Introduction To Semiconductor Diodes Biology Essay

Semiconductors: -A Most of the solids can be placed in one of the two categories: Metallic elements and insulators.A Metallic elements are those through which electric charge can easy flux, while dielectrics are those through which electric charge is hard to flux. A This differentiation between the metals and the dielectrics can be explained on the footing of the figure of free negatrons in them.A Metallic elements have a big figure of free negatrons which act as charge bearers, while dielectrics have practically no free electrons.A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

There are nevertheless, certain solids whose electrical conduction is intermediate between metals and dielectrics. They are called ‘Semiconductors’.A Carbon, Si and Ge are illustrations of semi-conductors.A In semiconducting materials the outer most negatrons are neither so stiffly bound with the atom as in an dielectric, nor so slackly edge as in metal.A At absolute zero a semiconducting material becomes an ideal dielectric.

semiconducting materials – Theory and Definition

Semiconductors are the stuffs whose electrical conduction lies in between metals and insulator.A The energy set construction of the semiconducting materials is similar to the dielectrics but in their instance, the size of the out energy spread is much smaller than that of the insulator.A In this category of crystals, the out spread is of the order of approximately 1ev, and the two energy sets are clearly separate with no overlapping.A At absolute o0, no negatron has any energy even to leap the out spread and make the conductivity band.A Therefore the substance is an insulator.A But when we heat the crystal and therefore supply some energy to the atoms and their negatrons, it becomes an easy affair for some negatrons to leap the little ( A»A 1 electron volt ) energy spread and travel to conduction band.A Therefore at higher temperatures, the crystal becomes a conductors.A This is the specific belongings of the crystal which is known as a semiconducting material.

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Consequence of temperature on conduction of Semiconductor

At 0K, all semiconducting materials are insulators.A A The valency set at absolute nothing is wholly filled and there are no free negatrons in conductivity band.A At room temperature the negatrons leap to the conductivity set due to the thermic energy.A When the temperature increases, a big figure of negatrons cross over the out spread and leap from valency to conductivity set. Hence conduction of semiconducting material additions with temperature.


Pure semiconducting materials are called intrinsic semi-conductors.A A In a pure semiconducting material, each atom behaves as if there are 8 negatrons in its valency shell and hence the full stuff behaves as an dielectric at low temperatures.

A semiconducting material atom needs energy of the order of 1.1ev to agitate off the valency electron.A This energy becomes available to it even at room temperature.A Due to thermal agitation of crystal construction, negatrons from a few covalent bonds come out.A The bond from which negatron is freed, a vacancy is created there.A The vacancy in the covalent bond is called a hole.

This hole can be filled by some other negatron in a covalent bond.A As an negatron from covalent bond moves to make full the hole, the hole is created in the covalent bond from which the negatron has moved.A Since the way of motion of the hole is opposite to that of the negative negatron, a hole behaves as a positive charge carrier.A Therefore, at room temperature, a pure semiconducting material will hold negatrons and holes rolling in random directions.A These negatrons and holes are called intrinsic bearers.

As the crystal is impersonal, the figure of free negatrons will be equal to the figure of holes.A In an intrinsic semiconducting material, if neA denotes the negatron figure denseness in conductivity set, nhA the hole figure denseness in valency set and niA the figure denseness or concentration of charge bearers, so

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A neA = nhA = Ni

extrinsic semiconducting materials

As the conduction of intrinsic semi-conductors is hapless, so intrinsic semi-conductors are of small practical importance.A The conduction of pure semi-conductor can, nevertheless be tremendously increased by add-on of some pentavalent or a trivalent dross in a really little sum ( about 1 to 106A parts of the semi-conductor ) .A The procedure of adding an dross to a pure semiconducting material so as to better its conduction is called doping.A Such semi-conductors are called extrinsic semi-conductors.A Extrinsic semiconducting materials are of two types:

A A A A A A A A A A A I ) A A A A A A A A A n-type semiconducting material

A A A A A A A A A A A two ) A A A A A A A A p-type semiconducting material

n-type semiconducting material

When an dross atom belonging to group V of the periodic tabular array like Arsenic is added to the pure semi-conductor, so four of the five dross negatrons form covalent bonds by sharing one negatron with each of the four nearest Si atoms, and 5th negatron from each dross atom is about free to carry on electricity.A As the pentavalent dross increases the figure of free negatrons, it is called giver impurity.A The negatrons so fit free in the Si crystal are called extrinsic bearers and the n-type Si-crystal is called n-type extrinsic semiconductor.A Therefore n-type Si-crystal will hold a big figure of free negatrons ( bulk bearers ) and have a little figure of holes ( minority bearers ) .

In footings of valency and conductivity band one can believe that all such negatrons create a donor energy degree merely below the conductivity set as shown in figure.A As the energy spread between donor energy degree and the conductivity set is really little, the negatrons can easy raise themselves to conduction band even at room temperature.A Hence, the conduction of n-type extrinsic semiconducting material is markedly increased.

In a doped or extrinsic semiconducting material, the figure denseness of the conductivity set ( ne ) and the figure denseness of holes in the valency set ( New Hampshire ) differ from that in a pure semiconductor.A If niA is the figure denseness of negatrons is conduction set, so it is proved that

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A neA nhA = ni2

p-type semiconducting material

If a trivalent dross like In is added in pure semi-conductor, the dross atom can supply merely three valency negatrons for covalent bond formation.A Therefore a spread is left in one of the covalent bonds.A The spread acts as a hole that tends to accept electrons.A As the trivalent dross atoms accept negatrons from the Si crystal, it is called acceptor impurity.A The holes so created are extrinsic bearers and the p-type Si-crystal so obtained is called p-type extrinsic semiconductor.A Again, as the pure Si-crystal besides possesses a few negatrons and holes, hence, the p-type si-crystal willA have a big figure ofA holes ( bulk bearers ) and a little figure of negatrons ( minority bearers ) .

