Introduction to Philosophy Essay

Metaphysics is a vast subject to speak on. With that being said, you will have so many different opinions. Like myself I believe in a soul. I believe in God, sometimes when I go through bad situations, I may pray and ask, “Is my life determined by fate? Is what I am going through right now real? ” Also, seeing that I believe in a soul, one might question how does the soul live outside the body? Or is there even a such thing as a soul? To me a soul is real, as far as if it lives outside the body I could not answer that question. Maybe once you pass away it lives outside the body. Some believe that a soul is only just ruling a human body.

I believe it is just something we may never discover. It is mundane to ask yourself rhetorical questions. Every individual has asked themselves certain questions concerning spiritual believes. Some people are more religious than others. Some believe in a soul some may not. But we all find ourselves asking certain questions. For an example, “What is real? Is the physical World more or less real than the spiritual or psychological? ” This is called Metaphysics. “In modern philosophical terminology, metaphysics refers to the studies of what cannot be reached through objective studies of material reality. (http://www. pbs. org/faithandreason/gengloss/metaph-body. html) In my personal life I ask myself these questions when I am going through a tough situation. I often ask if we have free will to do what we want. According to David Hume, “the question of the nature of free will is the most contentious question of metaphysics. If this is correct, then figuring out what free will is will be no small task indeed. Minimally, to say that an agent has free will is to say that the agent has the capacity to choose his or her course of action. ” (http://www. iep. utm. edu/freewill/).

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And I feel we have the free will to choose what we want to do in life, that is our free will. Epistemology is the area of philosophy that is concerned with knowledge. According to, http://www. philosophy-index. com/philosophy/epistemology. php, “The main concerns of epistemology are the definition of knowledge, the sources of knowledge (innate ideas, experience, etc. ), the process of acquiring knowledge and the limits of knowledge. Epistemology considers that knowledge can be obtained through experience and/or reason. ” Knowledge is a very important subject in our society.

Everyone is constantly seeking it. But can never learn everything. Knowledge is the key to a lot. Without knowledge you are doomed in life. You have to have knowledge to obtain a degree. Without a degree and or experience, good luck with getting a job. Just because you know something from direct reason or observation, does it make it true? Who is to say the knowledge you have about something is the truth? When a teacher teaches something, everyone in that class will observe and learn different. “Things of the world are known through reason and intuition, independently of experience.

Reason, depending on the thinker, is inspired and informed by Forms, or by God, or by an innate sense. We understand mathematical truths by means of our reason alone. Rationalists don’t deny that the senses provide reports of things; they deny that observation and experiment can lead to direct apprehension of truth. ”( http://www. philosophicalsociety. com/epistemology. htm). Rationalizing and observing is how a lot of our things in America are figured out. Cures are figured out this way. Our society also runs on our faith and reason. Many people vote depending on their faith and believe.

Our government is based off what faith and reasoning a person has. The neighborhood a person lives in is based off faith and reasoning sometimes. Because I am a certain religion I may choose to stay a different part of town than another person. This goes into speaking on the limits of human understanding. How much in depth can a person think? Should we depend on artificial intelligence in our society? Artificial intelligence is something I feel we need for manufacturing and certain other things in society. Ethics is a requirement for human life.

Without it, some people would just walk around and do whatever they want. It is our means of deciding a course of action. Without it, our actions would be random and aimless. There would be no way to work towards a goal because there would be no way to pick between a limitless numbers of goals. Even with an ethical standard, we may be unable to pursue our goals with the possibility of success. To the degree which a rational ethical standard is taken, we are able to correctly organize our goals and actions to accomplish our most important values.

Any flaw in our ethics will reduce our ability to be successful in our endeavors. Ethics is basically what is right thing to do. A proper foundation of ethics requires a standard of value to which all goals and actions can be compared to. Because a lot of people think the ends justifies the means. They feel they can ignore ethics and just do what they want. Some base their entire life of good and bad ethics. This standard is our own lives, and the happiness which makes them livable. This is our ultimate standard of value, the goal in which an ethical man must always aim.

An ethical man will go further than a man who ignores ethics that have been established. It is arrived at by an examination of man’s nature, and recognizing his peculiar needs. “A system of ethics must further consist of not only emergency situations, but the day to day choices we make constantly. It must include our relations to others, and recognize their importance not only to our physical survival, but to our well-being and happiness. It must recognize that our lives are an end in themselves, and that sacrifice is not only not necessary, but destructive. ” (http://www. mportanceofphilosophy. com/Ethics_Main. html) When it comes to art and love Aesthetics plays an important part. When viewing art, who is to say what I think is beautiful is accepted by society?

I can remember going to the art museum for the first time as a child. I saw art that was not beautiful to me. However, others were gathered around one particular painting just in awe. I now know that, “aesthetics is the study of beauty and taste, whether in the form of the comic, the tragic, or the sublime. The word derives from the Greek aisthetikos, meaning “of sense perception. Aesthetics has traditionally been part of philosophical pursuits like epistemology or ethics, but it started to come into its own and become a more independent pursuit under Immanuel Kant, the German philosopher who saw aesthetics as a unitary and self-sufficient type of human experience. ” (Austin Cline, About. com Guide) Because viewing this art for the first time was an experience. There were different cultures in the museum that day. This played a role in the art being beautiful or not. The purpose of art is to evoke emotions when viewing the piece.

The art we looked at that day was simply a woman in a field. This piece was so valuable due to its origin and time put into it. Beauty does matter, depending on who the beholder is. Political and Social philosophy is around us no matter how much we would like for it not to be. It is integrated in all that we do. Everything from the traffic laws we must abide to how we should act in public. I say public because now one never knows how a person interacts socially with in their own home. Yes individuals behave differently when they are in a crowd versus being alone.

Even the government officials behave different at home. The best kind of government in my opinion is what we have now. More power should be given to the actual people versus the Electoral College, when electing the President. Because everyone behaves different I do not think the common citizen should be that much involved. Because not everyone knows how to act according to what is accepted in our society. Social beliefs determine how a person acts. For example, some things I would say to my fiance at home, are not acceptable in the work place.

For example my fiance and I have nick names for one another. These are pet names we have called each other for years. And there was a particular time when I forgot we were in the mall and I yelled his nickname out. I was attempting to get his attention. But because there are social accepted things and not so accepted things, everyone in the mall looked at me in disgust. I feel there is a universal morality. Because even if we do not speak the same language as another country, they still know what is right and what is wrong. Especially, when America deals with different businesses internationally. A code of ethics is a set of principles and rules used by companies, professional organizations and individuals to govern their decision making in choosing between right and wrong. Depending on the context of a given code of ethics, penalties and/or sanctions may result from a violation. ” (http://examples. yourdictionary. com/code-of-ethics-examples. html. ) The businesses have to know they have to follow the ethics of America not their own ethics. Ethics is a needed thing in life.

References

Landauer, J. and Rowlands, J. Importance of Philosophy. Retrieved November 7, 2012 from http://www. importanceofphilosophy. om/Ethics_Main. html Santayana: The Life of Reason; Scepticism and Animal Faith; Realms of Being. Retrieved November 8, 2012 from http://www. philosophicalsociety. com/epistemology. htm Colin Temple. Epistemology. Retrieved November 9, 2012 from http://www. philosophy-index. com/philosophy/epistemology. php Metaphysical. Retrieved November 10, 2012 from http://www. pbs. org/faithandreason/gengloss/metaph-body. html Cline, A. What is Aesthetics? Aesthetics is the Philosophy of Art, Beauty, Perception. Retrieved November 25, 2012 from http://atheism. about. com/od/philosophybranches/p/Aesthetics. htm

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