Js jewellery (jsj) is a uk limited company Essay

The administration

1.1. Overview

JS Jewellery ( JSJ ) is a UK limited company. The company was established in 2002 and specialises in planing, fabrication and distributing chromium steel steel and silver jewelry under its ain registered European hallmark. The company has been runing chiefly in the UK market and turnover for financial twelvemonth 2008 was ?500,000. Based on the European Trade committee definitions, JSJ is classified as Micro SME. The company employs 10 members of staff, of which five are administrative staff and five are field gross revenues agents located in assorted parts of the UK.

The chief merchandise lines are silver jewelry which is sold under the JS.UK trade name and work forces ‘s chromium steel steel jewelry which is sold under the Gatik trade name. The trade names are distributed through double distribution channels, the first being “bricks and mortar” mercantile establishments consisting of independent retail merchants, gift stores, garden Centres and Television channels. The 2nd include Etailers and on-line market topographic points as Amazon and eBay. JSJ takes pride in its exceeding and individualized client service as described on JSJ ‘s website ”Retailers are at the bosom of our concern and we focus on supplying them with fast and efficient service. Our client service squad works really difficult to carry through the tiniest of petitions and is ever willing to travel the excess mile.” ( www.jsjewellery.com/about ) .

1.2. Internal environment

1.2.1. McKinney ‘s 7Ss theoretical account

In order to carry on a comprehensive analysis of the administration, the McKinney ‘s 7Ss theoretical account has been adapted.

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Structure & A ; manner: The administration can be divided into three chief sections: Finance operational and gross revenues & A ; selling.

Gross saless Department -The gross revenues section chiefly concentrates on concern development while keeping and back uping bing clients. Furthermore, as staff interact with clients on a day-to-day footing and can garner front line information about clients, the section is responsible for the administration ‘s selling activities. Gross saless staff work independently and describe to the caput office on a hebdomadal footing.

Operations Department – The operations section is in charge of the twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours activities of the administration and include stock control, reacting to clients enquires/orders, quotation marks, logistics and website care.

Finance Department -The finance sections nucleus activities include recognition control, replying history related questions, budgeting and HR.

As described above all the sections within the administration take portion in both forepart and back office activities. The on the job environment is unfastened and non-hierarchical ; JSJ scheme derives through a underside up attack where members of staff are encouraged to critically notice on all parts of the administration.

Scheme: In order to analyze this competitory scheme of the administration porter competitory scheme theoretical account has been adapted.

Beginning: Porter, 1980

As the administration is an SME and hence does non hold the resources or the economic systems of graduated table to take a wide competitory scheme, the suggested scheme for JSJ is “focused differentiation” . The chief root is to place new manner tendencies within its focussed market section and present them in a Swift and personable mode.

System: JSJ utilises a scope of ‘off the shelf ‘ information systems. Those systems have been implemented in a reactive mode in order to work out a specific concern job, instead than in a proactive strategic attack to aline with the overall concern scheme. The assorted systems are non linked in real-time and the information has to be entered manually from one system to the other. Furthermore information flow between the assorted parts of the administration, the gross revenues force in peculiar, is done via the telephone / facsimile and hence take topographic point sporadically with elevated mistake rate instead than in real-time.

Staff & A ; Skills: Staff is experienced in their ain field ( i.e. gross revenues, operation, finance, HR ) and come from a assortment of geographical and professional backgrounds. Staff members work closely with clients and are difficult to replace as they develop personal relationships with clients. Furthermore their cognition is non documented and is lost through staff turnaround. Technological accomplishments among the admin staff are outstanding while gross revenues staff lack the preparation and cognition and hence usage less engineering.

Shared values: The ethos of the administration is to present personal and advanced service through relationship merchandising. Harmonizing to Ted Peter “Relationship selling focal points on identifying and run intoing the single demands of your customers” ( Marketing, July 2009 ) . Furthermore Reilly ( 2006 ) suggest that trust is the cardinal factor in set uping a successful relationship selling scheme “relationship merchandising is about personal contact with your clients. It is less about technique and more about trust” ( Industrial Distribution, Sep 2006 )

1.3. Productivity – profitableness and cost effectivity

As described in JSJ overview, the company has two chief distribution channels, the first is gross revenues via independent retail merchants, and the 2nd is on-line gross revenues direct to the terminal consumer via online platforms such as Amazon and eBay. Gross net income border for on-line end consumer gross revenues is 62 % higher than gross revenues to merchandise. Furthermore, repetition concern from on-line direct gross revenues is 41 % higher when compared to merchandise clients.