It footings of valency and conductivity band one can believe that all such holes create an accepter energy degree merely above the top of the cornice set as shown in figure.A The negatrons from valency set can raise themselves to the accepter energy degree by absorbing thermic energy at room temperature and in bend create holes in the valency set.

Number denseness of valency set holes ( New Hampshire ) in p-type semiconducting material is about equal to that of the acceptor atoms ( Na ) and is really big as compared to the figure denseness of conductivity set negatrons ( Ne ) .A Thus,

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A nhA»A NaA & gt ; & gt ; ne

The semiconducting material rectifying tube is a device that will carry on current in one way merely. It is the electrical equivalent

of a hydraulic cheque valve. The semiconducting material rectifying tube has the undermentioned features:

A· A rectifying tube is a two-layer semiconducting material consisting of an Anode comprised of P-Type semiconducting material stuff

and a Cathode which is made of N-Type semiconducting material stuff.

A· The P-Type stuff contains charge bearers which are of a positive mutual opposition and are known as holes. In the

N-Type stuff the charge bearers are negatrons which are negative in mutual opposition.

A· When a semiconducting material rectifying tube is manufactured, the P-Type and N-Type stuffs are next to one another

making a P-N Junction.


A prejudice refers to the application of an external electromotive force to a semiconducting material. There are two ways a P-N junction can

be biased.

A· A forward prejudice consequences in current flow through the rectifying tube ( diode behaviors ) . To send on bias a rectifying tube, a positive

electromotive force is applied to the Anode lead ( which connects to P-Type stuff ) and the negative electromotive force is applied

to the Cathode lead ( which connects to N-Type stuff ) .

A· A contrary prejudice consequences in no current flow through the rectifying tube ( rectifying tube blocks ) . A rectifying tube is rearward biased when the

Anode lead is made negative and the Cathode lead is made positive.

P-N Junction Features

The P-N Junction part has three of import features:

1 ) The junction is part itself has no charge bearers and is known as a depletion part.

2 ) The junction ( depletion ) part has a physical thickness that varies with the applied electromotive force. A forward

prejudice decreases the thickness of the depletion part ; a contrary prejudice increases the thickness of the depletion


3 ) There is a electromotive force, or possible hill, associated with the junction. Approximately 0.3 of a V is required to

frontward bias a Ge rectifying tube ; 0.5 to 0.7 of a V is required to send on bias a Si rectifying tube.

Silicone rectifying tubes


Three features must be defined for proper application or replacing of a semiconducting material rectifying tube:

Voltage Rating is the maximal electromotive force which the rectifying tube will barricade in the reverse-biased manner.

A· This is expressed as the Peak-Reverse-Voltage ( PRV ) or Peak-Inverse-Voltage ( PIV ) .

A· It is of import to retrieve that this is a peak value of electromotive force non the root-mean-square ( RMS ) value. As a

“ Rule -of-Thumb, to supply a border of safety, the PIV evaluation of a rectifying tube should be at least 3 times the RMS

electromotive force of the circuit.

Current Rating is the maximal current the device can transport in the forward biased way.

Package Configuration

A· Small, low current rectifying tubes are available in an axial lead constellation. The band terminal is the cathode.

A· High current rectifying tubes come in a press-fit, stud- mounted, or hockey puck bundle.

Stud mounted rectifying tubes are available in Standard Polarity ( stud cathode ) and Reverse Polarity ( stud anode ) .

Thermal Limits

A· It is indispensable that semiconducting materials operate within the device temperature evaluations.

A· Semiconductor charge bearers are released thermally every bit good as electrically. Heat-sinking may be required

during soldering and when the device is in operation to forestall thermic harm.

A· The forward opposition of a rectifying tube decreases with temperature ; this consequences in an addition in current, which in

bend produces more heat. As a consequence, thermic run-away can happen and destruct the semiconducting material.


If we join a subdivision of N-type semiconducting material stuff with a similar subdivision of P-type semiconducting material stuff, we obtain a device known as a PN JUNCTION. ( The country where the N and P parts meet is suitably called the junction. ) The usual features of this device make it highly utile in electronics as a rectifying tube rectifier. The rectifying tube rectifier or PN junction rectifying tube performs the same map as its opposite number in negatron tubings but in a different manner. The rectifying tube is nil more than a two-element semiconducting material device that makes usage of the rectifying belongingss of a PN junction to change over jumping current into direct current by allowing current flow in merely one way. The perpendicular saloon represents theA cathodeA ( N-type stuff ) since it is the beginning of negatrons and the pointer represents theA anode. ( P-type stuff ) since it is the finish of the negatrons. The label “ CR1 ” is an alphameric codification used to place the rectifying tube. In this figure, we have merely one rectifying tube so it is labeled CR1 ( crystal rectifier figure one ) . If there were four rectifying tubes shown in the diagram, the last rectifying tube would be labeled CR4. The heavy dark line shows electron flow. Notice it is against the pointer. For farther elucidation, a pictural diagram of a PN junction and an existent semiconducting material ( one of many types ) are besides illustrated.


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