Literature Review Format Essay
Literature Review This package inside informations the stairss necessary to bring forth a literature reappraisal that may be required for work in assorted subjects. including English. history and psychological science. This package is non intended to replace teacher guidelines and should non be used in that mode. The packet’s intended usage is as a addendum to classroom direction on piecing a literature reappraisal. Therefore. it contains merely general information that must be tailored to suit specific guidelines as required by your subject and by your teacher.
This package is subdivided into six subdivisions: I. General Information States what a literature reappraisal is and what aim it serves. II. Process Gives bit-by-bit instructions on how to acquire started on your literature reappraisal. III. Organization Explains the two most common ways of set uping information in a literature reappraisal. IV. Format Provides descriptions for two of the most common formats used in a literature reappraisal. the point to item comparing and contrast ( Format A ) and the standards to standards comparing and contrast ( Format B ) . V.
Checklist Allows assessment of your completed literature reappraisal to guarantee that it follows all necessary guidelines. VI. Resources Lists helpful resources used to roll up this package so that you may obtain farther information. General Information Definition Literature reviews can hold two functions: In their first function. they function as a stand-alone paper. At other times they will really be portion of a larger research thesis. In this press release. literature reappraisals will be referred to in the stand-alone sense. As a stand-alone paper. literature reappraisals are multi-layered and are more formal and detailed than book reappraisals.
As the writer of a literature reappraisal. you must go familiar with a big sum of research on a specific subject. You will so develop your ain thesis about the subject related to this research. After this. you will sort and critically analyze research on the subject by doing a comparing between several different surveies and by stressing how these surveies and their comparing relate to your ain thesis. In consequence. a literature reappraisal is a paper that compiles. lineations and evaluates antecedently established research and relates it to your ain thesis.
It provides a context for readers as if they Email at [ electronic mail protected ]edu University West. room 129 ( 361 ) 570-4288 were researching the subject on their ain. Merely from reading your paper. readers should be able to derive penetration into the sum and quality of research on the subject. Your thesis and the literature reviewed serve several of import maps within the paper: • Your thesis creates a foundation for the literature reappraisal because it helps contract the subject by supplying a sense of way ; nevertheless. you will hold to carry on some initial research and reading before make up one’s minding on an appropriate thesis.
Your personal thesis may be a statement turn toing some of the undermentioned state of affairss: “why your research needs to be carried out. how you came to take certain methodological analysiss or theories to work with. how your work adds to the research already carried out” ( Brightwell. G. and Shaw. J. . 1997-98 ) . or it may show some other logical position. • Reviewed literature is organized in a logical mode that best suits the subject of the reappraisal and the hypothesis of the literature ( see Organization and Format ) .
The selected method of organisation and manner of format should pull attending to similarities and differences among the reviewed literature ; these similarities and differences are based on specific standards you revealed in the literature review’s debut. Harmonizing to Brightwell and Shaw ( 1997-98 ) . your end in the organic structure of the reappraisal “ . . . should be to measure and demo relationships between the work already done ( Is Researcher Y’s theory more convincing than Researcher X’s? Did Researcher X construct on the work of Researcher Y? ) and between this work and your ain [ thesis ] . ”
Extra information on these subjects can be found in the Organization and Format subdivisions of this package. Therefore. carefully planned organisation is an indispensable portion of any literature reappraisal. Purpose Although literature reappraisals may change harmonizing to subject. their overall end is similar. A literature reappraisal serves as a digest of the most important beginnings on a topic and relates the findings of each of these beginnings in a rational mode while back uping the literature reappraisal author’s ain thesis.
A literature reappraisal establishes which beginnings are most relevant to its author’s point and which beginnings are most believable to the subject at manus. In a literature reappraisal. the consequences of old research are summarized. organized and evaluated. Discipline-Specificity A literature review’s organisation. format. degree of item and commendation manner may change harmonizing to subject because different subjects have different audiences. Examples here pertain to the natural scientific disciplines. societal scientific disciplines and humanistic disciplines.
• Natural and societal scientific disciplines The writer of a literature reappraisal in the natural or societal scientific disciplines must pay close attending to measurings. survey populations and proficient facets of experimental findings. Typically. a part of the natural or societal scientific disciplines literature reappraisal is set aside for reexamining beginnings on the primary subject. Then. a comparative analysis or treatment subdivision is used to analyse the similarities and differences among the beginnings. binding them in with the literature reappraisal author’s original thesis.
