Is Personality Testing Of Limited Value Commerce Essay
This essay examines the instance survey “ The rise and autumn of Carleton S. ( ‘Carly ‘ ) Fiorina ” , during her employment as Chief Executive Officer ( CEO ) with Hewlett-Packard ( HP ) ( Robbins et Al. 2008 ) . Well-known for her personal appeal, high profile and aggressiveness in concern, Carly ‘s old employers at Lucent Technologies paid testimonial her inventive leading manner, her enthusiasm, and her ability to present and take alteration ( Robbins et al. ) . The value of single personality trials as an index for concern success will be examined. This essay besides looks at Carly ‘s personality, and how it may hold impacted on her ability to execute her occupation. It will be argued that personality testing has limited value as an index of concern success.
Other factors considered include gender, organizational civilization and magnetic leaders.Burton et Al. ( 2009 ) , describes personality as the digesting design for an person ‘s motive and behavior expressed in different circumstance, including the person ‘s ideas and feelings. Harmonizing to Burton et al. , personality can alter. Adult personality nevertheless, shows important dependability over clip. Carly ‘s personality was good known and was considered as a great plus at the clip of her employment at HP. Carly was portrayed as magnetic, airy, and unconventional and as holding the resoluteness necessary to set about the occupation ( Robins et Al.
2008 ) . Carly did non look to put a high value on traditional ends, but instead she was interested in concern betterment. Carly was described has holding the ability to analyze concern jobs and to come up with what she considered to be best concern solutions ( Robins et al. ) .Hoffman ( 2001 ) in his book, “ Ace the Corporate Personality Test ” , talks about the “ testing roar ” which has taken topographic point in employment state of affairss. Hoffman states that while some personality alteration is possible in maturity, it is likely that any alteration would be an accommodation of personality, instead than a major alteration.
Hoffman outlines that we might alter our attitudes, behavioral inclinations, and ends in life, but non our nucleus personality. There is no grounds that there was a alteration in Carly ‘s personality, instead it appears to hold been consistent throughout her employment with HP. Carly was good known for her high concern profile, prior to her connection HP. She had established her concern certificates at Lucent Technologies, where she was recognised for her ability to implement alteration, and for her far-sighted leading ( Robbins et Al. 2008 ) . Carly was noted for being a alteration agent, airy leader and as being high in energy.
These facets of Carly ‘s personality, for which she was ab initio employed, were cardinal demands needed to guarantee the concern betterment at HP.Robbins et al. , ( 2008 ) identifies the demand for administrations to alter if the administration is to last and accommodate. This requires a alteration in the organizational civilization, which Robbins et al. , describes as the attitudes, experiences, beliefs and values of, and within an administration. Organizational civilization is besides the aggregation of norms and values that are shared by the people and work groups within an administration.
It encompasses the manner they interact between each other and with people outside the administration. In a Business Week article titled “ HP ‘s Carly Fiorina: The Boss ” ( 1999 ) , Carly was reported as placing the demand for an pressing advanced attack to be introduced at HB. Carly was reported as being a forward mind, quoted as stating ”we have to do certain it represents the following century instead than the last 1 ” . The article highlights the organizational civilization in topographic point, “ the HP Way ” , at the clip of Carly ‘s employment as CEO, and discusses the demand to alter the civilization which had crept in over recent old ages.
Schein ( 2004 ) recognises that there can be troubles with sequence, particularly when “ conservativists ” are replaced with ‘radicals ” in the hierarchy of an administration. Schein identifies the necessity to place and advance the organizational civilization, even though much civilization is difficult to recognize and construe, as it is frequently entrenched in mundane patterns. It appears that this may hold been the instance with Carly ‘s efforts to alter the organizational civilization and patterns at HP. Carly clearly had great outlooks sing what she planned to accomplish at HP ( Business Week, 1999 ) . Carly displayed an internal venue of control ( Wood et al, 2010 ) , that is, a belief in her capableness to command her ain fate. Carly was per se motivated, that is, she was stimulated to preform by her internal thrust instead that for external wagess ( Burton et al. 2009 ) . Carly believed that she could get the hang the troubles and do a difference at HP.
This is reflected in her ability to originate the purchase of Compaq, despite resistance from Walter Hewlett. There is no grounds to propose that Carly ‘s personality did alteration, to go ‘too large ‘ . The tantrum between Carly and HP, nevertheless, may hold contributed to the job. Brown ( 1995 ) states that accomplishing successful alteration plans on a big graduated table, requires effectual, self-asserting leaders, and that the successful direction of organizational civilization requires the backup of those in the most senior places. Brown besides suggests that the organizational civilization can be the beginning of jobs which hold the administration back from growing and development.
There is an outlook of predictable relationships between an person ‘s personality and their sensitivity to act in a certain manner ( Wood et al. 2010 ) .Gender considerations were explored to find if a dual criterion or gender prejudice was apparent. It was determined in this instance that Carly ‘s assignment as CEO at HP was seen as cogent evidence that gender was no longer an issue in the concern universe ( Cotter et al. 2001 ) . Harmonizing to the Federal Glass Ceiling Commission ( 1995 ) , ( as cited in Cotter et al. ) , the glass ceiling refers to obstructors which exist to impede the patterned advance of adult females and minorities to accomplish higher degrees within the workplace.
Robbins et Al. ( 2008 ) identifies that adult females may do better leaders than work forces. Although the differences are non great, differences include adult females being better hearers, superior wise mans, better end compositors, produce high quality work. They besides and foster better communicating. While gender prejudice and the glass ceiling may be in the concern universe, there is no grounds in this instance to propose that Carly ‘s was the victim of a dual criterion. She had an aggressive and blunt concern attack from the beginning. Robbins et al. , comments that as a CEO, when things are traveling good the CEO receives the recognition and congratulations, but when things are non traveling good the incrimination falls on the CEO, irrespective of factors outside the control or duty.