The fluctuation in repetition concern from trade clients and on-line gross revenues can be partly explained by a client study conducted in August 2008. The consequences suggest that when a purchase is done through a brick and howitzer “middle man” the terminal consumer associates the merchandise with the retail mercantile establishment instead than the existent trade name, while when buying online the client is cognizant that the “middle man” is simply supplying a platform for clients to happen providers and hence associates the merchandise with the trade name.

External environment

2.1. Customer analysis

Jewelry market purchasing tendencies -“The jewelry industry aligned with the personal training industry is traveling through something of a revolution, as more shoppers replace bricks with chinks ( Retail Jeweller magazine, May 2009 ) . Furthermore Harmonizing to Forrester Research it is ”thanks to inventions that will do on-line shopping simpler and more engaging, on-line retail gross revenues will duplicate within five years” ( Forrester Research, May 2005 ) . Furthermore, harmonizing to MRG Capgemini e-Retail Gross saless Index, UK gross revenues of accoutrements online has increased by 23 % twelvemonth on twelvemonth and will go on to turn despite the recent economic downswing in 2008.

Customer behaviour – A survey conducted by Ahmad Jamal & A ; Mark Goode in 2001, examined the primary appraising standards when buying jewelry in the UK. The survey reveals that consumers utilise both subjective properties ( trade name name and state of beginning ) every bit good as nonsubjective 1s ( stuff, design and craft ) in their purchasing determination procedure. However trade name acknowledgment is the most influential factor and is more of import than any other subjective or nonsubjective property.

2.2. Rival analysis

JSJ is viing in a extremely saturated and mature market, where jewelry is viing aboard other industries such as fabrics, accoutrements and beauty merchandises as a gift point. Market leaders, at big, derive a competitory advantage through economic systems of graduated table, efficient operation and enhanced client experience / relationship. The chief rivals of JSJ can be divided into two chief sections:

Manner houses – These are worldwide pudding stones which carry a broad merchandise portfolio runing from apparels to dark glassess, footwear and jewelry. In recent old ages at that place has been an addition in new entrants to the market. Large names such as DKNY, Diesel, Armani, D & A ; G have all launched their ain jewelry aggregations. Their chief strength lies in economic systems of graduated table and planetary trade name consciousness whilst their failing is the deficiency of operational flexibleness, merchandise offering customisation and client relationship.

Independent brands – These are UK/European jewelry companies who specialise in jewelry devising and work with OEMs ( original equipment makers ) providing for specific market sections through a well defined niche of manner and/or stuff. They offer flexible service and alone merchandise offering every bit good as speedy version to new market tendencies and personal merchandising.

2.3. UK Jewellery Industry attraction

In order to analyze the attraction of the UK jewelry market and to place the relationship of the administration with its external environment, the Porter five theoretical account forces have been considered. However as the theoretical account has been created in 1980s there is demand to revaluate its relevancy to today ‘s competitory environment.

The theoretical account used in this study is based on the article by ( Stanley et al, 2002 ) . Stanley argues that in order for the Porter ‘s theoretical account to be relevant to our clip there is a demand to spread out the basic premises that underline the theoretical account to reflect the evolvement in the manner the concern universe presently operates.

“We have moved closer to planetary market place in many industries, engineering has advanced quickly and in unanticipated ways, deregulating has open the door for aggressive signifiers of entrepreneurship, and the cyberspace has created an wholly new manner to make concern ( Stanley et al, 2002 )

The new augmented theoretical account reconfigure Porter ‘s five forces theoretical account without taking any of them. The chief ground for taking the Stanley theoretical account lies in the displacement of thought in the basic unit of analysis from “industry” to “market” . The theoretical account suggests that Porter ‘s usage of “industry” is instead obscure as it does non specify the difference between rivals and permutations. For illustration is a Ferrari auto a direct competition or replacement to a Ford theodolite Van? This is a cardinal factor in analyzing the UK jewelry market, as jewelry is viing against other gift oriented industries such as decorative, fabric and personal attention. Taking into history the nature of the jewelry market, Stanley ‘s suggestion of a more client oriented attack of utilizing “market” , as the nucleus unit of analysis, is more appropriate.

