Lightweight Coarse Aggregate In Structural Concrete Biology Essay

The aim of this survey is to present a type of concrete that is more cost effectual when compared to other concretes, yet is still compliant with the BS8110 criterions of mechanical features for design and building of structural concrete. This paper presents portion of the trial consequences of an on-going research undertaking to bring forth structural lightweight concrete, utilizing the low cost solid waste material ‘almond shell ‘ ( AS ) , as a harsh sum.

Test consequences in this paper detail the compressive strength, bond strength, modulus of snap, and flexural behavior of the AS concrete. Based on these experimental consequences, it was determined that although AS concrete has a lower modulus of snap than other trial samples, middle-scale beam trials revealed that warps under expected design service tonss are within acceptable bounds. The span-deflection ratios ranged between 252 and 263, which are within the allowable bounds specified by the BS8110 criterions. Laboratory probes showed satisfactory public presentation of the AS concrete within the remit of the BS8110 codification, and it can be concluded that Prunus dulcis shell has strong potency as a harsh sum in the production of structural lightweight concrete, particularly for low-priced applications such as in lodging building and for usage in temblor prone countries.

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Keywords: Structural Lightweight Concrete, Almond Shell, Bond Strength.


The issue of resource decrease has become more outstanding in recent old ages, and planetary pollution has resulted in a challenge for applied scientists to seek and develop new stuffs based on renewable resources. These include the usage of waste stuffs, recycled points, and byproducts from building. Many of these byproducts are used as aggregative stuffs in the production of lightweight concrete. There has been much research conducted on the structural public presentation of lightweight sum concrete, and this has been focused on of course happening sums, manufactured sums, and sums from industrial byproducts.Stone fruit, from the Rosaceae household, is closely related to the Prunus persica and originates from the Middle East where conditions are dry and hot. Almonds are the individual seed from a type pf rock fruit, and they are grown throughout the full Mediterranean Region, the USA ( California ) , Northern Africa, Turkey, Iran, Australia and South Africa. This is because the Prunus dulcis is sensitive to wet conditions, and is hence non grown in wet climes.

Presently, research attempts have been directed towards the potency for utilizing Prunus dulcis shell ( AS ) as a harsh sum in the production of structural lightweight concrete. In Iran, there is over 70 metric tons of Almond shell waste produced at each cropping, intending it is a premier location for doing usage of this waste stuff.Using this waste stuff leads to many benefits, such as maximization of the usage of Prunus dulcis shell, saving of natural resources and care of ecological balance. In add-on, the current economic and societal clime agencies there is an increasing demand for low-priced lodging in many states, and hence AS can be used as a cheaper option to the conventional sums in carry throughing this demand.Sums that have a dry unit weight of less than 1200 kg/m3 are normally used, and are classified as lightweight sums ( Owens, 1993 ) .

AS sum has a unit weight of 600-700 kg/m3, which is about 55 % igniter when compared to the conventional crushed rock sums. Consequently, the ensuing concrete will be even more lightweight. This lightweight concrete utilizing AS coarse sum is still a comparatively new building stuff and its structural public presentation still requires probe. This survey attempts to find some of import features of AS aggregative concrete, to ensue in wider credence of AS as a lightweight aggregative stuff option in bring forthing concrete that can be used as a building stuff for low-priced lodging building. The structural belongingss investigated in this paper are initial compressive strength, bond strength, modulus of snap, and flexural behavior of reinforced AS concrete beams.


The constituents of the AS concrete in this survey included ordinary Portland cement ( ASTM Type 1 ) , with crushed sand as a all right sum, Prunus dulcis shell ( AS ) as a harsh sum, and a Type-F naphthalene sulphonate methanal condensate based superplasticiser ( Collepardi et al.

1993 ) . The chemical construction of the SNF based superplasticiser is shown in Figure 1.Figure 1. Chemical construction of naphthalene sulphonate methanals based superplasticiser.The AS sums for this survey were acquired from local Prunus dulcis shell Millss. AS is normally available in assorted forms, which include approximately parabolic, and other irregular forms as shown in Figure 2. Before the AS was used as sum, it was sieved and passed through the No.1/2 screen, with the atoms that were retained being discarded.

The staying AS was so passed through the No.4 screen, with the atoms retained from this 2nd sieving being used for the experiment. The atom size distribution of the AS sum is shown in Figure 3, and the belongingss of the crushed sand and AS are shown in Table 1.Figure 2. Assorted forms of AS sum.