• Humanities The writer of a literature reappraisal in the humanistic disciplines normally does non put aside a particular subdivision for reexamining the beginnings ; alternatively. commendations may be found indiscriminately throughout the paper. The literature being reviewed is arranged harmonizing to paragraphs based on the author’s points. which in bend. back up the author’s thesis. The paper itself may non be called a literature reappraisal at all. It is more likely to be called a critical analysis. Remember that the best stake for finding what type of literature reappraisal is appropriate for your class is look intoing with the teacher prior to get downing research. Email at [ electronic mail protected ]
edu University West. room 129 ( 361 ) 570-4288 REVIEW 1. What is the intent of a literature reappraisal? What is the connexion between the author’s thesis and the literature being reviewed? 2. What subject will your literature reappraisal be classified in? Procedure 1. Find several articles that deal with your research subject. Sometimes it is helpful to reexamine the bibliography of one of the first scholarly beginnings that you encounter and compare it to the bibliographies of other beginnings on the subject. If the same beginning is listed within several of these bibliographies. it is likely a cardinal. believable beginning that will help you in your reappraisal.
2. Before you begin reexamining literature. recognize that you are looking to carry through two things: A. Specifying your research problem/thesis ( illustrations: happening a defect in research. go oning old research. etc. . . B. Reading and measuring important plants that are relevant to your research job. You will be carry oning Steps A and B at the same time because the two signifier a round form. As you read related beginnings ( Step B ) . you define your job. and as you define your job ( Step A ) you will more easy be able to make up one’s mind what stuff is relevant plenty to be worthy of reading ( Step B ) . 3.
Once you begin reexamining. do an entry with complete bibliographical information and remarks for each work that you are traveling to include in the reappraisal. 4. Compare the articles by measuring the similarities and differences among them. This will be the initial phase in the preparation of your thesis. 5. Form a thesis that is clearly written and can be logically supported by the literature you will include in your reappraisal. 6. See the articles briefly once more and jot down any notes that seem to associate to your thesis. 7. Decide which organisational form and format are best for the subject of your reappraisal.
8. Construct an appropriate lineation for the literature reappraisal. 9. Write an debut that introduces the subject. uncover your thesis statement. and arranges cardinal issues. 10. Form and compose the organic structure of your paper harmonizing to the appropriate format: topical or chronological. 11. Write a decision that reconciles similarities and differences on the subject and reemphasizes the standards used to get at this decision. 12. Complete the concluding bill of exchange of the literature reappraisal. Email at [ electronic mail protected ]edu University West. room 129 ( 361 ) 570-4288 13.
Check over the concluding bill of exchange for grammar and punctuation mistakes. 14. Use the checklist provided here to do certain that all parts of the literature reappraisal are addressed and focused. Establishing a Critical Response for a Literature Review You may happen this subdivision helpful at Steps 3. 4 and 5 of the procedure. When reexamining your beginnings. research the undermentioned countries to assist develop your critical response: What is the intent of the research or work? What research or literary methods are used? How do the major constructs run? In a research survey. how accurate are the measurings?
In a literary work. is the author’s place aim or biased? What are the different readings of the consequences of the survey or of the literary work itself? REVIEW 1. What do you see to be the most important measure ( s ) in the procedure of your literature reappraisal? Why? Justify your response ( s ) . Organization A literature reappraisal can be arranged either locally or chronologically. Topical organisation occurs in reappraisals where old research being evaluated is divided into sections with each one stand foring a portion of some larger issue.
In a topical reappraisal. the writer begins by depicting the features of research shared by several surveies and so moves on to analyse their similarities and differences. For more information. see the illustration below. Example The organisation of a literature reappraisal begins in the debut. For illustration. in the debut of a literature reappraisal about the consequence of siting agreements on equal tutoring communicating. you would foremost present the subject and what your literature reappraisal will try to measure: …Writing centres can put the tabular array for collaborative tutoring Sessionss through a careful consideration of spacial agreement.
