INTRODUCTIONA stockperson fromany aggression that may be

INTRODUCTIONA zoonosis is any infectious disease that can betransmitted from animals, both wild and domestic, tohumans (Coleman, 2002; WHO/FAO/OIE, 2004).Brucellosis, rabies, human African trypanosomiasis,bovine tuberculosis (BTB), cysticercosis, echinococcosisand anthrax, are listed as seven endemic zoonoses ofconcern (WHO, 2006).

The majority of pathogenicspecies causing disease in humans are zoonotic – beingestimated at > 60% of all human diseases (Morse, 1995;Palmer & Soulby, 1998; Murphy, 1998). Zoonoses are alsoconsidered to be twice as likely to be associated withemerging diseases as non-zoonoses (Taylor et al., 2001).The emergence and re-emergence of zoonoses and theirpotentially disastrous impact on human health is agrowing concern around the globe (Woolhouse andGowtage-Sequeria, 2005). In developing countries theyconstitute an important threat to human health (Wastling etal, 1999).___________________________________*Correspondent Authors.

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E-mail: [email protected] diseases have both direct and indirect effects onlivestock health and production (Smits and Cutler,2004). Indirect effects occur as a result of the risk ofhuman disease, the economic impact on livestockproducers through barriers to trade, the costsassociated with control programmes, the increased costof marketing produce to ensure it is safe for humanconsumption and the loss of markets because ofdecreased consumer confidence (McDermott andArimi, 2002) modern farrowing crate designs permitimproved management and safe working access to thepiglets, automation of manure removal, improvedhygiene, and better protection for the stockperson fromany aggression that may be displayed by the sowwhen handling piglets to carry out routine managementprocedures. Cronin (1998), reported that whenconsidering the consequences of JapaneseEncephalitis, immunization emerges more clearly asthe most cost-effective measure for controlling not onlythe death and disability caused by JE, but also thehidden emotional and economic toll on survivors, theirfamilies and their communities (W.

H.O. 2006).


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