Journalism and the Internet Essay
The development of new technologies and mass media influenced dramatically modern culture. In actuality, people spend a considerable part of their life while watching television and surfing Internet. At the same time, today, mass media become more and more diverse offering the audience different products in order to attract a possibly larger amount of viewers. In such a situation, many companies operating in entertainment industry and television attempt to conduct marketing researches and develop effective marketing strategies to introduce their products to the mass audience.For this purpose, they use a variety of tools, such as questionnaires, audience measurements, ratings, face-to-face interviews and others.
All these tools aim at the research of needs and interests of the audience, which help companies operating in this industry to develop products which can gain success in the mass audience. However, it is important to remember about a considerable impact of television on the audience and the transformation of the audience from ordinary viewers into customers can have some negative effects since television can influence the public opinion and shape an individual identity.In actuality, the development of the modern mass media is characterized by a consistent shift toward the development of electronic media and Internet plays a particularly important role in this regard. Internet becomes a new medium where journalists can realize their full potential because Internet actually combines characteristics of both print and visual media. At the same time, Internet can reach the huge audience other media cannot always reach.
The potential of Internet is enormous but, at the same time, Internet changes traditional journalism making it more mobile and mass audience-oriented.In such a way, today, Internet can become the mainstream medium, which is particularly prospective for the development of the modern journalism. On analyzing the current development of journalism and mass media, it is important to lay emphasis on the fact that traditionally print media and television played the leading part in the development of journalism. However, the development of new information technologies and the rise of new telecommunication systems opened great opportunities for the development of Internet. At first, Internet was not used by journalists as one of the ffective media but, in the course of time, the availability of Internet and its great potential became obvious.
As a result, journalism focused on the development of online media which steadily started to compete with conventional print media and television. In this respect, it is worth mentioning the fact that the availability of Internet and easy access to Internet became probably crucial factors for the rise of online journalism. To put it more precisely, today, Internet is available to the mass audience, whereas in the past it was available to a relatively small group and it was not widely-spread worldwide as it is today.In fact, today, Internet is a really global mass medium available to millions and billions of people in practically all parts of the world. The global spread of Internet accelerated the development of online journalism.
In addition, the emergence of new telecommunication systems and introduction of new devices and technologies, including Internet, notebooks, and other facilitated the work of journalists in terms of sharing information and sending data regardless of their physical location.What is meant here is the fact that journalists could work in practically any part of the world, make their reports and perform their professional duties and send the information to the audience using Internet practically from any place where they are at the moment. In such a way, the modern journalism has become mobile due to the development of the Internet.
At the same time, the Internet allows journalists to reach the huge audience. Even the modern television cannot cover such a large audience as the Internet does.In the time when mass media become more and more commercialized, it is extremely important to have a large audience. In addition, the Internet allows journalists to communicate with their audience. What is meant here is the fact that unlike other mass media, the Internet is truly interactive to the extent that journalists and audience can exchange ideas freely without any significant limitations.
For instance, journalists can receive a feedback from the audience in a matter of minutes after the material they have prepared is published on the web.In such a way, journalists can receive the feedback from the audience and develop their professional work taking into consideration needs and wants of the audience or simply sharing their ideas with the audience attempting to persuade the audience, and so on. In other words, the Internet is becomes not just a means of bombardment of the audience with information that leads to the overwhelming impact of media on the consciousness of people. Instead, the Internet becomes the means of communication between the audience and journalists.The commercialization of modern media affects the work of journalists and the development of mass media at large. In this respect, it should be said that some specialists have a very interesting and original view on the influence of advertising and mass media on consumers and on consumers themselves. For instance, Naom Chomsky treats consumers as product. In order to understand his point of view it would be enough to study his article “What Makes Mainstream Media Mainstream” where he points out that for a company such as the New York Times it has to sell products to its customers.
Consequently, for such companies the audience is the product while customers are the corporate advertisers. The same trend can be traced in regard to television. In fact, the audience becomes customers which consume television productions Despite the fact that traditionally people think about mass media as products and the audience as consumers but Chomsky points out that the audience fit demography and it is this is valuable information that can be used by advertisers.Hence, to the advertisers, the product that television channels and companies operating in this industry bring to them is the audience itself and it is the advertisers that bring the money to the mass media companies, not the audience. Namely, he estimates that a typical media company is a corporation that “sells a product. The product is audiences. They do not make money when you buy the newspaper… But the audience is the product.
You have to sell a product to the market, and the market is, of course, advertisers. Whether it is television or newspapers, or whatever they are selling audiences.Corporations sell audiences to other corporations.
” (Chomsky, 54). Taking into considerations these ideas it is possible to presuppose that if the audience is the product then producers can decide what the product will be. In other words they may influence and shape the audience’s ideas, tastes, etc. in such a way influencing human conscious, needs and demands.