. . Then province what angle is traveling to be explored: …These surveies will be used to back up the author’s claims that spacial agreement is instrumental in promoting collaborative environments in the authorship center… Then. set up cardinal issues that will be addressed in this reappraisal by replying inquiries that you have personally developed and are tailored to suit your subject. In the debut. give the audience a clear image of how you will form your paper: Electronic mail at [ electronic mail protected ]edu University West. room 129
( 361 ) 570-4288 In the followers. I1 foremost reexamine some relevant research refering spacial agreement and so discourse some recommended and alternate seating agreements to promote a collaborative environment in the authorship centre. Finally. I include some other considerations. In the organic structure of this literature reappraisal. you would form the information locally around each point ( or inquiry ) that you asked yourself: -Research Review -Recommended Spatial Arrangement -Alternative Spatial Arrangement -Other Considerations.
Then. compose a decision that explains the significance of your findings: …While the siting agreements outlined above are by and large a good ‘setting’ for equal tutoring Sessionss. we should retrieve that each tutoring session is alone. Not all pupils will be comfy with a side-by-side spacial agreement at a unit of ammunition tabular array.
Coachs should be perceptive of and receptive to pupils who may hold other spacial needs… Chronological organisation occurs when a reappraisal is organized in clip order and is most frequently used when a historical context is needed for discoursing a subject from its get downing to its current province ; chronological organisation is particularly helpful when discoursing inactive periods and displacements in position on a given subject.
Example The organisation of a literature reappraisal begins in the debut. For illustration. in the debut of a literature reappraisal entitled Development of Social Science Research on Attitudes Towards Gender in America. you would foremost present the subject and what your reappraisal hopes to measure: …This literature reappraisal will measure the development of research designed to bring out gender attitudes in America during the latter portion of the 20th Century…
Then province what angle is traveling to be explored: . . As research progressed throughout the twentieth century. the methods that societal scientists use for mensurating these attitudes developed and changed as well… Then. chronologically arrange issues that will be addressed in this reappraisal: Gender stereotypes still exist today. and changing attitudes can be traced over the past 50 old ages. Survey instruments used to garner informations on these changing attitudes have besides changed drastically over the class of clip.
In the organic structure of this literature reappraisal. you would form the information chronologically. adressing each point ( or inquiry ) that is being asked for a peculiar clip period: -Stereotypes and Survey Instruments of the 1950’s -Stereotypes and Survey Instruments of the 1960’s -Stereotypes and Survey Instruments of the 1970’s -Stereotypes and Survey Instruments of the 1980’s -Stereotypes and Survey Instruments of the 1990’s -Current Promotions Always clear the usage of I with your teacher.
An option to this would be the usage of 3rd individual give voicing. such as “This paper reviews some relevant research refering spacial agreement and so discusses some recommended and alternate seating agreements to promote a collaborative environment in the authorship centre. ” 1 Email at [ electronic mail protected ]edu University West. room 129 ( 361 ) 570-4288 Then. compose a decision that explains the significance of your findings: Although the study instruments used in the 1950’s and 1960’s developed an obvious prejudice when appraising Americans sing gender attitudes. the 1970’s brought approximately great alteration.
Today societal scientists are more careful than of all time about proving the quality of a study instrument before utilizing it on the general populace. Format There are besides two suggested formats for composing your literature reappraisal. Format A is used when comparing several surveies that have similar hypothesis but different findings. Each piece of research is summarized separately. Format A is good for reappraisals with a little figure of entries ; nevertheless. this format may confound the audience when used with a big figure of reappraisals because descriptions of so many surveies may acquire in the manner of the analysis.
Keep in head that each piece of research normally will non have equal attending in the reappraisal. Format A Outline I. Introduction consists of four parts that are normally discussed in one paragraph. a. Identify the general subject being discussed. B. Mention trends published about the subject. c. State thesis set uping the ground for composing the literature reappraisal. d. Explain standards by giving a description of each of the standards used in measuring the literature reappraisal and apologizing its organisation II. Literature reviewed subdivision is divided up harmonizing to survey. a. First survey is summarized and discussed. B.
Second survey is summarized and discussed. c. Third survey is summarized and discussed. III. Comparative analysis acknowledges the similarities and differences between surveies. a. Similarities ( if any ) among the surveies are evaluated and discussed. B. Differences ( if any ) among the surveies are evaluated and discussed. IV. Conclusion/Summary efficaciously wraps up the reappraisal. a. Summarize points of comparing or contrast among the plants based on Section III of your reappraisal.