Furthermore Porters theoretical account does non account for riotous invention and sustainability. A good illustration is the consequence of the MP3 participants over the compact phonograph record industry. Stanley histories for these extra elements by adding composite competition, market growing and market turbulency to the theoretical account. Furthermore Stanley argues that a critical portion of a merchandise success and possible market growing lies in the complementing merchandises available in the market place every bit good as the phase of the merchandise within the merchandise life rhythm, one illustration is the increased usage of PayPal services as more consumers purchase on eBay.

Beginning: Stanley et Al, 2002

The result of the above analysis suggests that JSJ is runing in a extremely competitory environment with low entry barriers for bing manner houses and independent jewelry companies. The huge pick of mercantile establishments selling jewelry and merchandise offering creates a challenge for JSJ to happen ways to distinguish itself in the market topographic point. Furthermore JSJ is exposed to the hazard from abroad industries using the cyberspace for direct merchandising. There is no past record or indicant of riotous invention and the market size is likely to continue itself although there is strong grounds that on-line purchasing will turn well in the close hereafter ( see 2.1 ) .

Business job statement

3.1. Business challenge

Based on the situational analysis of JSJ, it is apparent that the administration is runing in extremely saturated market place where there is an at hand menace from abroad providers selling direct to JSJ clients. This disintermediation is described by Piccoli as “a procedure by which a house distribution concatenation is shortened by extinguishing one or more intermediaries” ( Piccoli, 2008 ) . The chief challenge for JSJ is to happen ways to distinguish its offering from the remainder of the market place by heightening its value proposition and making trueness among its clients.

Furthermore JSJ should concentrate its selling attempts on direct merchandising to the terminal consumer while dropping unprofitable retail merchants. Gordon defines this as “customer relationship demarketing” ( Gordon, 2006 ) . Gordon suggests that as companies have limited resources, there is a significant addition to be made by concentrating resources and relationship edifice attempts on the clients that matter the most.

3.2. Business Problem

Customer keeping rates across both distribution channels are worsening ( 1.3 ) . JSJ is fighting to keep its more profitable clients, ensuing in reduced profitableness as the company has to pass more of its resources on geting new clients. Swift, ( 2001 ) suggests that it costs about five times more to get a new client than to retain an bing one.

Furthermore in his paper “The Goals of Customer Relationship Management” , Ronald states “It has become a practical mantra that companies that can non retain their best clients are doomed to lower than optimum profitability” ( Ronald, 2010 ) . Butlle F. ( 2009 ) continues the impression by proposing that higher client keeping will take to decreased selling costs and better client penetration. He goes farther to explicate that the “cost to serve” bing clients will bit by bit fall as disposal costs of opening an history, recognition cheque etc will non reoccur. This is peculiarly relevant to JSJ as in a B2B puting the supply concatenation can be to the full automated.

Poor client service – Harmonizing to Fisk et al “the quality of service provided to a client is one of the chief links to client satisfaction. Customer satisfaction leads to client retention” ( Fisk et al, 1995 ) . As displayed in the Mackenzie ‘s 7s analysis ( see 1.2.1 ) JSJ IS are non aligned to the overall company scheme of relationship merchandising, furthermore they are non linked in real-time, ensuing in elevated mistake rate, which leads to moo client satisfaction.

Proposed strategic IS Solution

4.1. IS/IT/SIS

Prior to suggesting the IS solution, it would be utile to research the definition of IS. Furthermore to underscore the differences between IS and IT, and to grok the strategic function IS drama within an administration ; in the literature this is referred to, as strategic information systems ( SIS ) .

Harmonizing to the UK academy of information systems ( ukais ) “information systems are the agencies by which people and administrations, using engineerings, gather, procedure, shop, usage and disseminate information” ( www.turningcourse.com/ukais ) .

Piccoli high spots in his book “Information Systems for Managers” the confusion environing the definition of information systems. ”information systems are frequently used as a unsmooth equivalent word for information engineering ; nevertheless there is a critical difference between the two” ( Piccoli, 2008 ) . Paul suggests a farther definition that helps clear the relationship between IS and IT: “an information system is what emerges from the use that is made of the IT bringing systems by humans” ( Paul R.J, 2007 ) . In other words IT is the technological tool used to make an information system.