Carly was described as magnetic. Cambridge Dictionary ( 2011 ) describes personal appeal as “ a particular power which some people have of course which makes them able to act upon other people and pull their attending and esteem ” . Weber ( as cited in Robins et Al. 2008 ) describes chiasmal leading as one of the best theoretical accounts of authorization and influence.
Robert House ( as cited in Robins et al. ) inside informations the ‘charismatic leading theory ‘ as leaders with vision and who are willing to take personal hazards to carry through their vision, they are antiphonal to subsidiaries ‘ demands and to environmental demands, and they demonstrate behaviors that are out of the ordinary. Unfortunately, some magnetic leaders can go carried off and a ‘dark side ‘ is revealed. In these instances the best involvements of the administration are non to the full represented ( Robbins et al.
) . The border dividing personal involvements and those of the administration can go bleary. Robins et al.
, describes the worst instance scenario as being when ‘ego-driven ‘ magnetic leaders put their ain involvements in front of the administration, or when they use the organizational resources for their ain personal benefit or addition ( Robbins et al. ) . It is clear that Carly became impressed with herself and her importance, puting her portrayal following to those of the HP laminitiss and neglecting to mind the warning issued by HB board members to alter her manner ( Robbins et al. ) .Prior to fall ining HP, Carly undertook a 900 inquiry personality trial.
Personality testing is used to foretell public presentation in the workplace ( Hoffman 2000 ) . It was recognised that Carly had magnetic qualities including the energy, enthusiasm, frontward believing vision, thrust and aggressiveness, all considered necessary for the place of CEO ( Robbins et Al. 2008 ) . One universally applied personality measuring is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator ( MBTI ) , which consists of a 100 inquiry trials that seeks to categorize participants into four classs: a ) extroverted or introverted ; B ) detection or intuitive ; degree Celsiuss ) thought or feeling ; and d ) judgment or perceiving ( Robbins et al. ) .
The consequences of the questionnaire are classified into 16 personality types. The MBTI consequences, do non nevertheless, correlative with existent occupation public presentation ( Robbins et al. ) .A personality proving theoretical account, which has the benefit of research, is the Five Factor Model of Personality, besides known as the ‘big five ‘ ( Robbins et Al. 2008 ) .
Using this theoretical account, personality can be reduced to five wide classs of personality traits. “ Traits are the emotional, cognitive and behavioral inclinations that constitute underlying personality dimensions ” ( Burton et al. 2009, p. 433 ) . The five personality traits of the large five theoretical account are: 1 ) Extraversion. This trait includes features such as being socially adapt, chatty, self-asserting and as holding an copiousness of emotional eloquence.2 ) Agreeableness. This comprises of personality properties such as being trusty, altruism, kindness, and fondness.
3 ) Conscientiousness. Common features within this dimension include a high step of impulse control, end directed behaviors and are high in contemplation. Persons who rate high in conscientiousness have the leaning to be both organized and attentive of inside informations.4 ) Emotional stableness. Persons with positive emotional stableness have a sensitivity to get by with emphasis, are by and large unagitated, self- confident and secure.5 ) Openness to see. Within this trait feature are imaginativeness and penetration, and persons with a broad diverseness of involvements, would be found ( Robbins et Al.
2008 ) . Hoffman ( 2001 ) states the five factor theoretical account dominates the country of personal property testing and suggests that the most likely graduated tables tested are extroversion and conscientiousness.There are three methods of mensurating personality trials. They are self study, observer-rating studies and projective steps ( Robbins et Al. 2008 ) . Harmonizing to Robbins, et al. , self report questionnaires are the most widespread method of mensurating personality.
A refering facet of the self study study method is that it is possible to change the consequences to make a better result ( Robbins, et al. ) . Burton et Al. ( 2009 ) outline assorted jobs with personality proving including that they can be subjective, and that a individual ‘s consequences may alter in response to the individual ‘s emotional province and other situational variables. Burton et al. , besides identify that it is possible to intentionally change the result, and that personality proving does non correlate to consistency across all state of affairss. These findings suggest that personality testing has small existent value in foretelling single concern success.
This essay reviewed the value of single personality trials as an employment index for concern success. Knowing an person ‘s personality features can supply valuable penetration into how that person may move, or interact in concern fortunes. Limits of personality proving include that the personality testing can be subjective, a individual ‘s consequences may alter in response to the individual ‘s emotional province and other situational variables. It is possible to intentionally change the trial result, and personality testing does non correlate to consistency across all state of affairss. Prior to fall ining HP, Carly undertook a 900 inquiry personality trial. It was recognised that Carly had magnetic qualities including the energy, enthusiasm, frontward believing vision, thrust and aggressiveness, all considered necessary for the place of CEO. There is grounds to propose that there may hold been jobs with the organizational civilization. There is nevertheless no grounds to propose that Carly was the victim of a dual criterion, or of gender prejudice.
Carly was considered a magnetic leader and unluckily, in some cases magnetic leaders can lose sight of the best involvements of the administration. When this happens the duties and duties become baffled or blurred. This was the instance with Carly during her employment with HP. Personality proving was undertaken prior to Carly ‘s employment which provided a ‘snap shooting ‘ at that clip. Personality in itself does non supply a long term anticipation.
It is concluded that single personality testing has limited value as an index of concern success.