B. Provide penetration of relationship between the subject of the reappraisal and a larger country of survey such as a specific subject or profession Format B organizes the literature reappraisal harmonizing to similarities and differences among research instead than by literature studied. In a reappraisal organized harmonizing to Format B. small background information on the literature being reviewed is given outright.
Alternatively. it is worked into the organic structure paragraphs of the subdivisions on similarities and differences. The decision so uses these two subdivisions ( similarities and differences ) to bind in points of comparing and contrast between the plants. Format B better suits documents that are locally organized.
Format B is outlined below. Email at [ electronic mail protected ]edu University West. room 129 ( 361 ) 570-4288 Format B Outline I. Introduction consists of four parts normally discussed in one paragraph. a. Identify the general subject being discussed. B. Mention trends published about the subject. c. State thesis set uping the ground for composing the literature reappraisal. d. Explain standards by giving a description of each of the standards used in measuring the literature reappraisal and apologizing its organisation II. Similiarities within the research are discussed.
a. First similarity among research is discussed. B. Second similarity among research is discussed. c. Third similiarity among research is discussed. III. Differences in the research are discussed. a. First difference between research is discussed B. Second difference between research is discussed c. Third difference between research is discussed IV. Conclusion/Summary a. Summarize points of comparing or contrast between the plants. B. Supply insight into relationship between the subject of the literature and a larger country of survey such as a specific subject or profession.
The most of import thing to retrieve when forming a literature reappraisal is that it is non a list sum uping one work after another. The reappraisal should be organized into subdivisions harmonizing to subject that are set apart by subject-related headers. REVIEW 1. Which format have you chosen for your literature reappraisal? Why? A Literature Review Checklist: Did I. . . . . . ? ? Establish a valid thesis based on the examined research? State this thesis clearly in my debut? Define unfamiliar footings? Incorporate background information to specify the job?
Get down each entry in the reappraisal with a complete bibliographical mention? List and depict the hypothesis/thesis in each work reviewed Email at [ electronic mail protected ]edu University West. room 129 ( 361 ) 570-4288? Describe the result of the work or the research? Develop and integrate my ain remarks. including response to the research. similarities and differences among literature reviewed. and reserves sing author’s methods or decisions? Avoid overquoting? Check for grammar and punctuation mistakes?
Correctly mention all mentions in unvarying certification manner Resources Brightwell. G. and Shaw. J. ( 1997-98 ) . Writing up research. Retrieved August 20. 2002 from Languages and Educational Development at the Asian Institute of Technology’s Web page at hypertext transfer protocol: //www. linguistic communications. ait. Ac. th/EL21OPEN. HTM Central Queensland University Library. ( 2000 ) . The literature reappraisal.
Retrieved July 22. 2003 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. library. cqu. edu. au/litreviewpages/ Cuba. L. ( 2002 ) . A short usher to composing about societal scientific discipline. New York: Addison-Wesley Publishers. Leibensperger. S. ( 2003 ) . Puting the tabular array: Encouraging collaborative environments with spacial agreement in the authorship centre.
Unpublished literature reappraisal. Northern Arizona University. ( 1999 ) . Electronic text edition – A blast from the past: Your literature reappraisal. Retrieved May 30. 2002 from hypertext transfer protocol: //jan. ucc. nau. edu/~mid/edr720/class/literature/blast/reading21-1. hypertext markup language Taylor. D. . & A ; Procter. M. ( 2001 ) . The literature reappraisal: A few tips on carry oning it. Retrieved June 17. 2002 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. utoronto. ca/writing/litrev. html Trinder. L. ( 2002 ) . Appendix. The literature reappraisal. Retrieved August 27. 2003 hypertext transfer protocol: //www. uea. Ac. uk/~w071/teaching/ppf/Appendix % 20Lit % 20Review.
pdf The University of Wisconsin-Madison Writing Center. ( 2001 ) . Academic authorship: Reappraisals of literature. Retrieved May 30. 2002 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. wisc. edu/writing/Handbook/ReviewofLiterature. hypertext markup language *In traditional APA manner. this subdivision would be entitled “References” and would be listed on a separate page double-spaced. Due to infinite restraints in this package. it has been formatted otherwise. Copyright 2003 by the Academic Center and the University of Houston-Victoria. Created 2003 by Candice Chovanec-Melzow. Email at [ electronic mail protected ]edu University West. room 129 ( 361 ) 570-4288.