Light Trapping With Photonic Crystals Biology Essay

Photonic crystals are interesting nano-engineered periodic constructions that allow control and use of visible radiation at really little graduated tables, in peculiar at frequences inside or shut to the photonic bandgaps. By technology the photonic bandgap, different governments of the photonic crystal can be achieved, heightening solar aggregation angles, concentrating visible radiation to increase the interaction with photovoltaic stuff, or functioning as spectral filters over a certain bandwidth of the solar spectrum.

One of the interesting phenomena is the alleged self-collimation, where visible radiation is guided without a physical channel, entirely due to the curious scattering belongingss of the photonic crystal construction [ 3 ] . Personal computers are formed by jumping high-to-low refractile index stuffs. They can be periodic in one, two or three dimensions. This means that their optical belongingss vary sporadically in one, two or three waies.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

In photonic crystals the graduated table of the cyclicity is of the same order as the wavelength of visible radiation. A simple 1D photonic crystal is the multilayer stack ( better known as Bragg reflector ) , where an jumping beds of high and low refractile index stuffs with thicknesses of one-fourth of the wavelength is stack together ( fig 1a ) . A good illustration of 2D periodic constructions can be a set of indistinguishable analogue cylinders placed in a homogenous host medium ( fig1b ) .

In add-on, the domains in a diamond lattice can be good illustrations of 3D photonic crystals ( fig 1c ) .Degree centigrades: UsersmelhenoDesktopMaster Thesisfig1a.png C: UsersmelhenoDesktopMaster Thesisfig1b.png C: UsersmelhenoDesktopMaster Thesisfig1c.

pngFigure1: Illustration of photonic crystals a ) 1D photonic crystal B ) 2D photonic crystal degree Celsius ) 3D photonic crystal [ 1 ]Photonic crystals have found many applications in filters, wave guides, resonating chambers and many more applications. The last old ages have seen an increasing involvement in utilizing photonic crystals for solar-related applications [ 4-8 ] , particularly in constellations that can increase efficiencies of bing solar photovoltaic cells. 1D Personal computer construction in signifier of a Distributed Bragg Reflector ( DBR ) can be used as a back reflector due to its near-ideal reflecting features in specific wavelengths [ 5 ] , [ 9-14 ] . Planar photonic crystals are assuring for integrating with different constituents due to their compatibility with bing mature fiction techniques [ 15-17 ] . Though 3D photonic crystals require complex fiction techniques for solar applications, interesting work has been done to demo the importance of such constructions for light pin downing in solar cells [ 18-20 ] .A important challenge to the incorporation of photonic crystals in solar cells is fiction. One manner to manufacture such constructions is utilizing Electron Beam Lithography technique [ 21 ] , [ 22 ] another method is nanoimprint lithography [ 23 ] , [ 24 ] , every bit good as intervention lithography [ 25-27 ] and, of class, photolithography [ 28 ] , [ 29 ] . However, the last option better applies to semiconductor industry instead than for solar application sing the cost related to fiction.

The fiction method which is to be applied for solar applications need to hold high throughput, big graduated table fabrication and of class, they need to be low-cost. These constructions need to supply such addition to efficiency so that they non merely can cover for the fabrication cost but besides provide something more to it, otherwise, merely, industry will non be interested in such constructions.[ 1 ] J. D. Joannopoulos, S.

G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Modeling the Flow of Light ( Second Edition ) . Princeton University Press, 2008, p.

304.[ 2 ] J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R.

Villeneuve, and S. Fan, “ Photonic crystals, ” Solid State Communications, vol. 102, no. 2-3, pp. 165-173, Apr. 1997.[ 3 ] P. T.

Rakich, M. S. Dahlem, S. Tandon, M. Ibanescu, M.

SoljaciA‡ , G. S. Petrich, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. a Kolodziejski, and E. P. Ippen, “ Achieving centimetre-scale supercollimation in a large-area planar photonic crystal.

, ” Nature stuffs, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 93-6, Mar.

2006.[ 4 ] J. G. Mutitu, S. Shi, C. Chen, T. Creazzo, A. Barnett, C.

Honsberg, and D. W. Prather, “ Thin movie Si solar cell design based on photonic crystal and diffractive grate constructions, ” vol. 16, no. 19, pp.

15238-15248, 2008.[ 5 ] J. M. Gee, “ Optically enhanced soaking up in thin Si beds utilizing photonic crystals, ” Conference Record of the Twenty-Ninth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 2002. , no. May, pp. 150-153, 2002.

[ 6 ] N. Feng, J. Michel, L.

Zeng, J. Liu, C. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, and X. Duan, “ Design of Highly Efficient Light-Trapping Structures for Thin-Film Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells, ” vol. 54, no.

8, pp. 1926-1933, 2007.[ 7 ] K. X.

Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “ Absorption Enhancement in Ultrathin Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells with Antireflection and Light-Trapping Nanocone Gratings, ” Nano Letters, vol.

12, no. 3, pp. 1616-1619, Mar. 2012.[ 8 ] J. Bhattacharya, N.

Chakravarty, S. Pattnaik, W. D.

Slafer, and R. Biswas, “ A photonic-plasmonic construction for heightening light soaking up in thin movie solar cells A photonic-plasmonic construction for heightening light soaking up in thin movie solar cells, ” vol. 131114, 2011.[ 9 ] X. Sheng, J. Liu, I. Kozinsky, A. M.