However, in this regard, it is necessary to lay emphasis on the fact that mass media, including television channels and companies working in the field of television production, need to research the audience before introducing any product.Otherwise, they cannot introduce a product that can gain success and attract the attention of the audience. Hence, before introducing a new product, a television company has to clearly define its target customer group, its target audience which is supposed to consume this product (Klein, 215). Basically, it is possible to define different customer groups, depending on their age, social status, cultural background, etc. Thus, it is obvious that to understand tastes and preferences as well as needs of the audience television companies need to conduct a detailed research of the audience.Basically, modern companies a variety of tools to research the audience. In this respect, it is possible to mention consumer questionnaires which allow television companies to define clearly preferences of the audience, its tastes and interests. For instance, with the help of questionnaires it is possible to identify likes and dislikes of the audience, their expectations, etc.
In such a way, questionnaires can be used as a basis or starting point of the audience research as its interests and expectations are identified.However, questionnaires are not really effective in terms of qualitative analysis because their potential in this regard is very limited as questionnaires imply a one-sided process of communication when the audience simply responds to the questionnaire. In order to obtain more detailed and accurate data for qualitative analysis, it is better to use face-to-face interview (Bagdikian, 311). With the help of face-to-face interviews, it is possible to communicate with the audience, assess reactions of people on certain questions or assumptions made by an interviewer.Consequently, it is possible to get vivid response and, what is more, the interviewer will see the reaction of respondents to questions he/she asks or suggestions he/she makes.
On the basis of verbal responses and non-verbal reactions of respondents, it is possible to make more adequate conclusions from a qualitative point of view in relation to interests and needs of the audience as well as their reaction on the new product that is supposed to be introduced. In fact, the reaction of the audience is very important because, if the audience is not interested in the product, it will not be able to succeed.In such a context, it is important to take into consideration ratings since they help to identify the most popular products. However, if a totally new product is introduced, the assessment of ratings is possible only after the introduction of the product (Robbins, 176). Prior to that, it is necessary to measure the size of the audience, in addition to the steps concerning the research of the audience mentioned above. The size of the audience is crucial since investments in a new product need respective returns, which are possible only on the condition that the size of the audience suffices to return the investments and bring steady profits.
After that it is possible to measure rating of a new product to define whether it is popular or not and changes in the product’s rating will reveal changes in preferences of the audience that helps television companies respond to such changes by means of introducing some innovations into their product. Television is one type of electronic media, and target is wide regardless of age or sex. TV commercials are the most widely spread as an effective medium so far. (“Role of Television,” 2003) People, who do not read the paper, can still be influenced by television advertisements.
Even children, at the age four years, can watch an advertisement on television. For a large amount of commercials are done on television, the contact time of people who watch television to its advertisements are longer than it is for other media (“Role of Television,” 2003). When we watch one hour program, for instance, we frequently see the same commercials twice or more. In addition, television also uses different types of advertisement to fit the type of the program.We see beer and fast food commercials during American football, baseball and soccer games; and there are toy and snack advertisements during a cartoon program. Check our prices: Style:Language Style: Type of work:Urgency: Level: Number of pages: 275 words per page Total USD Another electronic media that has become popular in recent years is the Internet. The Internet is gaining power as the advertising media. In the Internet advertising, the target is narrowed down much more to fit precisely the interests of the web user (Okada, 2006).
When people want some information about a product, a lot of people might use Yahoo or Google. The advertisements of on Yahoo or Google are seen by a wide variety of people. The advertisements on their pages have possibilities to be seen by many people. Moreover, the Internet advertisements can be a banner advertisement or email advertisement (“Role of Internet, 2003). The Internet with many advertisement methods has a lot of opportunities of obtaining the target further.
The target of the Internet advertisement has been extending as the information society proceeds.Thus, taking into account all above mentioned, it is possible to conclude that the mass media play a very important role in the life of modern society. However, products offered by media to the audience are created on the basis of a profound research of the audience since the audience consumes mass media’s products. Therefore, the introduction of a media product is possible when the target customer group, its tastes, preferences, size and potential reaction on the new product are researched. Today, the Internet plays a particularly important role in the life of the modern society.
In fact, it is the Internet that defines the future development of journalism because the Internet tends to become the mainstream medium that can replace steadily or outpace conventional media such as print media and television. The Internet opens huge opportunities for the development of journalism. Due to the development of modern information technologies and telecommunication systems, journalists can use the Internet worldwide being in practically any part of the world. At the same time, millions and billions of people have and do access to Internet on the regular basis that increases the impact of online media on the audience. On the other hand, the Internet opens large opportunities for communication between journalists and the audience that makes it particularly effective making journalists closer to their audience.Works Cited:Bagdikian, Ben H.
The Media Monopoly, Sixth Edition, Beacon Press, 2000. Chomsky, Naom. “What Makes Mainstream Media Mainstream”, Z Magazine, June, 1997. Klein, Sage N.
Advertising and Popular Culture, London: Routeledge, 2000. Robbins, Richard. Global Problems and the Culture of Capitalism, Allyn and Bacon, 1999