __________________________
6.Primary lymphoid organs, where B and T cells originate and mature, are the bone marrow and thymus. Fill in the following: Both B and T cells originate from ________________.
The B cells mature in the ___________________.
The T cells mature in the ___________________.
(Hint: This is how they came to be called B and T cells.)
7.Secondary lymphoid organs, where lymphocytes become activated, include the following structures:
8.The lymphatic system consists of the following three parts:
9.The lymphatic vessels collect excess interstitial fluid that leaves the capillaries and returns it to the cardiovascular system. How many liters per day are collected?___ L/day
10.If lymphatic vessels do not function properly, there will be a buildup of fluid in the tissues. This condition is known as _________________.
11.The lymphatic capillaries have ______ valves to collect the excess interstitial fluid and any leaked proteins.
12.The lymph is filtered through the _______, where antigens and pathogens are removed and the immune system can be activated.
13.Special lymphatic capillaries in the intestines, called __________, transport absorbed _________ from the intestines into the blood.
14.Name two functions of the lymph nodes:
15.While ___________ lymphatic vessels carry lymph from the tissues to the lymph nodes, ___________ vessels carry cleansed lymph away from the lymph nodes.
16.___ cells are found in the germinal centers of the lymphoid follicles, and ___ cells wander through the deep _________, searching dendritic cells for their special antigen.
17.The ________ cleanses the blood like the lymph nodes cleanse the lymph. 18.Functions of the spleen include:
• Removes ____________________________________________________
• Stores ______________________________________________________
• Site for activation of the ________________
19.Collections of secondary lymphoid tissue (called _________ for short) are distributed throughout the mucosal surfaces of the digestive, respiratory, and genitourinary system. Aside from the diffuse cells in respiratory and other mucosa, this includes the following specific structures:
• ________________________ (protection of oral and nasal cavities)
• ________________________ (first part of the large intestine)
• ________________________ (distal portion of the small intestine) 20.The ___________, a primary lymphoid organ, is the site for differentiation of lymphocytes into mature T cells. What happens to this organ as we age? _______________________________________________________________