Language Learning theories exam
Motivation in Teaching English as a Second Language
Some recent researches show that many pupils do ill on survey or in engagement because of many factors. The most of import factor to better pupil ‘s success is motive. In this paper I would wish to concentrate on the types and schemes of motive in learning English as a Second Language ( ESL )
What is motive?
Motivation is defined as “ the scholar ‘s orientation with respect to the end of larning a 2nd linguistic communication ” ( Gardner, 1985 ) ( as cited in Lightbown & A ; Spada 1999 )
Types of motive
The first type is integrative motive. Harmer ( 1991 ) claims that “For this sort of motive pupils need to be attracted by the civilization of the mark linguistic communication community, and in the strong signifier of integrative motive they wish to incorporate themselves into that culture” .
The 2nd type is instrumental motive. For this sort of motive pupils believe that command of the mark linguistic communication will be instrumental in acquiring them a better occupation, place or position. The linguistic communication is an instrument in their attainment of such a end ( Harmer, 1991 ) .
Schemes of motive
Harmonizing to Lightbown & A ; Spada ( 1999 ) , the pupils who are motivated acquire more achievement than others. And they claim that “ Teachers have no influence over a scholar ‘s intrinsic motive for larning a 2nd linguistic communication ” because they “ come into our schoolrooms from different backgrounds and life experiences ” . Thus they show that “ Teachers can act upon scholars ‘ motive by doing the schoolroom a supportive environment in which pupils are stimulated, engaged in activities which are appropriate to their age, involvements and cultural backgrounds ” . In order to actuate pupils good, instructors should actuate themselves for illustration they should be enthusiastic or exhibit their passion for developing their pupils ( Albertrayan, 2008 ) . In some research which has been done to look into how pedagogy interacts with motive in 2nd linguistic communication schoolroom, Crookes and Schmidt ( 1991 ) ( as cited in Lightbown & A ; Spada 1999 ) point out some ways to actuate pupils:
First instructors motivate pupils into the lesson. It ‘s really of import to instructors holding extroverted activities at the beginning of the lesson because they can do pupils more interested in the lesson.
Second instructors vary the activities, undertakings, and stuffs. Students non merely experience more aroused but besides pay more attending when they contact varied activities. Furthermore it helps pupils non experience tiring with their lesson.
Third instructors use co- secret agent instead than competitory ends. When pupils work together, they can portion thoughts easy and increase their assurance. Furthermore with this manner weaker pupils have more opportunity to larn from better 1s.
Harmonizing to Hazzard ( 2006 ) , actuating pupils through film devising is besides utile. When pupils have to do films particularly the films which are interesting and suited with pupils, they will read books carefully and attentively before they act, so they can better all their accomplishments: speech production, composing, reading and hearing. Besides pupils increase attending to grammatical item in the books.
Application in Personal English instruction.
After I ‘ve learned about motive, I must sure that all of schemes above are really utile in learning ESL and I ‘ve used some schemes to use to my occupation.
In my instruction, I chiefly used the 2nd and the 3rd schemes for illustration: When I let student pattern speech production accomplishment and the subject is “ shopping ” . I divide category into little groups of 5 or 6 pupils and inquire them to fix a state of affairs of shopping ( in a book store, apparels shop, or market… ) . Students prepare suited stuffs and equipments for their state of affairs. In category I ask them to move a drama to demo their thoughts, so I remark and give them feedback.
Besides the mentioned schemes, I‘ve learned a batch of my instructors and co-workers ‘ schemes such as I ever motivate my pupils by giving them good Markss when they answer the inquiries good or inquiring them to state a narrative about celebrated people they like. Sometimes I organizes amusing games for illustration when I teach them the first conditional sentence I divide category into 2 groups. One group make chief clauses with “will+ V” and the other group make if clauses, so one member of this group combine clause with the other to do full sentences. With this action my pupils attend excitedly and pattern good.
In short, I ‘ve mentioned some ways to actuate pupils. All of us must sure that motive is truly of import in learning ESL. And the instructors should be flexible and sensitive in utilizing schemes in each context and state of affairs for the best consequence.