Now that we have established the basic premises of IS and IT, we will travel to see the strategic function IS can play in an organizational scheme. Kovac and Semolic ( 2008 ) define SIS as an IS that is designed to back up and increase the competitory strength of the administration. They go farther to explicate that in today ‘s concern environment, as administrations use similar resources, the chief competitory advantage is gained through the optimal constellation of resources. They farther suggest that IS is a cardinal factor in making the optimal constellation, and therefore demands to be viewed in a strategic mode.

4.2. IS Solution

As the chief job of JSJ revolves around client keeping and satisfaction, this is frequently referred to in the literature as front office or client facing challenges. The proposed IS solution should include elements that will help JSJ in retaining clients while heightening the relationship with them. Furthermore, in order to get the better of the restraints on profitableness the solution should back up JSJ in placing the more moneymaking, bing every bit good as possible, clients, while promoting client trueness.

Furthermore, in order to heighten client service, and increase client satisfaction, the proposed solution should better the integrating between back and front office processes within the administration, such as existent clip information flow, cut down mistake rates and better internal communicating ( see 2.2.1 McKinney ‘s 7Ss theoretical account )

Finally the proposed solution should aline to the overall scheme and values of JSJ. The literature suggests that are several solutions that can assist JSJ work out it ‘s jobs, nevertheless it seems that client relationship direction ( CRM ) would be the most comprehensive 1.

4.3. Why CRM

4.3.1. Introduction to CRM

CRM is based on the premises that one of the major assets of any administration is its clients. By cognizing more about your assets, an administration will be able to pull off them more efficaciously ( Haran, 2005 ) . In the CRM instance, by garnering and analyzing client demands and behaviours the administration will be able to derive more from the relationship. Twomy ( 2002 ) summarize the function of CRM as follows:

“CRM is a scheme used to larn more about clients ‘ demands and behaviors in order to develop stronger relationships with them. It involves a procedure that will assist convey together tonss of pieces of information about clients, gross revenues, selling effectivity, reactivity and market ( Twomey, 2002 ) .”

4.3.2. Strategic CRM

Payne and Frow go farther to widen the definition of CRM by adding a strategic facet and cardinal countries to heighten stockholders value. Furthermore they add an accent on cross functional procedures:

“CRM is a cross-functional strategic attack concerned with making improved stockholder value through the development of appropriate relationships with cardinal clients and client sections. It typically involves placing appropriate concern and client schemes, the acquisition and diffusion of client cognition, make up one’s minding appropriate section coarseness, pull offing the co-creation of client value, developing incorporate channel schemes and the intelligent usage of informations and engineering solutions to make superior client experiences” ( Payne and Frow,2009 ) .

Both Twomy, Payen and Frow, definitions suggest that by following CRM, JSJ would be able to decide its jobs by aiming profitable sections while heightening client satisfaction. Furthermore CRM can help in synchronizing forepart and back office activities and CRM premises of relationship selling align with JSJ scheme of focussed distinction.

4.3.3. CRM execution model choice

As displayed earlier the chosen model should suit the demand of the administration to heighten its relationship with clients and concentrate on client facing activities. Business procedure reengineering ( BPR ) can assist work out the cross functional procedure job within JSJ, nevertheless its defect is in its inward looking position. Furthermore as BPR is achieved through a top down attack, it does non aline with the administration ‘s scheme. In add-on, BPR enterprises are expensive as they require the development of an full new IS ( Piccoli, 2008 ) . Therefore it would n’t be within the resource capableness of an SME.

Alternatively supply concatenation analysis might be considered. This analysis examines the linkage between procedures that create value to the terminal consumer ( Slack et al, 2007 ) . By using this analysis the administration will turn to the menace of disintermediation and increase its value proposition to clients. However its failing lies in underscoring the relationship component within the supply and non the demand side.

The CRM value concatenation model offers a comprehensive solution to JSJ ‘s jobs as its ultimate intent is to guarantee that the administration builds long-run reciprocally good relationships with its strategically important clients ( Buttle, 2004 ) . By making so the theoretical account addresses JSJ ‘s client keeping, profitableness and satisfaction jobs. Furthermore the theoretical account takes into history the organizational features, IT substructure, people and procedures. This will hold a combined consequence on JSJ ; on the one manus it will turn to the cross functional procedure jobs, and on the other manus it will guarantee that the CRM will be developed within the overall company scheme.

Beginning: Buttle 2008

The theoretical account suggests five stairss an administration should take in order to develop a successful relationship with clients, the five stairss are client portfolio analysis, client familiarity, web development, value proposition development and pull offing the relationship.