Figure 3. Atom size distribution of AS sum.Table 1. Properties of crushed river sand and AS


Crushed sand

Almond shell ( AS )

Maximum grain size, millimeter4.7512.5Shell thickness, millimeter( Average shell thickness = 2.0 millimeter )


0- 3.0Specific gravitation2.461.25Bulk unit weight, kg/m31600-1650600-700Fineness modulus1.65.7Los Angeles scratch value, %

4.2Aggregate impact value, %

6.22Aggregate oppressing value, %


0024-h H2O soaking up, %3.2823Based on the belongingss of the all right and harsh sum available for this survey, the mix proportions were approximated, followed by the alteration of test mixes to accomplish a practical and satisfactory consequence. The acceptable mix comprised 450 kg/m3 cement, 810 kg/m3 sand, and 440 kg/m3 AS, with a free H2O to cement ratio of 0.35. The cement content used in this research was within the acceptable scope for lightweight concrete ( Mindess et al. , 2003 ) .

The measure of superplasticiser used was 1.5 % by cement weight ( 6.75 kg/m3 ) , which was within the recommended scope provided by the maker. This mix proportion was used throughout the full probe. The AS sum used was assorted at the concentrated surface prohibitionist ( SSD ) status, based on 24 hours submergence in drinkable H2O.

Testing Methodology

Several trials were conducted to find the structural belongingss of AS concrete that were specified in the old subdivision.

Compression strength trials on 100 millimeters regular hexahedrons were performed harmonizing to the criterion BS 1881: Part 116, and the initial modulus of snap of 150A-300 millimeter cylinders was determined as per ASTM C 469-87a. The bond strength of AS concrete was determined by transporting out a series of disengagement trials on 100A-200 millimeter cylinders. Flexural trials on all-out paradigm beams were besides conducted. Except for the paradigm beam trials, which used beams of 3 different tenseness supports, triplicate specimens were prepared for each trial and the consequences were reported as an norm.Blending of concrete was performed utilizing a revolving membranophone sociable conforming to BS 1881: Part 125 ( Section 6.3 for SSD sums ) .

To forestall inordinate vaporization from the fresh concrete, and subsequent shrinking, a fictile sheet was placed on top of the molds instantly after projecting, and it was left for 24 A± 3 hours in the research lab at ambient conditions of 24-28 A°C and comparative humidness of 85 % – 95 % . After this, the regular hexahedron and cylindrical specimens were transferred into a 25-30 A°C H2O armored combat vehicle until proving begun. For the paradigm beams, the specimens were damp cured continuously for another 6 yearss after which they were left in the same ambient research lab conditions until the trial was to get down. The bond between the support and AS concrete was investigated by application of the bond-slip relationship. The disengagement trial was conducted utilizing distorted bars of 10, 12, and 13 millimeter diameters and tested at an age of 3, 7, 28, 56, 90, and 180 yearss. The bond strength was computed by the undermentioned expression ( 1 ) 🙁 1 )I„ = bond emphasis ( MPa )F = applied burden ( N )vitamin D = nominal saloon diametercubic decimeter = embedment length ( millimeter )Three separate reinforced sample beams were made up and tested. All trial beams had rectangular cross-sections of 150A-230 millimeter, with a entire length of 3200 millimeter and an effectual span of 3000 millimeter.

The trial beam dimensions were chosen to be sufficiently big to imitate a existent structural component. Tension supports of 2O10, 2O12, and 2O13 were provided for beams S1, S2, and S3, severally. Two 8 millimeters diameter mild steel hanger bars were provided for each beam. Sufficient shear links were provided to avoid failure in shear in order to merely look into the belongingss specified, and an all-around screen of 25 millimeter was maintained for each beam. The beams were tested under the burden profile known as 4-point bending. Three plunger travel LVDTs ( additive electromotive force supplanting transducers ) capable of reading up to a maximal value of 100 millimeters were used to supervise the warp of the beams in the pure flexing part. The trial set-up and beam inside informations are illustrated in Figure 4.










Radio beam 1


Radio beam 2

Section A-A


Radio beam 3



Figure 4.

Beam proving apparatus and inside informations.


