Juvenile Delinquency And The Problems Of Society Criminology Essay
Juvenile delinquency is a common job that all societies seem to face.
Although it is evident that all juveniles will at some point in their life commit some kind of delinquent act, it is ill-defined as to why juveniles behave this manner. Many theories have been developed to seek to explicate the phenomena but, no individual theory has the perfect reply to the job. After researching several theories, a theoretical integrating of the Anomie theory of Deviance by theoretician Robert Merton and the Social Bond theory by theorist Travis Hirschi, juvenile delinquency could both be better explained and potentially be prevented.
Ideas from both theories are both accurate ; nevertheless, when combined the theories could genuinely lift to their full potency because of defects that both theories show. While the Anomie theory is a societal construction theory trusting on the environment, it would complement the societal bond control theory by incorporating the thought that delinquency is a affair of environment, and it will convey out the built-in immorality within all worlds ( Orcutt 2002 ) . Basically, the environment can heighten the immorality or aid incorporate it depending on the positive or negative influence the environment in inquiry has on the person that is fighting with the internal inherent aptitude.The Anomie theory of Deviance offers a good account as to why Juveniles are delinquent. In America people live large and our definition of economic well being is really different than those societies in less developed states, for case, Africa. The more “ material ” the better off you are in the current clip. This includes: a place, a auto, an iPod, the latest tendencies, and a good paying occupation or basically the most sum of money you could perchance acquire your custodies on.
Harmonizing to this theory, the chief motive of our society and the manner it operates is this most common focal concern: economic stableness ( Orcutt 2002 ) . Since this theory is a societal construction theory, it considers the “ macro ” or larger degree of social conditions. Furthermore, this theory puts the incrimination on the construction of society and claims that society is the ground for juvenile delinquency. Merton argues that everyone in our society has been socialized and that money and economic prestigiousness and position are so indispensable to happiness and life fulfilment. Our concentration on material things and economic position is the motive for juvenile delinquency within this theory because of the disproportionate chances between societal categories to accomplish the cultural end ( Orcutt 2002 ) . Therefore, the job in society that causes juvenile delinquency, in conformity with this theory, is a deficiency of legitimate agencies of accomplishing what society deems most of import: money.Merton believes that that bulk of people will conform to the cultural end and the institutionalised agencies to accomplish it. The ideal and culturally acceptable ways of accomplishing the cultural end are what Merton calls “ institutionalised agencies ” ( Orcutt 2002 ) .
These would include chances such as a well paying occupation, a college instruction, back uping capitalist economy and free endeavor, get downing your ain concern, and even working hard or overtime for publicities. However, our society has a job structurally because the agencies listed antecedently are non every bit offered between the American societal constructions. Merton says that although everyone wants to accomplish this end of economic success, the societal construction does non supply plenty institutionalised agencies to travel around ( Orcutt 2002 ) .
There are non adequate chances to back up all the people in society who are forcing for the same end.The upper category evidently has the most chance to profit from institutionalised agencies because they have a monopoly on the agencies. They can afford universities, have resources to get down concerns, and they can go forth money to their kids to go on economic success. So they take their portion of the agencies first by merely being born into a high societal position. The in-between category gets 2nd choice because they excessively portion some of the same chances every bit far as legitimate ways of accomplishing economic success. On the other manus the job arises when it comes clip for the lower category to seek to take advantage of the institutionalised agencies of accomplishing the cultural end.Many in the lower category can non go to college for deficiency of money to make so, they can non go through down money to their kids, and they do non hold entree to higher instruction which hinders them from being competitory in a higher paying work force.
Thus, many chances are gone before they even reach the age to use for college. This state of affairs is called “ anomy ” or nomlessness because people have accepted this end of economic success, but the norms are non consistent with accomplishing it. This causes the strain between the cultural end and institutionalised agencies. The defeat that the strain causes for people of the lower category causes them to turn to illegitimate, or socially unacceptable, agencies of prosecuting the cultural end ( Orcutt 2002 ) . The first is conformance, or, people who achieve the cultural end by taking advantage of an institutionalised mean ( Agnew 2007 ) . The 2nd is invention.