Customer portfolio analysis ( CPA ) – Buttle in his book “Customer Relationship Management Concepts and Tools” defines client portfolio as “a aggregation of reciprocally sole client groups” ( Buttle, 2008 ) . He goes farther to explicate that clients can be grouped by sector, section or company. Fiocca ( 1982 ) suggests a two stairss approach to placing attractive clients. The first involves the strategic importance of the client, and the 2nd examines the trouble of pull offing the relationship.

In the instance of JSJ, online etailers ( i.e. Amazon, eBay ) have a higher strategic importance than “bricks and mortar” mercantile establishments as the “cost to serve” is much lower. Furthermore they offer world-wide exposure and are considered to be prestige ensuing in higher trade name visibleness ( see 1.3 ) . In add-on the growing in on-line retailing indicates future growing potency in the etailer section. JSJ should carry on a farther analysis into its “bricks and mortar” client base, analyzing both current and future profitableness and potency.

Beginning: Buttle 2008

Customer familiarity – revolves around the thought of cognizing your clients better. The challenge is to roll up accurate information, analyse it and transform it into concern intelligence. Consequently a more refined CPA can be conducted

Beginning: Gartner, 2002

JSJ CRM system should be designed to enable the aggregation and storage of informations from day-to-day activities. This will include all the client touch points with JSJ ( phone, electronic mail, website and gross revenues meetings ) . Once the information has been collected JSJ should analyze it in order to place client behavior forms, this procedure is referred to as “data mining” ( Haran, 2005 ) . Once the information has been analysed, JSJ should interpret the findings into concern determinations and by making so take a proactive attack towards constructing a stronger relationship with their clients ( Thearling, 2008 ) .

A outstanding facet to the success of the CRM system lies in its user friendliness. Gross saless staff input into the design procedure is critical to the success of the CRM system as they interact with client on a day-to-day footing, and can therefore gather valuable information. Furthermore affecting them in the design procedure will assist understate their reluctance to utilize IT. We will discourse the societal elements of the system in farther item when we present our execution program.

Develop the Network – Buttle ( 2004 ) suggests, that in order to vie efficaciously, companies should see themselves as portion of a web. JSJ should see its topographic point within the current web and take stairss to heighten its relationship with all stakeholders. This can be a good position to JSJ as it will assist to understate the menace of disintermediation.

Value proposition development – “Although it is traditional to concentrate on the merchandise as the chief beginning of value, many companies are happening that people, procedures and service offer more competitory advantage as merchandises become more commoditised” ( Buttle 2004 ) . JSJ should use the CRM systems to heighten its value proposition to clients, in the “brick and mortar” section, this can be achieved by bettering procurance through the debut of gross revenues force mechanization ( SFA ) or web ordination. In the online section this can be achieved through heightening service offerings through one to one selling.

Pull offing the relationship – one time the CRM system has beenestablished it is imperative to put mensurable aims and supervise them continuously ( Thompson, et al. , 2001 ) . These steps should include elements beyond the traditional selling attack and should include CPA rating standards as cost to function, client accusal cost and growing potency. Feedback from all stakeholders should be gathered on a regular basis to guarantee strategic client demands are identified and fulfilled.

Furthermore Buttle suggest that in order to implement a successful CRM “companies are holding to re-invent constructions and processes” ( Butler, 2004 ) . JSJ should analyze its current construction and take a more client focused attack when redesigning its procedures. This can be achieved by authorising front line employees and alining back and front office activities with clients ‘ demands.

Execution

As described above the CRM enterprise will convey alteration to JSJ construction processes, people and IT.

In their book “CRM Unplugged” Bligh and Philip suggest that as CRM execution is strategic in nature, it will hold a cross organizational consequence. They go farther to explicate that in order to win in CRM execution the full administration demands to be coordinated towards specific ends.

Furthermore Piccoli ( 2008 ) suggests that IS is a combination of societal and proficient facets. He goes farther to explicate that in order to leverage the strategic benefit of an IS system there is a demand to see both elements.

Although the CRM value concatenation acknowledges the assorted parts of the supporting activities the position taken is that each one of them act independently and hence does non account for the relationship between them.