The fresh concrete denseness during this survey ranged from 1863 to 1897 kg/m3, and the air content in the specimens was in the scope of 4.2 % to 4.9 % , which is comparatively high. This could be attributed to the extremely irregular forms of the person AS atoms, which prevented their full compression with each other ; nevertheless, this air content value for the AS concrete samples is still within the acceptable values of 4 % to 8 % specified in the ACI 213R-87 samples. The slump trial consequences for the AS fresh concrete workability rating was performed, which determined that AS concrete was in the scope of 6 to 8 centimeter. Analysis of these trial consequences revealed that the AS concrete had a medium grade of workability, which was within the acceptable scope of a feasible concrete.

The belongingss of the hardened AS concrete tested at an age of 28 yearss are presented in Table 2.Table 2. Properties of AS concrete.Air-dry denseness, kg/m31790Compressive strength, MPa32.5Modulus of snap, GPa6.73Pullout bond strength, MPa7.0-9.9Concretes that have a denseness of less than 1900 kg/m3 are classified as lightweight concretes, and from Table 2 it can be seen the denseness of AS concrete is within this scope, intending it can be termed as a lightweight concrete.

Compared to normal concretes, which have a denseness of around 2400 kg/m3, AS concrete is about 25.5 % igniter. This shows that usage of AS concrete would extinguish 25.5 % of dead burden when used in building, whilst still keeping satisfactory physical belongingss. Another benefit of this decreased weight is that the detrimental consequence on concrete constructions exposed to black temblor forces and inertia forces can be finally reduced, as these forces are relative to the weight of the construction.In order to measure compressive bearing capacity of AS concrete, compressive strength trials were performed on 10 centimeter regular hexahedron at an age of 28 yearss.

The consequences determine an mean compressive strength of 32.5 MPa, which is about 90 % higher than the lower limit needed compressive strength of 17 MPa for structural lightweight concrete provided by the ASTM C330 criterion. Although AS is an organic stuff, trials revealed that biological decay did non hold a negative impact on this consequence, as the regular hexahedron retained acceptable strengths even after 180 yearss. This has been showed in figure 5.Figure 5. Compressive strength development of AS concrete.Different harm and failure mechanisms were observed at different sample ages. At the earlier phases of proving, from 3 to 28 yearss, it was observed that the compaction failure in the concrete was chiefly due to failure in the interface between the cement paste and the AS sum, where the cleft follows a way around the sum ( Figure 6a ) .

At ulterior phases, from 42 to 180 yearss, this mortar-aggregate interface bond is stronger, and therefore the cleft grows through the sum as illustrated in Figure 6b.

Crack way about AS sums

AS sums

Crack way through

AS sums

( a )( B )Figure 6. Crack waies ( a ) at earlier ages ( B ) at subsequently ages.

The bond strength development of AS concrete is illustrated in Figure 7. Based on the disengagement trial performed, the bond strength of AS concrete was found to be approximately 2.7 to 3.5 times higher than the design bond strength as recommended by BS 8110. All specimens failed by the same mechanism, which was dividing of the concrete screen. The failure was ruinous and really sudden, and was accompanied by the formation of longitudinal clefts. It was observed that clefts progressed over the full length of the sample before failure occurred. Dividing failure occurs when radial clefts form due to the bearing force per unit area developed by the projections of the steel bars on the environing concrete.

When clefts start to organize, the bond forces are directed outward from the saloon surface and these forces cause anchorage failure by checking of the restricting concrete screen. The bond strength of the AS concrete was about 26 % to 29 % of the compressive strength, which is comparable to the bond strength of other lightweight concretes such as sintered pulverized fuel ash concrete ( Orangun, 1967 ) and Aerocrete ( Chitharanjan et al. , 1988 ) .Figure 7. Chemical bond strength development of AS concrete.The modulus of snap is one of the most of import parametric quantities for structural concrete as it is required when measuring warps and snap of a construction for design.

Figure 8 shows a stress-strain curve for the AS concrete. The strain value matching to the maximal emphasis is about 0.005 micro-strains. One peculiar concern for AS concrete is the low value of elastic modulus and this was further investigated with the paradigm beam testing.Figure 8. Stress-strain curve for AS concrete.All of the tried beam samples exhibited typical failure in flection.