Peoples who become pioneers accept the cultural end, but because of the deficiency of institutionalised agencies, they strive toward economic success by “ contriving ” bastard or illegal agencies such as: drug dealing, black market merchandising, illegal gaming, harlotry, or robbery ( Agnew 2007 ) . Basically, their end is the same but their method of accomplishing it is different and socially unacceptable. The 3rd class is retreatism. Peoples who fall into this class reject the cultural end. They can non accomplish the end and give up on desiring to carry through it.
They besides give up the institutionalised agencies of carry throughing it. They become drug nuts, alkies, mentally sick, or those who commit suicide. Peoples who merely fade out of society and no longer take portion in it- they “ retreat ” from society due to the force per unit areas that the narrow cultural end causes ( Agnew 2007 ) . Fourth is the ritualism class. Peoples who fall into this class give up on the cultural end, but go through the gestures of the institutionalised means blindly. They do the agencies with no end in head ( Agnew 2007 ) . For illustration, person who gives up on acquiring a grade but still comes to category and merely slumbers or reveries through talks is merely following the ritual. They take tests but fail them all.
Peoples that go to work and work 40 hours a hebdomad, so travel blow their payroll check in hours besides fall into the ritualistic class. This theory declares that this sort of behaviour is a consequence of non holding the institutionalised agencies to seek to accomplish the more middle/upper category life style ( Agnew 2007 ) . These people are most likely traveling to fall in the on the job category. Finally the 5th class is rebellion. The end of people in this class is to replace both the cultural end and the institutional agencies to accomplish it ( Agnew 2007 ) . For illustration a socialist feels that the cultural end is non economic success, but more so political reform.
The white supremacists and black jaguars would fall under this class. The Amish would besides ( in some respects ) autumn under this umbrella when sing our societies ‘ end by turning their ain nutrient and doing their ain life through agencies of labour non money.This theory is favourable for consideration as an account for all offense except for white collar offense. The ground the strain theory does non use to white collar offense is because people who have committed such offenses have already achieved the cultural end and therefore disregard everything the theory stands for. From this position, there is no existent ground, harmonizing to Anomie, for their delinquency. This theory is besides favourable because it is comparatively easy to prove.Travis Hirchi ‘s Social Bond theory is another interesting position to see as an account of Juvenile delinquency.
Harmonizing to Hirchi ‘s societal bond theory, there are four elements to see and explicate why people conform to societies norms. Because this is a Control theory, alternatively of explicating why offense is committed this theory explains what is needed to forestall delinquency from go oning ; in other words, control theories explain why people conform ( Welch 1998 ) . Hirchi believed that it is necessary for one to hold fond regard, committedness, engagement, and belief in order to forestall delinquency and advance more pro-social behaviour ( Shoemaker 2000 ) .Attachment refers to the psychological and emotional connexion one feels toward another individuals or groups and the extent to which one cares about their sentiments and feelings.
This is the more societal construct of the theory ( Shoemaker 2000 ) . Committedness is the consequence of a cost-benefit attack to delinquency. It refers to investings accumulated in footings of conformance to conventional regulations, such as clip, money, attempt and position, versus the estimated costs or losingss of investing associated with nonconformity. This is the rational facet of the theory. Committedness is besides involves the committedness to 1s future. This means an person ‘s hopes, dreams, aspirations, and desires.
The stronger committedness to 1s future allows less hazard for delinquent behaviour because it gives persons a ground to non perpetrate delinquent Acts of the Apostless. Engagement refers to the engagement in conventional and legitimate activity, which could include extracurricular activities such as school dramas, nines, organisations, and athletic events ( Shoemaker 2000 ) . Belief involves the credence of a conventional value system. The weakening of the belief in conventional values and norms is a major factor in the hazard of delinquency. If young person does non believe in the values they are being taught, there is much less ground for them to conform.In the Shoemaker book, this theory was evaluated with three relationships in head ; delinquency and faith, delinquency and the household, and delinquency and school ( Shoemaker 2000 ) .
Although this theory can be used to explicate all types of offense, these relationships farther proved its truth.Harmonizing to Shoemaker, there is a relationship between delinquency and faith in the facet that delinquents are less sacredly active than nondelinquents ( Shoemaker 2000 ) . However, when sing the household lives of delinquents, “ broken places ” were a immense pre-indicator of delinquency to come. If a household life is healthy and stable for an person, the hazard of delinquency is much less than that of a individual parent place or an opprobrious place.
