Photonic crystals are interesting nano-engineered periodic constructions that allow control and use of visible radiation at really little graduated tables, in peculiar at frequences inside or shut to the photonic bandgaps. By technology the photonic bandgap, different governments of the photonic crystal can be achieved, heightening solar aggregation angles, concentrating visible radiation to increase the interaction with photovoltaic stuff, or functioning as spectral filters over a certain bandwidth of the solar spectrum. One of the interesting phenomena is the alleged self-collimation, where visible radiation is guided without a physical channel, entirely due to the curious scattering belongingss of the photonic crystal construction [ 3 ] . Personal computers are formed by jumping high-to-low refractile index stuffs. They can be periodic in one, two or three dimensions. This means that their optical belongingss vary sporadically in one, two or three waies. In photonic crystals the graduated table of the cyclicity is of the same order as the wavelength of visible radiation. A simple 1D photonic crystal is the multilayer stack ( better known as Bragg reflector ) , where an jumping beds of high and low refractile index stuffs with thicknesses of one-fourth of the wavelength is stack together ( fig 1a ) . A good illustration of 2D periodic constructions can be a set of indistinguishable analogue cylinders placed in a homogenous host medium ( fig1b ) . In add-on, the domains in a diamond lattice can be good illustrations of 3D photonic crystals ( fig 1c ) .
Degree centigrades: UsersmelhenoDesktopMaster Thesisfig1a.png C: UsersmelhenoDesktopMaster Thesisfig1b.png C: UsersmelhenoDesktopMaster Thesisfig1c.png
Figure1: Illustration of photonic crystals a ) 1D photonic crystal B ) 2D photonic crystal degree Celsius ) 3D photonic crystal [ 1 ]
Photonic crystals have found many applications in filters, wave guides, resonating chambers and many more applications. The last old ages have seen an increasing involvement in utilizing photonic crystals for solar-related applications [ 4-8 ] , particularly in constellations that can increase efficiencies of bing solar photovoltaic cells. 1D Personal computer construction in signifier of a Distributed Bragg Reflector ( DBR ) can be used as a back reflector due to its near-ideal reflecting features in specific wavelengths [ 5 ] , [ 9-14 ] . Planar photonic crystals are assuring for integrating with different constituents due to their compatibility with bing mature fiction techniques [ 15-17 ] . Though 3D photonic crystals require complex fiction techniques for solar applications, interesting work has been done to demo the importance of such constructions for light pin downing in solar cells [ 18-20 ] .
A important challenge to the incorporation of photonic crystals in solar cells is fiction. One manner to manufacture such constructions is utilizing Electron Beam Lithography technique [ 21 ] , [ 22 ] another method is nanoimprint lithography [ 23 ] , [ 24 ] , every bit good as intervention lithography [ 25-27 ] and, of class, photolithography [ 28 ] , [ 29 ] . However, the last option better applies to semiconductor industry instead than for solar application sing the cost related to fiction. The fiction method which is to be applied for solar applications need to hold high throughput, big graduated table fabrication and of class, they need to be low-cost. These constructions need to supply such addition to efficiency so that they non merely can cover for the fabrication cost but besides provide something more to it, otherwise, merely, industry will non be interested in such constructions.
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