Agarwal, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “ Efficient light pin downing construction in thin movie Si solar cells, ” 2010 35th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, pp. 001575-001576, Jun.

2010.[ 10 ] X. Sheng, S. G. Johnson, L. Z. Broderick, J. Michel, and L.

C. Kimerling, “ Integrated photonic constructions for light pin downing in thin-film Si solar cells, ” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 100, no. 11, p.

111110, 2012.[ 11 ] L. Zhao, Y.

H. Zuo, C. L. Zhou, H. L.

Li, H. W. Diao, and W. J. Wang, “ A extremely efficient light-trapping construction for thin-film Si solar cells, ” Solar Energy, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 110-115, Jan.

2010.[ 12 ] L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C.

Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X.

Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. a. Alamariu, “ Efficiency sweetening in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector, ” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 89, no. 11, p.

111111, 2006.[ 13 ] K.-H. Yang and J.-Y. Yang, “ The analysis of light pin downing and internal quantum efficiency of a solar cell with DBR back reflector, ” Solar Energy, vol. 83, no. 11, pp.

2050-2058, Nov. 2009.[ 14 ] D. Zhou and R. Biswas, “ Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin movie solar cells, ” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 103, no.

9, p. 093102, 2008.[ 15 ] A. Bozzola, “ Light pin downing in thin movie Si solar cells with glandular fever and bidimensional photonic forms, ” Optical Nanostructures and aˆ¦ , pp. 44-46, 2011.[ 16 ] S.

Mallick, M. Agrawal, and P. Peumans, “ Optimum visible radiation pin downing in ultra-thin photonic crystal crystalline Si solar cells, ” Optics Express, vol.

18, no. 6, pp. 300-305, 2010.[ 17 ] A. Chutinan and S. John, “ Light caparison and soaking up optimisation in certain thin-film photonic crystal architectures, ” Physical Review A, vol.

78, no. 2, pp. 1-15, Aug. 2008.[ 18 ] J.

Upping, a. Bielawny, C. Ulbrich, M. Peters, J. C. Goldschmidt, L. Steidl, R.

Zentel, T. Beckers, a. Lambertz, R. Carius, U. Rau, and R.

B. Wehrspohn, “ 3D photonic crystals for photon direction in solar cells, ” p. 77560A-77560A-13, 2010.

[ 19 ] J.-Y. Chen, “ Improvement of photovoltaic efficiency utilizing 3D photonic-crystal enhanced light caparison and soaking up, ” Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 43-48, Oct.

2011.[ 20 ] J. Upping, a. Bielawny, P. T. Miclea, and R.

B. Wehrspohn, “ 3D photonic crystals for ultra-light caparison in solar cells, ” Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 7002, p. 70020W-70020W-9, 2008.[ 21 ] Y. Xia, D. Campbell, and K. Korte, “ Fabrication and Analysis of Photonic Crystals, ” Journal of Chemical Education, vol.

18, no. 10, pp. 1402-1411, 2007.[ 22 ] L. O’Faolain, M. V.

Kotlyar, N. Tripathi, R. Wilson, and T. F. Krauss, “ Fabrication of photonic crystals utilizing a spin-coated H silsesquioxane difficult mask, ” Journal of Vacuum Science & A ; Technology B: Microelectronicss and Nanometer Structures, vol. 24, no. 1, p. 336, 2006.

[ 23 ] A. Chen, S. Chua, C. F. Jr, B. Wang, and O. Wilhelmi, “ Planar Photonic Crystals Fabricated by Nanoimprint Lithography, ” Singapore-MIT Alliance ( SMA ) , pp.

1-5, 2005.[ 24 ] K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, and I. Matsubara, “ Direct Fabrication of 2D Glass Photonic Crystals by Nanoimprint Lithography, ” Lasers and Electro- aˆ¦ , vol. CLEO/Pacif, pp. 239-240, 2005.

[ 25 ] B. Saekow, S. Rahong, A.

Pankiew, R. Sanboontan, W. Bunjongpru, G. Tumcharern, and C. Hruanan, “ Laser Interference Lithography for Photonic Crystals Template, ” Journal of the Microscopy Society of Thailand 24 ( 2 ) , 108-111, vol. 24, no.

2, pp. 108-111, 2010.[ 26 ] A. Chincholi and S.

Banerjee, “ Parallel fiction of photonic crystals ( Personal computer ) utilizing intervention lithography for incorporate waveguide-PC devices, ” Optical Society of America, no. 1, pp. 2-4, 2005.[ 27 ] M. Miyake, Y.-C. Chen, P.

V. Braun, and P. Wiltzius, “ Fabrication of Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals Using Multibeam Interference Lithography and Electrodeposition, ” Advanced Materials, vol. 21, no. 29, pp. 3012-3015, Aug.

2009.[ 28 ] P. Yao, G. J.

Schneider, D. W. Prather, E. D. Wetzel, and D. J. O’Brien, “ Fabrication of 3-dimensional photonic crystals with multilayer photolithography, ” Optics Express, vol.

13, no. 7, p. 2370, Apr. 2005.[ 29 ] K.

Choi, J. Huh, Y. Cui, and B. Ju, “ 2D photonic crystal TM polarizer fabricated by one-step combined nanoimprint and photolithography, ” Solid-state Sensors, pp. 1638-1641, 2011.


I'm Ruth!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out