School can besides play a important portion, particularly when sing the attachment factor of the theory. School failure is about ever correlated with delinquency therefore it is of import that a pupil feels both affiliated and committed to their instruction. The defeat from losing such constituents in their school experience can be lay waste toing to their hereafter and can run a much higher hazard for delinquency ( Shoemaker 2000 ) .The societal bond theory is favourable because it can be easy tested by interrupting down all the constituents of the bond.
Attachment and committedness can be observed every bit good as the other elements of this theory. Yet, the unfavourable factor about this theory is that it does non adequately explicate the impetus theory entirely. This theory merely gives the position on people who are delinquent and by society learn to command their delinquency. It does non account really good for those who commit a delinquent act one time in their young person and so turn to be productive citizens of society. Despite this defect in my integrating theory I have included a valid account for the impetus theory and the “ aging out construct. ”By incorporating these two theories, delinquency can be much more understood in footings of the changeless internal battle that humans face against the built-in immorality they are born with.
The environment which youths encircle themselves in dramas a function in how good they can command the immorality that so wishes to emerge. This integrated theory ‘s outlined battle between the environment and the built-in immorality can besides better explicate the impetus theory and “ aging out ” because it shows the fact that though young person believe in the socially constructed norms, they are non perfect and sometimes the opponent side of their conflict wins and therefore causes them to perpetrate a delinquent act. An waxy, influenced young person who is seeking to make an individuality may fight to happen a “ niche ” or environment which they feel can let them to both express themselves and be in congruity with the ethical motives and values their parents, and society have instilled in them. The battle to keep control of internal immorality is more hard for young person than grownups because they do non yet have adequate committedness to their hereafter to desire to command their delinquent urges. This is why “ aging-out ” applies because as young persons turn older and maturate into grownups the thought of their hereafter becomes more existent and therefore they need to happen ways to procure the well being of both themselves and their households.
Ultimately their fond regards turn to more conventional things.My incorporate theory is particularly of import when sing the lower category because with the deficiency of institutionalised agencies to make a healthy environment, young persons tend to turn to illegitimate agencies in order to perpetrate and believe in something, irrespective if it is healthy or non. The battle to keep control of their immorality is attributed to the fact that they do non hold a unafraid hereafter due to interrupt households, school failure and position defeat, and deficiency of exposure to legalize agencies of accomplishing the cultural end. This state of affairs is to fault for youths falling into unhealthy equal groups, taking advantage of bastard agencies, and finally going delinquents. For illustration a pupil who is neglecting in school because his school does non hold support for extracurricular activities does non hold every bit much fond regard to school as does a in-between category pupil who is committed to their hereafter by agencies of programming that influences her to believe instruction will steer their to success. Besides, if a pupil ‘s household does non appreciate the value of a college instruction the pupil will therefore non be in an environment that encourages this peculiar legitimate mean.
Therefore in a round manner, the parents do n’t go to college or prosecute a higher instruction and so the kids do non experience an fond regard, committedness, or belief in the thought of instruction. They so can non do adequate money to back up themselves, and like many in their community turn to illegitimate agencies of doing money.Harmonizing to the anomy theory, the disproportion of the institutionalised agencies is to fault for delinquency.
An obvious solution would be to offer more institutionalised agencies to the lower category. I feel that by both adding and sharing the experiences of the higher societal categories, it can offer committedness and fond regard to the lower category young person. I believe that if society provides more institutionalised agencies to the lower category, the young person will so socially bond to the agencies and the positive influences they will convey. Thus, delinquency will decrease based on the fact that young persons will larn accomplishments that will assist them command their built-in delinquent urges. This incorporate theory is better than the theories entirely because it provides both an account for the impetus phenomena and it will supply chances to assist forestall white collar offense every bit good. The two theories both complement each other and offer a solution for each others ‘ defects. I besides feel that this would turn to all degrees of offense even white neckband offense because it could potentially bond those who have achieved the cultural end with those who have non.