Failure occurred bit by bit, and since all the beams were under-reinforced, it resulted in giving up of the tensile support happening before suppression of the concrete screen in the pure flexing zone. The ultimate minutes of the beams were predicted utilizing a rectangular emphasis block analysis as recommended by the BS 8110 criterion. It was observed that the experimental ultimate minutes for the trial beams were approximately 22 % to 31 % greater when compared to the predicted minutes for normal weight concrete was applied. This shows that the BS 8110 criterion can be used to give a conservative estimation of the ultimate minute capacity for singly reinforced AS concrete beams. The sum of warp under burden is one of the chief standards for the serviceableness demands of a structural member.

Under the design service burden, which includes the dead burden and unrecorded burden, the mid span warp obtained was 11.43mm, 11.62mm, and 11.87mm for beams S1, S2, and S3, severally.

Although AS concrete has a low modulus of snap, the warp under the design service burden is acceptable as the span-deflection ratios ranged between 252 and 263, which are within the allowable bounds provided by BS 8110. Figure 9 illustrates the typical moment-deflection curve for beams S1, S2, and S3.Figure 9. Moment-deflection curves for the trial beams.


From the consequences of this survey, it has been determined that AS has a good potency as a harsh sum in structural concrete production, and can be used for low to chair strength applications such as structural members for low-priced houses. By incorporating this waste stuff into concrete mixtures, non merely can a decrease in concrete weight and production costs be achieved, but there is the added benefit that the ecological cyclic system can be preserved. Based on this research survey, the undermentioned decisions can be drawn:The rating of the workability of fresh AS concrete by the slack trial was 6 to 8 centimeter, which showed that the AS concrete had a medium grade of workability. It could hence be defined as feasible concrete.

The air content per centum in the concrete, which was 4.2 – 4.9 % , could be reduced by optimizing the step curve. However, the air content in the AS concrete is within the allowable scope of 4-8 % recommended by ACI 213R-87.The compressive strength of the AS concrete was 32.5 MPa at an age of 28 yearss, which satisfies the demand for structural lightweight concrete.

Despite the changing forms of AS sum atoms, the bonding belongingss of AS concrete are comparable to other types of lightweight concretes. It should be noted that this bond and its mechanical belongingss were obtained by utilizing a cement content of 450 kg/m3.Although AS concrete has a low modulus of snap of 6.73 GPa, full graduated table beam trials showed that the warp under the expected design service tons was acceptable. The ratios of the effectual span length to maximum mid span warp ranged from 252 to 263, which are within the allowable bounds provided by BS 8110.

Based on the beam trial consequences, it was observed that the experimental ultimate minutes for the singly strengthened beams were approximately 22 % to 31 % higher compared to the predicted minutes from BS 8110.


ACI 213R-87, Guide for Structural Lightweight Aggregate Concrete, American Concrete Institute.ASTM C330, Standard Specification for Lightweight Aggregates for Structural Concrete, Annual Book of ASTM Standards ASTM C 469-87a, Standard Test Method for Static Modulus of Elasticity and Poisson ‘s Ratio of Concrete in Compression, Annual Book of ASTM Standards.BS 1881, Part 116, Method for Determination of Compressive Strength of Concrete Cubes, British Standards Institution, London.BS 1881, Part 125, Methods for Mixing and Sampling Fresh Concrete Samples in the Laboratory, British Standards Institution, London.BS 8110, Structural usage of Concrete Part 1, Code of Practice for Design and Construction, British Standards Institution, London, 1985.Chitharanjan N. , Sundararajan R.

and Manoharan P.D. , Development of Aerocrete: A New Lightweight High Strength Material ” , The International Journal of Cement Composites and Lightweight Concrete, 10, 27-38, 1988.Collepardi M. , Coppola L. , Cerulli T. , Ferrari G.

, Pistolesi C. , Zaffaroni P. , and Quek F. , A«Zero Slump Loss Superplasticized ConcreteA» , Proceedings of the Congress “ Our World in Concrete and Structures ” , Singapore, pp 73-80, 1993.Mannan M.

A. and Ganapathy C. , Behavior of Lightweight Concrete in Marine Environments ” , Proceedings of the International Conference on Ocean Engineering, Chennai, India, 409-413, 2001.

Mindess S. , Young J.F. and Darwin D.

, Concrete, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall, USA, 2003. Orangun C.O.

, The Bond Resistance between Steel and Lightweight-Aggregate ( Lytag ) Concrete ” , Building Science, 2, 21-28, 1967.Owens P.L. , Lightweight Aggregates for Structural Concrete, Structural Lightweight Aggregate Concrete, edited by J.L.

Clarke, Blackie Academic & A ; Professional, London, 1993.


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