Late old or older would receive 80
Late 19th century- Companiesemployed Chinese workers.· 1850-9,000 miles of railroad in the US. 1990- 190,000 miles.
· Chicagogrew from 200 inhabitants in 1833 to over a million in 1890.· Chicagobecame the most important western hub.· Cattlewere brought from Texas to Chicago for slaughter.· Ranchersdrove cattle out of Texas and north to Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska. · Conflictrose with the Native Americans in their Indian territory who the herds on theirland.· Late19th century- Between 12,000 and 40,000 men worked as cowboys.Afourth were African-American and more were Mexican or Mexican-American.· Alot about the American cowboys was adopted from Mexican vaqueros.
· Womenalso participated in cattle drives.Some accompanied their husbands andother drove their own cattle.· Cowboyswork was tough with long hours and extreme temperature· Manyhoped to be ranch owners, but employment was insecure and pay was low.Beginners: $20-25 a monthExperienced: $40-45 a monthBosses: Over $50 a month· 1880s-The cattle drives were finished.· Therailroads connected the Plains with national markets and fast moving people.The modern American west was madebecause of the railroads.I.
TheAllotment Era and Resistance in the Native West· Thesituations for Natives worsen as more Americans moved west.· Americansargued that the Natives had more land even though the treaties promised that ifthe Natives moved to a specific land, it would be theirs.· 1880s-Americans wanted a transfer of Indian lands to ranchers and farmers. Othersargued that giving Indian lands to Native Americans would civilize them. · February8, 1887- Congress passed the Dawes General Allotment Act.It provided land for the Natives in aneffort to individualize them.· The head of a Native family would receive 160acres.SingleNative 18 years old or older would receive 80 acres.
Orphanedchildren would receive 40 acres.· Americanssaw the Dawes Act as a humanitarian reform.· January1, 1889- Northern Paiute prophet Wovoka said he traveled to heaven and cameback during an eclipse to prophesy his people. He told them to participate inreligious ceremonies, aka the Ghost Dance.
· Members of the Arapaho, Bannock, Cheyenne, andShoshone nations took part in the Ghost Dance.The most famous Ghost Dancers were the Lakota Sioux.· 1889-South Dakota becomes a states· December1890- Chief Sitting Bull, several whites and Indians were killed during abotched arrest.· December29- A massacre in Wounded Knee Creek killed between 150 and 300 native men,women and children.· WoundedKnee marked the end of the Native American resistance in the West.II.
Rodeos,Wild West Shows, and the Mythic American West· Cabins,cowboys, Indians, farm wives in sunbonnets, and outlaws with six shooterspervaded American culture.· Rodeosbecame popular to the American West.· July4, 1883- Pecos, Texas, cowboys from the Hash Knife ranch and the W Ranch had arodeo contest to settle an argument; this was the first real rodeo.· Womenhelp make rodeos popular.· Somepopular women were bronc riders and entered men events.
· TheWild West was the mythical west image· Americansexperienced the Wild West by attending Wild West shows.· WildWest shows became so popular that they traveled to eastern US and Europe.· WilliamFrederick “Buffalo Bill” Cody put together the stock characters t=of theAmerican West into a massive traveling show.
· 1886-Cody employed Gordon William “Pawnee Bill” Lillie, a popular Wild West showman.· 1888-Lillie created his own production “Pawnee Bill’s Historic Wild West.” · 1903-Cody and Lillie combined their shows “Buffalo Bill’s Wild West and PawneeBill’s Great Far East.”· NativeAmericans were featured in Cody’s and Lillie’s show because it fascinated theaudiences.It was also a way they made a living thelate 19th century.· Cody recruited Annie Oakley, a femalesharpshooter, and Lillie’s wife, May Manning Lillie, to appeal to femaleaudience.
· Femaleperformers maintained their feminine identity to avoid criticism.III. TheWest as History: the Turner Thesis· 1893-The American Historical Association met in Chicago.· FrederickJackson Turner introduced his frontier thesis in his essay “The Significance ofthe Frontier in American History.”· Turnersaw the changes of the West as a wave of civilization.· Turnersaid that the Americans needed to build a rough-hewn civilization.· 1890-The Census Bureau declared the frontier closed.Turner worried for the future of the US.· Thehistory of the West had many aspects.· Turner’s thesis captured American’sromanticization of the west and the long story into a march of progress.