Introduction The runner should be careful in

IntroductionDefinitionof Sprinting Sprinting isrunning over a short distance in a limited period of time. It is a form ofrunning involving going very short distancesin very small amounts of time. The act or an instance of sprinting, especially a short race at topor full speed. In running, swimming, cycling or rowing, it is a burst ofspeed of activity to move rapidly or at top speed for a brief period.

 Stages ofSprinting1.      DriveWhen the sprinter bursts from a deadstill position into a sprint, the drive phase is beginning. The sprinter beginsin a crouched position and starting blocks, pushes forward while leaning ahead.The sprinter must lean with his whole body rather than bending at the hips tomake efficient use of the energy. The foot hits the track below or slightlybend the hips in drive stage. 2.

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      Maximum VelocityThe runner transitions to the maximum velocity phase afterthe drive phase. Sprinters becomes fully erect in his posture, standing tall withouthis hips lowered at this point. The runner achieves the maximumspeed in this phase. The body be upright andstanding tall, with no forward or backward lean and be able to run in thisphase for around two to three seconds. 3.      MaintenanceMaintenanceis the final phase of sprinting. Sprinters may not able to maintain top speedfor the entire race.

In the final stage, the sprinter begins to slow down. The goalis not to continue accelerating, but to minimize deceleration in this stage.The runner should be careful in this stage not to increase his stride length,which can have the inadvertent effect of slowing him down further. Keep the knees high and move the legs quickly and lightlydrive and arms harder as pushing through the final meters of the race.

   Factor affecting Speed inSprinting 1.     Genetics Geneticsclearly play a part in athlete excelling in speed. Every sprinter can increasetheir speed regardless of genetics.

However, unless awell-rounded training approach is taken even a genetically gifted sprinter willnot reach their maximum speed potential. With a knowledgeable speed coach andthe proper training, sprinters can dramatically improve both speed andquickness. This does not mean that sprinter cannotbecome faster through the proper training. It means that some sprinters have anadvantage over purely because of genetics.

 2.     Muscle FibreTypesThere arethree main types of muscle fibres. Muscle Fibres Characteristics Slow-twitch (type I) ·         Develop force slowly and have a long twitch time ·         Have a low power output and are fatigue resistant with high endurance ·         Have limited potential for quick force development and anaerobic power Fast-twitch (type IIa) ·         Provide both aerobic and anaerobic activity ·         Develop force somewhat fast and have moderate twitch time, power output, fatigability, aerobic power, force development, and anaerobic power Fast-twitch (type IIb) ·         Develop force rapidly and have a very short twitch time.

·         Have a high power output and high anaerobic power ·         Have low endurance and low aerobic power   3.     BodyCompositionThe purpose ofthis testing is to determine whether the percentage of body fats falls withinan acceptable range. Excess fat and pounds can decrease speed and inhibitefficient movement. The ideal percentage of body fats for sprinter depends uponsport, age, and position.

However, for optimum sprinting speed, sprintersshould strive for 10% (males) and 15 % (females). Dieting to lose body fat isnot recommended for growing athletes or anyone without careful supervision by amedical professional.4.      Age:Endurance athletes such as marathon runnersor sprinting runners tend to peak later on with many athletes and findingthemselves performing at their best in their late twenties and early thirties.Athletes will tend to peak earlier when it comes to their speed. Consequently,the older athletes get the slower athletes are likely to become.  5.      PowerSpeed is dependent on the power generated and how well the sprinterscan sustain this power.

For many sprinters the winner is the athlete who slowsdown the least.   6.      AgilityThe ability to change directions fast, speed up and slow downall contribute to the speed of a sprinter. The key factors that can influencehow agile a sprinter are balance and coordination.  7.      Reflexor Reaction SpeedThe stimulus is applied until the sprinters actually respondsby moving or performing the physical act. Reflex or reaction speed is one ofthe components than can be improved through proper training. There is a strongfunctional aspect with this component.

Hence, it is essential to perform exerciseswhich actually simulate the exact movements required by the sprinters.   Ways toImprove Speed in Sprinting1.      Use proper postureIf sprinters are running with arms swinging from side to side, theyare suffering from teenage kid syndrome. This means that sprinters spend toomuch time working on the muscles in the chest and biceps and not enough on theback, glutes, and hamstrings. Sprinters slouches a lot and walks with his headdown all the time. It will cause severe pronation of the scapula and will causethe knuckles to face inward, which will then cause h to swing the arms fromside to side.2.     Increase stride lengthIt is the wrong information given by many coaches that telltheir athletes to do high knees.

Sprinters have to drive their legs back toimprove stride length. This will cause the sprinters to lengthen the stride andalso increase the rate of force development. This can be achieved by hillsprints or sled drags.3.     Set up proper shin angleSprinter’s shin should be at a 45-degree angle when lifted up ina dorsi flexed manner. This is look like loading a spring.

As soon as the foothits the pavement, it will spring up and cause the rate of force development toincrease, which will help sprinters to increase hip flexion.4.      Increase rate of force developmentThe stronger and more explosive of sprinters, the more forcewill generate.

Sprinters can do explosive plyometric training out on the field.Do not train like endurance athletes by making them run all day. A well-plannedtraining program is needed to improve the sprinting speed.5.      Decrease body fatSprinters is not able to run faster if carrying extra body fat. Sprintersshould ensure that eating right diet and fuel the body with healthy food. Thedays of eating food because it tastes really good are over. Feed the body as ifit were a high powered machine.

6.      Strengthen hip flexorsThe hip flexors are the key to sprinting faster. The sprintersin the world focused their training on the hip flexors. Sprinters do this bysprinting hills and performing weighted spread eagle sit-ups, leg raises withbands, and mountain climbers with bands. 


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