This would let people who “ have it all ” so to talk hold more charitable chances and would offer them an chance to assist others through the legitimate societal bond procedure. This would distribute good will among the upper category and let them to hold more generous ideas. Possibly, if given the chances to assist others in demand of institutionalised exposure, the greed that drives a batch of white neckband offense could be potentially lessened every bit good as the lower category delinquency. Basically, this would convey less divide between the societal positions.The most good delinquency policy bar to my incorporate theory would be mentorship plans and funding for extracurricular activities for young person in underprivileged communities. I believe that by implementing athleticss squads and after school organisations with pupils who are of a assorted societal category, but similar athletic ability and involvements, would both bond the pupils and offer good function theoretical accounts for the lower income pupils to look up to. I feel that many kids do non acquire the exposure to legalize institutionalised agencies or people who conform to the agencies plenty to to the full understand and appreciate them. If a kid had a wise man who has a strong committedness to the hereafter, and a low record of delinquent Acts of the Apostless, possibly the kid could besides larn to hold a committedness to their ain hereafter.
I besides feel that schools could patronize more trade plans and apprenticeships for pupils who are academically challenged.I besides feel that by funding more extracurricular organisations for different civilizations, faiths, and involvements for young person of all sort would pull a more diverse population to the community in inquiry. By organizing a stronger more timeserving community, people would bond with others in different races or of different civilizations. We need for people of different backgrounds to attach to the same activities and outlook so they can all prosecute a common end and so they can all believe in and accept the same conventional value system. There needs to be more interaction between the categories so that the environment becomes more impersonal and the institutionalised means become more available to people out of the upper category. Children who have a coach who does good in school and is praised for it may look up to their coach as a function theoretical account and therefore decided that they excessively believe in the value of an instruction. Peoples need to get down utilizing each other as a resource for a better society in the hereafter.
If more people acted on the beliefs of this theory non merely do I experience delinquency would be significantly less in young person, but those youth would turn to do society as a whole better in their maturity. This theory helps guarantee the hereafter of tomorrow with the young person of today. I feel that this could condition kids to believe in and be unfastened to all sorts of people and therefore cut down racial tenseness, gender prejudice, and even constabularies discretion.
I feel that it is clip to interrupt the stereotypes and labels that we have been socially conditioned to believe in.I besides feel that more academic support is necessary for scholarships to be given to a wider scope of people across the societal categories. I think that scholarships are excessively easy given to those who can afford to go to college without aid and therefore go forth small chances for pupils who are genuinely in demand.
In add-on to college scholarships I think apprenticeship scholarships to pay for occupation preparation and equipment is necessary excessively. I feel that pupils are excessively frequently pressured into believing that college is the lone signifier of higher instruction.This theory could be easy tested. I would foremost take a random sampling of informations from young person from different societal categories about their experiences with school and their community.
This would mensurate felicity, fulfilment, delinquent Acts of the Apostless in the person, and ends or programs for the hereafter. Then I would make a more restricted sampling and study from pupils who have committed delinquent Acts of the Apostless and upper category pupils who have secure classs, entree to commit agencies and seem destined to win in society ( likely based on instructor recommendations etc ) . After taking this basic information I would carry on another study after implementing an afterschool mentorship ( with the same delinquents in inquiry ) which includes ; college visits, community service, occupation tailing, athleticss and recreational activities, and free tutoring. After six months with this wise man, I would administrate yet another study to both the wise man and mentee and see if societal bonding occurred and if the delinquent is happier now that he or she has adopted many similar values and beliefs as their wise man. Finally a twelvemonth after the mentorship ends, I would happen those antecedently deemed delinquent pupils and hope that the mentorship programming encouraged the pupils enough that they would so hold faith in their hereafters and would be making better socially, academically, and lawfully.
It is my belief that the interaction would turn out my theory correct.My concluding measure in the policy amendments and proving processs would be to promote for the juvenile tribunal system to follow and try to fund such mentorship programming for first clip delinquent young person ‘s. I feel that this would assist halt things before they become repeat wrongdoers and therefore will accelerate the “ aging out ” procedure by environing young person with a more positive environment. Repeat juvenile wrongdoers could potentially be asked to function their clip and so be placed in a regulated apprenticeship to larn a trade. Hopefully they will socially bond with colleagues and age out of delinquency in chase of a steady payroll check.Though I realize that my theory would take a batch of work to implement and would ne’er be able to wholly eliminate juvenile delinquency, I do experience that it could make positive alterations in the lives of young persons everyplace.
If more people believed in sharing institutionalised chances with the lower category and doing institutionalised chances more available we could supply positive influences for young persons. This would let young person to larn all the accomplishments necessary to command their delinquent urges and therefore would give young person a ground to conform to the socially recognized norms of society.