Taking into history the structural alteration that will happen as a consequence of the CRM enterprise in add-on to the defect of the CRM value concatenation model, it would be good to accommodate the socio-technical model. Piccoli ( 2008 ) defines socio-technical system as an instrument to better manage organizational alteration.

Beginning Piccoli, 2008

JSJ should see the four elements within the model and understand the interplay consequence on one another. For illustration introducing SFA, a alteration in IT, will impact foremost the gross revenues representative, secondly the order processing and in conclusion the function presently perform by back office staff.

As this alteration will transform the full administration, purchase in from employees and top direction support are critical success factors. Furthermore the CRM vision should be communicated efficaciously to all stakeholders to guarantee that all parts of the administration will drive the proposed alteration.

Critical Evaluation

The CRM value concatenation is a great tool in driving JSJ towards a more client centric attack. However it its questionable if the proposed IS solution is really implementable in a micro SME as deficiency of resources, expertness, IT substructure and direction time/support are all barriers to a successful execution

Furthermore the model concentrates on the demand side of the supply concatenation and does non supply a satisfactory reply to the disintermediation menace confronting JSJ. Possibly extension of the model to include the supply concatenation every bit good as the environment would supply a more comprehensive solution to JSJ ‘s jobs.

Mentions

Please note: all web sites accessed December 09.

* Porter, M.E. , 1980, “Competitive Scheme: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitions”

* Piccolli, G. ( 2008 ) Information Systems for Managers: Texts & A ; Cases. New York: Wiley

* Slack et Al 2007, operations direction, learner Hall, FT p.14

* Fisk et Al. ( 1995 ) ‘Services direction literature overview: a principle for interdisciplinary survey Understanding Services Management ‘ Wiley, Chichester, 1-33

* Buttle F, 2004. Customer Relationship Management: Concepts and Tools V 13.

* Buttle F, 2009. Customer Relationship Management: Concepts and Techniques p32.

AA· Swift R, 2001. ‘Accelerating Customer Relationships: Using CRM and Relationship Technologies ‘ . p. 12

* Gordon, Ian. ‘Relationship demarketing: Pull offing uneconomical or worthless client Relationships ‘ , Ivey Business Journal, Mar/Apr2006, V70 I 4, p1-4, 5

* Paul, R J ‘Challenge to information systems: clip to alter ‘ , European diary of information systems, 2007 v16 I ( 3 ) p193-195

* Fiocca, R. ( 1982 ) , ‘Account portfolio analysis for scheme development ‘ , Industrial Marketing Management, v. 11, pp. 53-62

* Thompson, E. , 2002. Eight Constructing Blocks of CRM. Gartner Symposium. p.20

* Ronald E. Goldsmith, ‘The Goals of Customer Relationship Management ‘ International Journal of Customer Relationship Marketing, Jan – Mar 2010 v1 I ( 1 ) , p16-27

* Stanley F. Slater and Eric M. Olson, ‘A fresh expression at industry and market analysis ‘ Business Horizons, Jan-Feb 2002 v45 I1 p15 ( 8 )

* Semolic, B. and Kovac, J, ‘Pervasive Collaborative Networks ‘ IFIP International Federation for Information Processing, V 283, pp. 407-414.

* Haran, A. , 2005. ‘Development of a model to retain clients through client relationship direction ‘ Dublin Institute of Technology publications

* TWOMEY, M. “Cutting through the hype” Sunday Business Post – May 2002

* Payne, A & A ; Frow, P. ( 2009 ) . ‘Customer relationship selling, a strategic position ‘ . Journal of concern market direction, JBM, v3 I ( 1 ) P.5.

* Peter, T ABA Bank Marketing ; Jul/Aug2009, v41 I 6, p37-37

* Reilly, T, Industrial Distribution ; Sep2006, v95 I9, p29-29, 1p

* Jamal, A & A ; Goode, M, ‘Consumers ‘ merchandise rating: a survey of the primary appraising standards in the cherished jewelry market in the UK, Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 2001

* Theodore Levitt, , ‘Exploit the Product Life Cycle ‘ Harvard Business Review” 1965 November.

* Js Jewellery web site

Web reference: www.jsjewellery.com/about

* European Trade Commission

Web reference: www.ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/sme/files/sme_definition

* Retail Jeweller magazine.

Web reference: www.retail-jeweller.com

* Capgemin gross revenues index

Web reference: www.uk.capgemini.com/news/pr2014

* UK academy of information systems

Web reference: www.turningcourse.com/ukais

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